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The Gujin Tushu Jicheng (traditional Chinese :古今圖書集成; simplified Chinese :古今图书集成; pinyin :Gǔjīn Túshū Jíchéng; Wade–Giles :Ku-chin t'u-shu chi-ch'eng; lit. 'Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings from the Earliest to Current Times'), also known as the Imperial Encyclopaedia, is a vast encyclopedic work written in China during the reigns of the Qing Dynasty emperors Kangxi and Yongzheng. It was begun in 1700 and completed in 1725. The work was headed initially by scholar Chen Menglei (陳夢雷), and later by Jiang Tingxi.
The encyclopaedia contained 10,000 volumes. Sixty-four imprints were made of the first edition, known as the Wu-ying Hall edition. The encyclopaedia consisted of 6 series, 32 divisions, and 6,117 sections. 卷). To illustrate the huge size of the Gujin Tushu Jicheng, it is estimated to have contained 3 to 4 times the amount of material in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition .It contained 800,000 pages and over 100 million Chinese characters. Topics covered included natural phenomena, geography, history, literature and government. The work was printed in 1726 using copper movable type printing. It spanned around 10 thousand rolls (
The Emperor of China presented a set of the encyclopaedia in 5,000 fascicles to the China Society of London, which has deposited it on loan to Cambridge University Library.A complete copy in Japan was destroyed in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake.
One of Yongzheng's brothers patronised the project for a while, although Yongzheng contrived to give exclusive credit to his father Kangxi instead.
The 32 subdivisions are as follows.
Note that a pre-modern sense is intended in both "society" (that is, high society) and "economy" (which could be called "society" today), and the other major divisions do not match precisely to English terms.
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were two groups of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China. The Three Sovereigns lived before The Five Emperors, who have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BCE to 2070 BCE. Today they may be considered culture heroes.
This article contains information about the literary events and publications of 1726.
Zongzi or simply zong is a traditional Chinese rice dish made of glutinous rice stuffed with different fillings and wrapped in bamboo leaves, or sometimes with reed or other large flat leaves. They are cooked by steaming or boiling. In the Western world, they are also known as rice dumplings or sticky rice dumplings.
Jiang Tingxi, courtesy name Yangsun (杨孙), was a Chinese painter, and an editor of the encyclopedia Gujin Tushu Jicheng.
Yinzhi, also known as Yunzhi, was a Manchu prince of the Qing Dynasty.
The Siku Quanshu, variously translated as the Complete Library in Four Sections, Imperial Collection of Four, Emperor's Four Treasuries, Complete Library in Four Branches of Literature, or Complete Library of the Four Treasuries, is the largest collection of books in Chinese history. The complete encyclopedia contains an annotated catalogue of 10,680 titles along with a compendiums of 3,593 titles. The Siku Quanshu ended up surpassing the Ming dynasty's 1403 Yongle Encyclopedia in size, which was China's largest encyclopedia prior to the creation of the Siku Quanshu.
The naval history of China dates back thousands of years, with archives existing since the late Spring and Autumn period about the ancient navy of China and the various ship types used in war. China was the leading maritime power in the years 1400–1433, when Chinese shipbuilders began to build massive ocean-going junks. In modern times, the current People's Republic of China and Taiwanese governments continue to maintain standing navies through the People's Liberation Army Navy and the Republic of China Navy, respectively.
The leishu is a genre of reference books historically compiled in China and other East Asian countries. The term is generally translated as "encyclopedia", although the leishu are quite different from the modern notion of encyclopedia.
Hua Sui was a Chinese scholar, engineer, inventor, and printer of Wuxi, Jiangsu province during the Ming dynasty. He belonged to the wealthy Hua family that was renowned throughout the region. Hua Sui is best known for creating China's first metal movable type printing in 1490 AD.
Chinese encyclopedias comprise both Chinese-language encyclopedias and foreign-language ones about China or Chinese topics. There is a type of native Chinese reference work called leishu that is sometimes translated as "encyclopedia", but although these collections of quotations from classic texts are expansively "encyclopedic", a leishu is more accurately described as a "compendium" or "anthology". The long history of Chinese encyclopedias began with the Huanglanleishu and continues with online encyclopedias such as the Baike Encyclopedia.
The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars, also translated as The Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Piety, is a classic text of Confucian filial piety written by Guo Jujing (郭居敬) during the Yuan dynasty (1260–1368). The text was extremely influential in the medieval Far East and was used to teach Confucian moral values.
The Yu Gong or Tribute of Yu is a chapter of the Book of Xia (夏書/夏书) section of the Book of Documents, one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature. The chapter describes the legendary Yu the Great and the provinces of his time. Most modern scholars believe it was written in the fifth century BCE or later.
The Rare Book Preservation Society (文献保存同志会) was founded in 1940 by Zheng Zhenduo (郑振铎), Zhang Shouyong (张寿镛), He Bingsong (何炳松), Zhang Yuanji (张元济), and Zhang Fengju (张凤举) for the purpose of secretly acquiring and preserving rare books and manuscripts in the Shanghai Jiangnan region. These cultural assets have been accumulated by a number of famous private libraries some over 1,000 years.
The Yuanhe Xingzuan is an imperial Tang dynasty register of the genealogies of China's prominent families. It was compiled by Lin Bao (林寶), on the order of Emperor Xianzong, whose era name was Yuanhe. The book was completed in 812 and records 1,232 surnames.
Sonom was a king of the rGyalrong people in China. He was the lord-lama of Greater Jinchuan. He was executed after his January 1776 defeat in the Jinchuan campaigns.
I Lo-fen is a Taiwanese scholar and writer. She received her Chinese Literature Ph.D. from National Taiwan University. She has been an associate professor in the Division of Chinese in Nanyang Technological University’s School of Humanities and Social Sciences since July 2006, and was the Head of the Division (2014-2016). She had formerly committed in institutes like the National Taiwan University, Tamkang University, Fu Jen Catholic University, and the Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy at Academia Sinica. In addition, she was also a visiting professor at Stanford University in the United States and East Asian Institute at Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea. Her research expertise lies in Text and Image Studies, Su Shi studies, East Asian literature and intercultural exchanges in Classical Chinese, and Singapore literature, history, and arts studies. She is also a board member of the China Su Shi Studies Society, and an international board member of the Korea Society of East Asian Comparative Literature. She is the Founder and Honorary President of the "Text and Image Studies Society"(文图学会) that was official registered in Singapore on 18 December 2017. By integrating the history of Chinese literature and arts, she has accomplished a series of researches on poems in paintings and poetic imagery. She then proposed the idea of the “Text and Image Studies”(文图学) and focused on the relations, comparison and intertextuality between poems and paintings. From there, she has established her literary theory in arts creation and culture of aesthetics. She is also a column writer of Singapore Lianhe Zaobao (2007-), and she hosts podcast "Lofen says".
The Shiben or Book of Origins was the earliest Chinese encyclopedia which recorded imperial genealogies from the mythical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors down to the late Spring and Autumn period, explanations of the origin of clan names, and records of legendary and historical Chinese inventors. It was written during the 2nd century BC at the time of the Han dynasty.
Cheng Xuanying, courtesy name Zishi (子實), was a Taoist monk known to posterity as the "Master of Doctrines at Xihua Abbey“ (西華法師) and was one of the principal representatives of the "School of Double Mystery" (Chongxuan) during the reigns of the emperors Taizong and Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty. He is mainly known for his commentaries to the Daodejing and the Zhuangzi.
Events from the year 1669 in China.
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