Guinea-Bissau

Last updated

Republic of Guinea-Bissau

República da Guiné-Bissau  (Portuguese)
Motto: 
"Unidade, Luta, Progresso" (Portuguese)
"Unity, Struggle, Progress"
Anthem: 
Esta é a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada   (Portuguese)
This is Our Beloved Homeland
Location Guinea Bissau AU Africa.svg
Guinea-Bissau - Location Map (2013) - GNB - UNOCHA.svg
Capital
and largest city
Bissau
11°52′N15°36′W / 11.867°N 15.600°W / 11.867; -15.600
Official languages Portuguese
Recognised national languages Upper Guinea Creole
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s) Bissau-Guinean [1]
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
  President
José Mário Vaz
Aristides Gomes
Legislature National People's Assembly
Independence from Portugal
 Declared
24 September 1973
 Recognized
10 September 1974
Area
 Total
36,125 km2 (13,948 sq mi)(134th)
 Water (%)
22.4
Population
 2016 estimate
1,815,698 [2] (148th)
 Density
46.9/km2 (121.5/sq mi)(154th)
GDP  (PPP)2018 estimate
 Total
$3.391 billion [3]
 Per capita
$1,951 [3]
GDP  (nominal)2018 estimate
 Total
$1.480 billion [3]
 Per capita
$851 [3]
Gini  (2002)35
medium
HDI  (2017)Increase2.svg 0.455 [4]
low ·  177th
Currency West African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zone UTC+0 (GMT)
Driving side right
Calling code +245
Internet TLD .gw

Guinea-Bissau ( /ˌɡɪnibɪˈs/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Portuguese : Guiné-Bissau), officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese : República da Guiné-Bissau [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ ðɐ ɣiˈnɛ βiˈsaw] ), is a country in West Africa that covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,815,698. [2]

Portuguese language Romance language that originated in Portugal

Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone" (Lusófono).

West Africa Westernmost region of the African continent

West Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, the Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo, as well as the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. The population of West Africa is estimated at about 362 million people as of 2016, and at 381,981,000 as of 2017, of which 189,672,000 are female and 192,309,000 male.

Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonised as Portuguese Guinea. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea (formerly French Guinea). Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since independence, and only one elected president (José Mário Vaz) has successfully served a full five-year term.

Kaabu former country

The Kaabu Empire (1537–1867), also written Gabu, Ngabou, and N’Gabu', was a Mandinka empire of Senegambia centered within modern northeastern Guinea-Bissau, larger parts of today's Gambia; extending into Koussanar, Koumpentoum, regions of Southeastern Senegal, and Casamance in Senegal. It rose to prominence in the region thanks to its origins as a former imperial military province of the Mali Empire. After the decline of the Mali Empire, Kaabu became an independent Empire. Kansala, the imperial capital of Kaabu Empire, was annexed by Futa Jallon during the 19th century Fula jihads. However, Kaabu's vast independent kingdoms across Senegambia continued to thrive even after the fall of Kansala; this lasted until total incorporation of the remaining Kingdoms into the British Gambia, Portuguese and French spheres of influence during the Scramble for Africa.

Mali Empire empire in West Africa from c.1230 to 1670

The Mali Empire was an empire in West Africa from c. 1235 to 1670. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Musa Keita. The Manding languages were spoken in the empire. The Mali Empire was the largest empire in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of West Africa through the spread of its language, laws and customs. Much of the recorded information about the Mali Empire comes from 14th-century North African Arab historian Ibn Khaldun, 14th-century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta and 16th-century Moroccan traveller Leo Africanus. The other major source of information is Mandinka oral tradition, through storytellers known as griots.

Portuguese Empire Global empire centered in Portugal

The Portuguese Empire, also known as the Portuguese Overseas or the Portuguese Colonial Empire, was composed of the overseas colonies and territories governed by Portugal. One of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history, it existed for almost six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China in 1999. The empire began in the 15th century, and from the early 16th century it stretched across the globe, with bases in North and South America, Africa, and various regions of Asia and Oceania. The Portuguese Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Spanish Empire.

Only 14% of the population speaks noncreolised Portuguese, established as both the official and national language. Portuguese exists in creole continuum with Crioulo, a Portuguese creole spoken by half the population (44%) and an even larger number speaks it as second tongue. The remainder speak a variety of native African languages. There are diverse religions in Guinea-Bissau with no one religion having a majority. The CIA World Factbook (2018) states there are about 40% Muslims, 22% Christians, 15% Animists and 18% unspecified or other. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world.

A post-creole continuum is a dialect continuum of varieties of a creole language between those most and least similar to the superstrate language. Due to social, political, and economic factors, a creole language can decreolize towards one of the languages from which it is descended, aligning its morphology, phonology, and syntax to the local standard of the dominant language but to different degrees depending on a speaker's status.

Guinea-Bissau Creole is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in Guinea Bissau, Senegal and The Gambia. It is also called by its native speakers as guinensi, kriyol, or portuguis.

Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have Portuguese as their substantial lexifier. The most widely-spoken creole influenced by Portuguese is the Cape Verdean Creole.

The sovereign state of Guinea-Bissau is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, La Francophonie and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, and was a member of the now-defunct Latin Union.

Sovereign state Political organization with a centralized independent government

In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent or non subjected to any other power or state.

United Nations Intergovernmental organization

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization responsible for maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international cooperation, and being a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City; other main offices are in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague.

African Union Supranational union

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa. The AU was announced in the Sirte Declaration in Sirte, Libya on 9 September 1999, calling for the establishment of the African Union. The bloc was founded on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa. The intention of the AU is to replace the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa by 32 signatory governments. The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa.

History

Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire. [5] Portuguese Guinea was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere.

Portuguese Guinea 1474-1974 Portuguese possession in West Africa

Portuguese Guinea, called the Overseas Province of Guinea from 1951, was a West African colony of Portugal from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau.

Slave Coast of West Africa Historical name of an African region

The Slave Coast is a historical name formerly used for parts of coastal West Africa along the Bight of Benin. The name is derived from the region's history as a major source of Africans that were taken into slavery during the Atlantic slave trade from the early 16th century to the late 19th century. Other nearby coastal regions historically known by their prime colonial export are the Gold Coast, the Ivory Coast, and the Pepper Coast.

Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto's voyage of 1455, the 1479–1480 voyage by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse, [6] and Diogo Cão. In the 1480s this Portuguese explorer reached the Congo River and the lands of Bakongo, setting up the foundations of modern Angola, some 4200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau. [7]

Venice Comune in Veneto, Italy

Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges. The islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area (PATREVE), which is considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million.

Alvise Cadamosto or Alvide da Ca' da Mosto was a Venetian slave trader and explorer, who was hired by the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator and undertook two known journeys to West Africa in 1455 and 1456, accompanied by the Genoese captain Antoniotto Usodimare. Cadamosto and his companions are credited with the discovery of the Cape Verde Islands and the points along the Guinea coast, from the Gambia River to the Geba River, the greatest leap in the Henrican discoveries since 1446. Cadamosto's accounts of his journeys, including his detailed observations of west African societies, have proven invaluable to historians.

Tassin or Eustache de la Fosse was a Flemish-speaking sailor and merchant from Tournai, who traveled with Portuguese sailors from Palos to territories of West Africa (1479–80) in what are now Guinea-Bissau, some 12° north latitude. He left a manuscript on his travel dated 1548 at the Valenciennes Library.

Flag of the Portuguese Company of Guinea. Portugueseguineacompanyflag.svg
Flag of the Portuguese Company of Guinea.

Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, who set up trading posts in the 16th century, they did not explore the interior until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from the slave trade, controlled the inland trade and did not allow the Europeans into the interior. They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place. [8] African communities that fought back against slave traders also distrusted European adventurers and would-be settlers. The Portuguese in Guinea were largely restricted to the ports of Bissau and Cacheu. A small number of European settlers established isolated farms along Bissau's inland rivers. [8]

For a brief period in the 1790s, the British tried to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama. [9] But by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory, also up north in part of present South Senegal.

An armed rebellion, begun in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral gradually consolidated its hold on the then Portuguese Guinea. [10] Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies, the PAIGC rapidly extended its military control over large portions of the territory, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its easily reached borderlines with neighbouring allies, and large quantities of arms from Cuba, China, the Soviet Union, and left-leaning African countries. [11] Cuba also agreed to supply artillery experts, doctors, and technicians. [12] The PAIGC even managed to acquire a significant anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial attack. By 1973, the PAIGC was in control of many parts of Guinea, although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral was assassinated. [13]

Independence (1973)

PAIGC forces raise the flag of Guinea-Bissau in 1974. Hastear da bandeira da Guine Bissau apos o arrear da de Portugal.jpg
PAIGC forces raise the flag of Guinea-Bissau in 1974.

Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973, which is now celebrated as the country's Independence Day, a public holiday. [14] Recognition became universal following 25 April 1974 socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal, which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime. [15]

Luís Cabral, brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was appointed the first President of Guinea-Bissau. Following independence, the PAIGC killed thousands of local Guinean soldiers who had fought alongside the Portuguese Army against the guerrillas. Some escaped to settle in Portugal or other African nations. [16] One of the massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã. In 1980 the PAIGC acknowledged in its newspaper Nó Pintcha (dated 29 November 1980) that many Guinean soldiers had been executed and buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá.

The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The first multi-party elections were held in 1994. An army uprising in May 1998 led to the Guinea-Bissau Civil War and the president's ousting in June 1999. [17] Elections were held again in 2000, and Kumba Ialá was elected president. [18]

In September 2003, a military coup was conducted. The military arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the problems". [19] After being delayed several times, legislative elections were held in March 2004. A mutiny of military factions in October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and caused widespread unrest.

Vieira years

In June 2005, presidential elections were held for the first time since the coup that deposed Ialá. Ialá returned as the candidate for the PRS, claiming to be the legitimate president of the country, but the election was won by former president João Bernardo Vieira, deposed in the 1999 coup. Vieira beat Malam Bacai Sanhá in a run-off election. Sanhá initially refused to concede, claiming that tampering and electoral fraud occurred in two constituencies including the capital, Bissau. [20]

Despite reports of arms entering the country prior to the election and some "disturbances during campaigning," including attacks on government offices by unidentified gunmen, foreign election monitors described the 2005 election overall as "calm and organized". [21]

Three years later, PAIGC won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67 of 100 seats, in the parliamentary election held in November 2008. [22] In November 2008, President Vieira's official residence was attacked by members of the armed forces, killing a guard but leaving the president unharmed. [23]

On 2 March 2009, however, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai, who had been killed in an explosion the day before. [24] Vieira's death did not trigger widespread violence, but there were signs of turmoil in the country, according to the advocacy group Swisspeace. [25] Military leaders in the country pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession. National Assembly Speaker Raimundo Pereira was appointed as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June 2009. [26] It was won by Malam Bacai Sanhá of the PAIGC, against Kumba Ialá as the presidential candidate of the PRS.

On 9 January 2012, President Sanhá died of complications from diabetes, and Pereira was again appointed as an interim president. On the evening of 12 April 2012, members of the country's military staged a coup d'état and arrested the interim president and a leading presidential candidate. [27] Former vice chief of staff, General Mamadu Ture Kuruma, assumed control of the country in the transitional period and started negotiations with opposition parties. [28] [29]

Politics

The Presidential Palace of Guinea-Bissau. Palacio Presidencial em Bissau (2).jpg
The Presidential Palace of Guinea-Bissau.
Public Order Police officer during a parade in Guinea-Bissau Fernanda Nossa, Guinea-Bissau, photo 3.jpg
Public Order Police officer during a parade in Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau is a republic. In the past, the government had been highly centralized. Multi-party governance was not established until mid-1991. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. Since 1974, no president has successfully served a full five-year term. [30]

At the legislative level, a unicameral Assembleia Nacional Popular (National People's Assembly) is made up of 100 members. They are popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a four-year term. The judicial system is headed by a Tribunal Supremo da Justiça (Supreme Court), made up of nine justices appointed by the president; they serve at the pleasure of the president. [31]

The two main political parties are the PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde) and the PRS (Party for Social Renewal). There are more than 20 minor parties. [32]

Foreign relations

Guinea-Bissau follows a nonaligned foreign policy and seeks friendly and cooperative relations with a wide variety of states and organisations.

Guinea-Bissau is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, and international organisation and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.

Military

A 2008 estimate put the size of the Guinea-Bissau Armed Forces at around 4,000 personnel.

In 2018, Guinea-Bissau signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. [33]

Administrative divisions

Bafatá RegionBiombo RegionBiombo RegionBissau RegionBissau RegionBolama RegionCacheu RegionGabú RegionOio RegionQuinara RegionQuinara RegionTombali RegionGuinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau is divided into eight regions (regiões) and one autonomous sector (sector autónomo). These, in turn, are subdivided into 37 Sectors. The regions are:

Geography

Rare salt water Hippopotamuses in Orango Island Lagoa com hipopotamos 01.jpg
Rare salt water Hippopotamuses in Orango Island
Caravela, Bissagos Islands CaravelaIvybeach1p.jpg
Caravela, Bissagos Islands
Typical scenery in Guinea-Bissau 20130611-DSC 9018 (9290631541) (2).jpg
Typical scenery in Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau is bordered by Senegal to the north and Guinea to the south and east, with the Atlantic Ocean to its west. It lies mostly between latitudes 11° and 13°N (a small area is south of 11°), and longitudes 13° and 17°W.

At 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi), the country is larger in size than Taiwan or Belgium. It lies at a low altitude; its highest point is 300 metres (984 ft). The terrain of is mostly low coastal plain with swamps of Guinean mangroves rising to Guinean forest-savanna mosaic in the east. [30] Its monsoon-like rainy season alternates with periods of hot, dry harmattan winds blowing from the Sahara. The Bijagos Archipelago lies off of the mainland. [34]

Climate

Guinea-Bissau is warm all year around and there is little temperature fluctuation; it averages 26.3 °C (79.3 °F). The average rainfall for Bissau is 2,024 millimetres (79.7 in) although this is almost entirely accounted for during the rainy season which falls between June and September/October. From December through April, the country experiences drought. [35]

Climate diagram of Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.svg

Environmental problems

Severe environmental problems include deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing and overfishing. [30]

Economy

Seat of the Central Bank of Guinea-Bissau Banco Centra Da Guine Bissau.JPG
Seat of the Central Bank of Guinea-Bissau
Petrol station in Sao Domingos Posto Galp em Sao Domingos, Guine (1).jpg
Petrol station in São Domingos

Guinea-Bissau's GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and its Human Development Index is one of the lowest on earth. More than two-thirds of the population lives below the poverty line. [36] The economy depends mainly on agriculture; fish, cashew nuts and ground nuts are its major exports.

A long period of political instability has resulted in depressed economic activity, deteriorating social conditions, and increased macroeconomic imbalances. It takes longer on average to register a new business in Guinea-Bissau (233 days or about 33 weeks) than in any other country in the world except Suriname. [37]

Guinea-Bissau has started to show some economic advances after a pact of stability was signed by the main political parties of the country, leading to an IMF-backed structural reform program. [38] The key challenges for the country in the period ahead are to achieve fiscal discipline, rebuild public administration, improve the economic climate for private investment, and promote economic diversification. After the country became independent from Portugal in 1974 due to the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution, the rapid exodus of the Portuguese civilian, military, and political authorities resulted in considerable damage to the country's economic infrastructure, social order, and standard of living.

After several years of economic downturn and political instability, in 1997, Guinea-Bissau entered the CFA franc monetary system, bringing about some internal monetary stability. [39] The civil war that took place in 1998 and 1999, and a military coup in September 2003 again disrupted economic activity, leaving a substantial part of the economic and social infrastructure in ruins and intensifying the already widespread poverty. Following the parliamentary elections in March 2004 and presidential elections in July 2005, the country is trying to recover from the long period of instability, despite a still-fragile political situation.

Beginning around 2005, drug traffickers based in Latin America began to use Guinea-Bissau, along with several neighbouring West African nations, as a transshipment point to Europe for cocaine. [40] The nation was described by a United Nations official as being at risk for becoming a "narco-state". [41] The government and the military have done little to stop drug trafficking, which increased after the 2012 coup d'état. [42]

Guinea-Bissau is a member of the Organisation for the Harmonisation of Business Law in Africa (OHADA). [43]

Society

Demographics

Guinea-Bissau demography.png
Pyramide Guinee-Bissau.PNG
(Left) Guinea-Bissau's population between 1961 and 2003. (Right) Guinea-Bissau's population pyramid, 2005. In 2010, 41.3% of Guinea-Bissau's population were aged under 15. [44]

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects [2] , Guinea-Bissau's population was 1,815,698 in 2016, compared to 518,000 in 1950. The proportion of the population below the age of 15 in 2010 was 41.3%, 55.4% were aged between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.3% were aged 65 years or older. [44]

Ethnic groups

Guinea-Bissau present-day settlement pattern of the ethnic groups Geographic location of Guinea-Bissau and present-day settlement pattern of the ethnic groups.jpg
Guinea-Bissau present-day settlement pattern of the ethnic groups

The population of Guinea-Bissau is ethnically diverse and has many distinct languages, customs, and social structures.

Bissau-Guineans can be divided into the following ethnic groups:

Most of the remainder are mestiços of mixed Portuguese and African descent, including a Cape Verdean minority. [45]

Portuguese natives comprise a very small percentage of Bissau-Guineans. After Guinea-Bissau gained independence, most of the Portuguese nationals left the country. The country has a tiny Chinese population. [46] These include traders and merchants of mixed Portuguese and Chinese ancestry from Macau, a former Asian Portuguese colony.

Major cities

Guinea-Bissau's second largest city, Gabu Gabumainstreet.jpg
Guinea-Bissau's second largest city, Gabú
Port of Bissau Porto de Bissau 02, container ship Windhoek.jpg
Port of Bissau
Bridge in Sao Vicente, Cacheu Guinea-bissau 20130609-DSC 8955-2.jpg
Bridge in São Vicente, Cacheu

Main cities in Guinea-Bissau include: [47]

RankCityPopulation
2015 estimateRegion
1 Bissau 492,004 Bissau
2 Gabú 48,670 Gabú
3 Bafatá 37,985 Bafatá
4 Bissorã 29,468 Oio
5 Bolama 16,216 Bolama
6 Cacheu 14,320 Cacheu
7 Bubaque 12,922 Bolama
8 Catió 11,498 Tombali
9 Mansôa 9,198 Oio
10 Buba 8,993 Quinara

Languages

Voter education posters in the Kriol language for Guinea-Bissau legislative election, 2008, Biombo Region Voter education for guinea bissau elections 2008.jpg
Voter education posters in the Kriol language for Guinea-Bissau legislative election, 2008, Biombo Region

Despite being a small country Guinea-Bissau has several ethnic groups which are very distinct from each other, with their own cultures and languages. This is due that Guinea-Bissau was a refugee territory due to migrations within Africa. Colonisation and miscegenation brought Portuguese and the Portuguese creole, the Kriol or crioulo. [48]

Although perceived as one of the national languages of Guinea-Bissau since independence, Standard Portuguese is spoken mostly as a second language, with few native speakers and often confined to the intellectual and political elites. It is the language of government and national communication as a legacy of colonial rule. Portuguese is the only language with official status; schooling from primary to university levels is conducted in Portuguese although only 67% of children have access to any formal education. Data suggested the number of Portuguese speakers ranges from 11 to 15%. The Portuguese creole is spoken by 44% which is effectively the national language of communication among distinct groups for most of the population. The Creole is still expanding, and it is understood by the vast majority of the population. However, decreolisation processes are occurring, due to undergoing interference from Standard Portuguese and the creole forms a continuum of varieties with the standard language, the most distant are basilects and the closer ones, acrolects. A post-creole continuum exists in Guinea-Bissau and Crioulo 'leve' ('soft' Creole) variety being closer to the Portuguese-language norm. [48]

The remaining rural population speaks a variety of native African languages unique to each ethnicity: Fula (16%), Balanta (14%), Mandinga(7%), Manjaco (5%), Papel (3%), Felupe (1%), Beafada (0.7%), Bijagó (0.3%) and Nalu (0.1%), which form the ethnic African languages spoken by the population. [48] [49] Most Portuguese and Mestiços speakers also have one of the African languages and Kriol as additional languages. Ethnic African languages are not discouraged, in any situation, despite their lower prestige. These languages are the link between individuals of the same ethnic background and daily used in villages, between neighbours or friends, traditional and religious ceremonies, and also used in contact between the urban and rural populations. However, none of these languages are dominant in Guinea-Bissau. [48] French is taught as a foreign language in schools because Guinea-Bissau is surrounded by French-speaking nations. Guinea-Bissau is a full member of the Francophonie. [50]

Religion

Religion in Guinea-Bissau (Pew, 2010) [51]
ReligionPercent
Christianity
62%
Islam
38%
Men in Islamic garb, Bafata, Guinea-Bissau Bafata1.jpg
Men in Islamic garb, Bafatá, Guinea-Bissau

In 2010, a Pew Research survey found that Christianity is practiced by 62% of the country's population, with Muslims making up the remaining 38%. [51] Most of Guinea-Bissau's Muslims are of the Sunni denomination, while approximately 2% belong to the Ahmadiyya sect. [52] But another report of Pew Resarch centre, The Future of World Religions, states that in 2050 Islam will become dominant religion of Guinea-Bissau. [53]

Many residents practice syncretic forms of Islamic and Christian faiths, combining their practices with traditional African beliefs. [30] [54] Muslims dominate the north and east, while Christians dominate the south and coastal regions. The Roman Catholic Church claims most of the Christian community. [55]

Other estimates claim that Christianity is not the dominant religion as there are 45% Muslims, 31% Animists and 22% Christians. However, according to Worldatlas Christianity is considered to be growing in the country, especially among the followers of traditional religions.

Health

Education

Lusophone University, Bissau Universidade Lusofona, Bissau.jpg
Lusophone University, Bissau

Education is compulsory from the age of 7 to 13. Pre-school education for children between three and six years of age is optional and in its early stages. There are five levels of education: pre-school, elemental and complementary basic education, general and complementary secondary education, general secondary education, technical and professional teaching, and higher education (university and non-universities). Basic education is under reform, and now forms a single cycle, comprising 6 years of education. Secondary education is widely available and there are two cycles (7th to 9th classe and 10th to 11th classe). Professional education in public institutions is nonoperational, however private school offerings opened, including the Centro de Formação São João Bosco (since 2004) and the Centro de Formação Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (since 2011). [48]

Higher education is limited and most prefer to be educated abroad, with students preferring to enroll in Portugal. [48] A number of universities, to which an institutionally autonomous Faculty of Law as well as a Faculty of Medicine [56]

Child labor is very common. [57] The enrollment of boys is higher than that of girls. In 1998, the gross primary enrollment rate was 53.5%, with higher enrollment ratio for males (67.7%) compared to females (40%). [57]

Non-formal education is centered on community schools and the teaching of adults. [48] In 2011 the literacy rate was estimated at 55.3% (68.9% male, and 42.1% female). [58]

Conflicts

Usually, the many different ethnic groups in Guinea-Bissau coexist peacefully, but when conflicts do erupt, they tend to revolve around access to land. [59]

Culture

Hotels at Bissagos Islands Hotel Ecolodge Ponta Anchaca 02.jpg
Hotels at Bissagos Islands
Carnival in Bissau Guinea-bissau-bissau-1.jpg
Carnival in Bissau
National singer Manecas Costa Manecas Costa3.jpg
National singer Manecas Costa

Media

Music

The music of Guinea-Bissau is usually associated with the polyrhythmic gumbe genre, the country's primary musical export. However, civil unrest and other factors have combined over the years to keep gumbe, and other genres, out of mainstream audiences, even in generally syncretist African countries. [60]

The cabasa is the primary musical instrument of Guinea-Bissau, [61] and is used in extremely swift and rhythmically complex dance music. Lyrics are almost always in Guinea-Bissau Creole, a Portuguese-based creole language, and are often humorous and topical, revolving around current events and controversies. [62]

The word gumbe is sometimes used generically, to refer to any music of the country, although it most specifically refers to a unique style that fuses about ten of the country's folk music traditions. [63] Tina and tinga are other popular genres, while extent folk traditions include ceremonial music used in funerals, initiations and other rituals, as well as Balanta brosca and kussundé, Mandinga djambadon, and the kundere sound of the Bissagos Islands. [64]

Cuisine

Rice is a staple in the diet of residents near the coast and millet a staple in the interior. Fruits and vegetables are commonly eaten along with cereal grains. The Portuguese encouraged peanut production. Vigna subterranea (Bambara groundnut) and Macrotyloma geocarpum (Hausa groundnut) are also grown. Black-eyed peas are also part of the diet. Palm oil is harvested.

Common dishes include soups and stews. Common ingredients include yams, sweet potato, cassava, onion, tomato and plantain. Spices, peppers and chilis are used in cooking, including Aframomum melegueta seeds (Guinea pepper).

Film

Flora Gomes is an internationally renowned film director; his most famous film is Nha Fala (English: My Voice). [65] Gomes's Mortu Nega (Death Denied) (1988) [66] was the first fiction film and the second feature film ever made in Guinea-Bissau. (The first feature film was N’tturudu , by director Umban u’Kest in 1987.) At FESPACO 1989, Mortu Nega won the prestigious Oumarou Ganda Prize. In 1992, Gomes directed Udju Azul di Yonta, [67] which was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival. [68] Gomes has also served on the boards of many Africa-centric film festivals. [69]

Sports

Football is the most popular sport in Guinea-Bissau. The Guinea-Bissau national football team is controlled by the Federação de Futebol da Guiné-Bissau. They are a member of the Confederation of African Football (CAF) and FIFA. Other football clubs include Desportivo Quelele, FC Catacumba, FC Catacumba São Domingos, FC Cupelaoo Gabu, FC Djaraf, FC Prabis and FC Babaque.

See also

Related Research Articles

Guinea-Bissau was dominated by Portugal from the 1450s to the 1970s; since independence, the country has been primarily controlled by a single-party system.

The music of Guinea-Bissau is most widely associated with the polyrhythmic genre of gumbe, the country's primary musical export. Tina and tinga are other popular genres.

2004 Guinea-Bissau legislative election

Parliamentary elections were held in Guinea-Bissau on 28 March 2004 after repeated postponements caused by political and financial chaos in the country, including a coup d'état that overthrew President Kumba Ialá in September 2003. The former ruling party, the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), won the largest number of seats, but did not obtain a majority. Former President Yala's party, the Party for Social Renewal (PRS), came second with 35 seats.

Kumba Ialá Guinea-Bissau politician

Kumba Ialá Embaló, also spelled Yalá, was a Bissau-Guinean politician who was president from 17 February 2000 until he was deposed in a bloodless military coup on 14 September 2003. He belonged to the Balanta ethnic group and was President of the Social Renewal Party (PRS). In 2008 he converted to Islam and took the name Mohamed Ialá Embaló. He was the founder of the Party for Social Renewal. In 2014, Ialá died from a cardiopulmonary arrest.

This name uses Portuguese naming customs. the first or maternal family name is Correia and the second or paternal family name is Seabra.

Carlos Gomes Júnior Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau

Carlos Domingos Gomes Júnior is a Guinea-Bissauan politician who was Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau from 10 May 2004 to 2 November 2005, and again from 25 December 2008 to 10 February 2012. He has been the President of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) since 2002 and is widely known as "Cadogo". He resigned as prime minister on 10 February 2012 to run in the presidential election triggered by President Malam Bacai Sanhá's death on 9 January.

African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde political party

The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde is a political party in Guinea-Bissau. Originally formed to peacefully campaign for independence from Portugal, the party turned to armed conflict in the 1960s and was one of the belligerents in the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence. Towards the end of the war, the party established a Marxist–Leninist one-party state, which remained intact until multi-party democracy was introduced in the early 1990s. Although the party won the first multi-party elections in 1994, it was removed from power in the 1999–2000 elections. However, it returned to office after winning parliamentary elections in 2004 and presidential elections in 2005, since which it has remained the largest party in the National People's Assembly.

Elections in Guinea-Bissau

Elections in Guinea-Bissau take place within the framework of a multi-party democracy and a semi-presidential system. Both the President and the National People's Assembly are directly elected by voters.

2005 Guinea-Bissau presidential election

Presidential elections were held in Guinea-Bissau on 19 June 2005, with a second round runoff on 24 July. The elections marked the end of a transition to democratic rule after the previously elected government was overthrown in a September 2003 military coup led by General Veríssimo Correia Seabra. The result was a victory for former President and independent candidate João Bernardo Vieira.

Malam Bacai Sanhá President of Guinea-Bissau

This name uses Portuguese naming customs. the first or maternal family name is Bacai and the second or paternal family name is Sanhá.

The Party for Social Renewal is a political party in Guinea-Bissau. It is one of the country's leading parties and is currently the main opposition party.

This name uses Portuguese naming customs: the first or maternal family name is Fudut and the second or paternal family name is Imbali.

Ansumane Mané was a Bissau-Guinean soldier who led a 1998 uprising against the government of President João Bernardo Vieira, which caused a brief, but bloody civil war.

Carlos Correia is a Guinea-Bissau politician who was Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau from 17 September 2015 to 12 May 2016. Previously he was Prime Minister from 27 December 1991 to 26 October 1994, from 6 June 1997 to 3 December 1998, and from 5 August 2008 to 25 December 2008.

Raimundo Pereira President of Guinea-Bissau

Raimundo Pereira is a Guinea-Bissauan lawyer and politician who was interim President of Guinea-Bissau from 3 March 2009 to 8 September 2009 and again in 2012, following the departure of President Malam Bacai Sanhá for medical treatment abroad; he continued in that capacity after Sanha's death. Pereira was elected as President of the National People's Assembly on 22 December 2008. Pereira is a member of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC). He was ousted in a coup on 12 April 2012 and succeeded by Mamadu Ture Kuruma.

2009 Guinea-Bissau presidential election election

Presidential elections were held in Guinea-Bissau on 28 June 2009 following the assassination of President João Bernardo Vieira on 2 March 2009. As no candidate won a majority in the first round, a second round was held on 26 July 2009 between the two leading candidates, Malam Bacai Sanhá of the governing African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) and opposition leader Kumba Ialá. Sanhá won with a substantial majority in the second round, according to official results.

2012 Guinea-Bissau coup détat coup détat

On 12 April 2012, a coup d'état in Guinea-Bissau was staged by elements of the armed forces about two weeks before the second round of a presidential election between Carlos Gomes Júnior and Kumba Ialá. The coup started in the evening with military personnel and equipment making its way onto the streets, followed by the state-owned media being taken off-air.

Francisca Maria Monteira e Silva Vaz Turpin, better known as Zinha Vaz, is a Bissau-Guinean women's rights activist and politician. She has been a member of the National People's Assembly for several terms for the Resistance of Guinea-Bissau-Bafatá Movement, as well as a presidential advisor. In 1999 she served for a brief time as mayor of the capital city Bissau. She was jailed for political reasons for three years during the 1970s and in 2003 again for several days. Recently she was ambassador to Gambia.

Cape Verde–Guinea-Bissau relations Diplomatic relations between two African nations

Cape Verde–Guinea Bissau relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the Republic of Cape Verde and the Republic of Guinea-Bissau. Cape Verde is an island country about 900 km north-west of Guinea-Bissau, a coastal West African country. Both were colonies of the Portuguese Empire and they campaigned together for independence with a plan for unification, but the countries separated after 1980.

1980 Guinea-Bissau coup détat

The 1980 Guinea-Bissau coup d'état was the bloodless military coup that took place in Guinea-Bissau on 14 November 1980, led by Prime Minister General João Bernardo Vieira. It led to the deposition of President Luís Cabral, who held the office since 1973, while the country's War of Independence was still ongoing. Furthermore, it resulted in the abandonment of the proposed unification of Guinea-Bissau with Cape Verde, a fellow Lusophone West African country. The Cape Verdean branch of the PAIGC party broke away and formed the new PAICV party in January 1981 under the leadership of Aristides Pereira, President of Cape Verde and former Secretary-General of the PAIGC.

References

  1. "Guinea-Bissau" – Field Listing: Nationality. Archived 26 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine The World Factbook 2013–14. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  2. 1 2 3 "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Guinea-Bissau". International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 11 November 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  4. "2016 Human Development Report Summary" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. pp. 21–25. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  5. Empire of Kaabu, West Africa Archived 30 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine . Access Gambia. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  6. Eustache De La Fosse (1992). Voyage d'Eustache Delafosse sur la côte de Guinée, au Portugal et en Espagne: 1479–1481. éditions Chandeigne. ISBN   978-2-906462-03-8. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  7. "Diogo Cão". Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2006.. win.tue.nl
  8. 1 2 "A Brief History of Guinea-Bissau – Part 1" Archived 5 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine . Africanhistory, US Department of State, at About.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  9. British Library – Endangered Archive Programme (EAP). Inep-bissau.org (18 March 1921). Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  10. Amilcar Cabral 1966 "The Weapon of Theory" Archived 16 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Address delivered to the first Tricontinental Conference of the Peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America held in Havana in January 1966. Marxists.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  11. The PAIC Programme Appendix Archived 30 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine . Marxists.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  12. El Tahri, Jihan (2007). Cuba! Africa! Revolution!. BBC Television. Event occurs at 50:00–60:00. Archived from the original on 10 December 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2007.
  13. Brittain, Victoria (17 January 2011). "Africa: a continent drenched in the blood of revolutionary heroes". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 17 January 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  14. Benzinho, Joana; Rosa, Marta (December 2015). Discovering Guinea-Bissau (PDF). NGO afectos com Letra. p. 29. ISBN   978-989-20-6315-7 . Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  15. Embassy of The Republic of Guinea-Bissau – Country Profile. Diplomaticandconsular.com (12 April 2012). Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  16. Guiné-Bissau: Morreu Luís Cabral, primeiro presidente do país Archived 3 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine . Expresso.sapo.pt (30 May 2009). Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  17. Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, Guinea Bissau: government, in depth, Negotiations, Veira's surrender and the end of the conflict Archived 31 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine , viewed 12 July 2013,
  18. Guinea-Bissau's Kumba Yala: from crisis to crisis Archived 16 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Afrol.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  19. Smith, Brian (27 September 2003) "US and UN give tacit backing to Guinea Bissau coup" Archived 27 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine , Wsws.org, September 2003. Retrieved 22 June 2013
  20. GUINEA-BISSAU: Vieira officially declared president Archived 25 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine . irinnews.org (10 August 2005).
  21. "Army man wins G Bissau election". BBC News. London. 28 July 2005. Archived from the original on 27 June 2006. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  22. Guinea Bissau vote goes smooth amid hopes for stability. AFP via Google.com (16 November 2008). Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  23. Balde, Assimo (24 November 2008). "Coup attempt fails in Guinea-Bissau". London: The Independent UK independent.co.uk. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  24. "Soldiers kill fleeing President". Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2009.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). news.com.au (2 March 2009).
  25. Elections, Guinea-Bissau (27 May 2009). "On the Radio Waves in Guinea-Bissau". swisspeace. Archived from the original on 8 December 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  26. "Já foi escolhida a data para a realização das eleições presidenciais entecipadas". Bissaudigital.com. 1 April 2009. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  27. "Tiny Guinea-Bissau becomes latest West African nation hit by coup". Bissau. 12 April 2012. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  28. Embalo, Allen Yero (14 April 2012). "Fears grow for members of toppled G.Bissau government". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2012.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  29. "Guinea-Bissau opposition vows to reach deal with junta | Radio Netherlands Worldwide". Rnw.nl. 15 April 2012. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  30. 1 2 3 4 "Guinea-Bissau" Archived 28 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine , CIA the World Factbook, Cia.gov. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  31. Guinea-Bissau Supreme Court Archived 23 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Stj.pt. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  32. Guinea-Bissau Political Parties Archived 9 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine . Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  33. "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons". United Nations Treaty Collection. 7 July 2017.
  34. Nossiter, Adam (4 November 2009) "Bijagós, a Tranquil Haven in a Troubled Land", The New York Times , 8 November 2009
  35. Guinea-Bissau Climate Archived 9 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine . Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  36. World Bank profile Archived 11 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine . World Bank.org (31 May 2013). Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  37. The Economist. Pocket World in Figures (2008 ed.). London: Profile Books. ISBN   978-1861978448.
  38. Guinea-Bissau and the IMF Archived 16 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Imf.org (13 May 2013). Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  39. CFA Franc and Guinea-Bissau Archived 26 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Uemoa.int. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  40. Guinea-Bissau:A narco-state? Archived 29 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Time. (29 October 2009). Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  41. Sullivan, Kevin (25 May 2008). "Route of Evil: How a tiny West African nation became a key smuggling hub for Colombian cocaine, and the price it is paying". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  42. "Guinea-Bissau drug trade 'rises since coup'". BBC News. London. 31 July 2012. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  43. "OHADA.com • The business law portal in Africa". OHADA.com (in French). Paul Bayzelon. Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  44. 1 2 "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision". Esa.un.org. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  45. Guinea-Bissau ethnic classifications Archived 17 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine , Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  46. China-Guinea-Bissau Archived 11 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine . China.org.cn. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  47. "Guinea-Bissau: Regions, Cities & Urban Localities – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". www.citypopulation.de. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  48. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Língua e Desenvolvimento: O caso da Guiné-Bissau José Barbosa – Universidade de Lisboa" (PDF). ul.pt. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  49. Crioulo, Upper Guinea. Ethnologue.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  50. WELCOME TO THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION OF LA FRANCOPHONIE'S OFFICIAL WEBSITE Archived 1 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine . Francophonie.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  51. 1 2 "Tolerance and Tension: Islam and Christianity in Sub-Saharan Africa" (PDF). Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. April 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  52. "The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity" (PDF). Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. 9 August 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  53. "Guinea-Bissau".
  54. "Guinea-Bissau" Archived 16 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine , Encyclopædia Britannica
  55. Guinea-Bissau: Society & Culture Complete Report an All-Inclusive Profile Combining All of Our Society and Culture Reports (2nd ed.). Petaluma: World Trade Press. 2010. p. 7. ISBN   1607804662.
  56. The latter is maintained by Cuba and functions in different cities.
  57. 1 2 "Guinea-Bissau". 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  58. "Field Listing :: Literacy". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 24 November 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  59. Armando Mussa Sani and Jasmina Barckhausen (23 June 2017). "Theatre sheds light on conflicts". D+C, development and cooperation. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  60. Lobeck, Katharina (21 May 2003) Manecas Costa Paraiso di Gumbe Review Archived 24 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine . BBC. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  61. The Kora. Freewebs.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  62. Radio Africa: Guinea Bissau vinyl discography Archived 25 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Radioafrica.com.au. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  63. http://gumbe.com Archived 28 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine Gumbe
  64. Music of Guinea-Bissau Archived 5 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine . Ccas11bijagos.pbworks.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  65. Nha Fala/My Voice. spot.pcc.edu (2002)
  66. Mortu Nega Archived 18 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine . California Newsreel. Newsreel.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  67. Udju Azul di Yonta Archived 5 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine . California Newsreel. Newsreel.org. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  68. "Festival de Cannes: Udju Azul di Yonta". Festival de Cannes . Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2009.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  69. Flora Gomes The Two Faces of War: National Liberation in Guinea-Bissau Archived 8 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine . Watsoninstitute.org (25 October 2007). Retrieved 22 June 2013.

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html .

Further reading

Government
Trade
News media
Tourism
Health
GIS information

Coordinates: 12°N15°W / 12°N 15°W / 12; -15