The Guitarrón Chileno (literally: "large Chilean guitar") is a guitar-shaped plucked string instrument from Chile, with 25 or 24 (rarely) strings. Its primary contemporary use is as the instrumental accompaniment for the traditional Chilean genre of singing poetry known as Canto a lo Poeta, though a few virtuosi have also begun to develop the instrument's solo possibilities.
The origin of the Guitarrón Chileno may date back to the 16th century. Although the name suggests an instrument derived from the guitar, the design, tuning, and playing technique of the instrument are more closely linked to a common ancestor of the guitar, the vihuela of the Renaissance and Baroque. There are also some design similarities to the Baroque archlutes, though a direct connection is uncertain. Technologically the instrument has followed an evolution similar to that of the guitar. The old instruments used tied-on gut frets and friction tuning pegs (similar to the violin), but modern instruments employ metal frets and geared tuning machines, like those of modern guitars.
Originally the guitarrón chileno was a folk instrument seen primarily in rural areas; however, recent interest in "world music", and in the revival of traditional folk music forms has led to increased interest in the instrument in more urban areas and contemporary musical settings. The Guitarrón Chileno is mainly used to accompany el Canto a lo Poeta (the Poet Singing), an old Chilean folk genre that combines décima (a ten-line poetic form) and payada (improvisation).The music embraces two main groups of themes: Canto a lo Divino, lit. "Singing to the Divine" (solemn, religious, more prepared themes) and Canto a lo Humano, lit. "Singing to the Human" (humorous, amorous, and social criticism themes). This instrument is also used to perform in other musical forms like cuecas, tonadas, valses and polkas.
As with most relatives of the guitar, the guitarrón chileno is constructed of wood and the same major sections may be distinguished in its construction:
One of the most distinctive features of the guitarrón chileno is the "little devils": four short, high-pitched strings, arranged two on each side of the neck, which run from tuners on the upper bouts to auxillaty pins on the sides of the bridge near the daggers.
Strings within a course are tuned either in unison or in octaves; tuning between courses is in fourths, except between the second and third courses where the interval is a major third. With the instrument held in playing position, the stringing is: devil, devil, 5 (or 4)-string course, 6 (or 5)-string course, 5 (or 4)-string course, 3-string course, 3-string course, devil, devil, and the most common tuning is:
F#5 • A4 • (D4) D4 D3 D3 D2 • (G4) G4 G4 G4 G3 G3 • (C4) C4 C4 C3 C2 • E4 E4 E4 • A4 A4 A4 • G4 • B4
Either the fifth course or the third course may sometimes have only four strings, and the fourth course sometimes only has five, depending on the individual instrument design.
One common variant of this tuning is to eliminate the middle octaves in the fifth course, thus:
F#5 • A4 • (D4) D4 D4 D4 D2 • (G4) G4 G4 G4 G3 G3 • (C4) C4 C4 C3 C2 • E4 E4 E4 • A4 A4 A4 • G4 • B4
The entire instrument is sometimes transposed to accommodate the voice of the singer. For example, all notes in the above "G tuning" may be raised a whole step, to produce an "A tuning".
Traditionally, tunings are confined to a range which favors the male voice, as most guitarroneras were, until quite recently, male. Modern female guitarroneras have mostly devised new playing patterns on the "male" instrument, but a few makers have been experimenting with novel stringing that allow the instrument to be tuned up to C or D, to better accommodate a female vocal range.
The traditional playing method for the guitarrón chileno is to pluck the strings with the finger tips and nails of the right hand. Typically only the thumb and index finger are employed, especially in the payada styles. The left hand frets strings on the fingerboard in a manner similar to that of the guitar and other guitar-like instruments.
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