Gulf of İzmit (Turkish: İzmit Körfezi), also referred to as Izmit Bay, is a bay at the easternmost edge of the Sea of Marmara, in Kocaeli Province, Turkey. It's ancient names were Gulf of Astacus , Sinus Astacenus (Ancient Greek : Ἀστακηνὸς κόλπος), Olbianus Sinus (Ancient Greek : Ὀλβιανὸς κόλπος, romanized: Olbianos kolpos) and Gulf of Nicomedia .
It took the names Gulf of Astacus and Sinus Astacenus from the city Astacus.
The gulf takes its name from the city of İzmit, other cities and towns around the bay being Gebze, Körfez, Gölcük, and Altınova. In the east–west direction, it extends for a length of about 48 kilometres (30 mi), while in the north–south direction its width varies from 2 to 3 kilometres (1.2 to 1.9 mi) at the narrowest spots to about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) at its widest. The İzmit Bay Bridge is a suspension bridge that bridges the gulf.
Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Sea of Marmara, the Bosporus and the Black Sea. It bordered Mysia to the southwest, Paphlagonia to the northeast along the Pontic coast, and Phrygia to the southeast towards the interior of Asia Minor.
Nicomedia was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey. In 286 Nicomedia became the eastern and most senior capital city of the Roman Empire, a status which the city maintained during the Tetrarchy system (293–324).
Kocaeli Province is a province of Turkey and one of only two to not have the same official name as its capital, İzmit, which is thus also sometimes called Kocaeli. The province is the successor of the Ottoman-era Sanjak of Kocaeli. The largest towns in the province are İzmit and Gebze. The traffic code is 41. The province is located at the easternmost end of the Marmara Sea around the Gulf of İzmit. Kocaeli is bordered by the province of Istanbul and the Marmara Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north, the province of Sakarya to the east, the province of Bursa to the south and the province of Yalova to the southwest. The metropolitan area of Istanbul extends to the Kocaeli-Istanbul provincial border. The size and natural conditions of the Bay of İzmit allow for extensive port facilities, including the Gölcük Naval Base. The province is called the industrial capital of Turkey. Kocaeli has an airport named Cengiz Topel Naval Air Station which is used for military and civilian transport. Kocaeli has two universities: Kocaeli University and Gebze Technical University.
The Osmangazi Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Gulf of İzmit at its narrowest point, 2,620 m (8,600 ft). The bridge links the Turkish city of Gebze to the Yalova Province and carries the O-5 motorway across the gulf. The bridge was opened on 1 July 2016 and surpassed the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge to become the longest bridge in Turkey and the sixth-longest suspension bridge in the world by the length of its central span.
Gebze is a district in Kocaeli Province, Turkey. It is situated 65 km southeast of Istanbul, on the Gulf of Izmit, the eastern arm of the Sea of Marmara. Gebze is the second largest district in Kocaeli after İzmit, the provincial centrum in terms of population. Gebze has experienced rapid growth in recent years, from 159,116 residents in 1990 to 299,047 in 2011.
Libyssa or Libysa (Λίβισσα), was a town on the north coast of the Sinus Astacenus in ancient Bithynia, on the road from Nicaea to Chalcedon. It was celebrated in antiquity as the place containing the tomb of the great Hannibal. In Pliny's time the town no longer existed, but the spot was noticed only because of the tumulus of Hannibal.
The Gulf of Squillace is a body of water, an inlet of the Ionian Sea along the Calabrian coast of Italy.
The Gulf of Alexandretta or İskenderun is a gulf of the eastern Mediterranean or Levantine Sea. It lies beside the southern Turkish provinces of Adana and Hatay.
İzmit Körfez Circuit is a motor sports race track about 17 km west of İzmit, in Körfez district of Kocaeli Province, Turkey. Sponsored by the Turkish Automobile Sports Federation (TOSFED) and built by the Istanbul Motorsports Club (İMK), it was inaugurated in 1993 as the first asphalted race track in Turkey. The venue is home to motor sport races in various categories.
The Kocaeli Peninsula lies in the northwest corner of Anatolia, Turkey, separating the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the Asian side of the strait of Bosphorus. Approximately one-third of Istanbul, one of the most populous cities of the world, occupies its western part, and İzmit, another big city, is at the easternmost point of the peninsula.
Astacus is an ancient city in Bithynia; it was also called Olbia. Stephanus of Byzantium records an aetiological myth that it was founded by Astacus, son of Poseidon and the nymph Olbia.
Hersek headland is a headland in Turkey.
İzmit, known as Nicomedia in antiquity, is a city in Turkey, the administrative center of the Kocaeli Province as well as the Metropolitan Municipality. It is located at the Gulf of İzmit in the Sea of Marmara, about 100 km (62 mi) east of Istanbul, on the northwestern part of Anatolia. The city center has a population of 300,611. The population of the province is 1,459,772. Unlike other provinces in Turkey, apart from Istanbul, the whole province is included within the municipality of the metropolitan center.
Charax in Bithynia was a Roman and Byzantine port town of ancient Bithynia, in what is now Turkey. It was on the north side of the Sinus Astacenus on the road between the erstwhile Eastern Roman and Byzantine capital Nicomedia and Libyssa. Stephanus of Byzantium calls it a place of great trade.
Dacibyza or Dakibyza, or Dacibyze or Dakibyze (Δακιβύζη), was a town of ancient Bithynia located on the road from Libyssa to Chalcedon on the north coast of the Sinus Astacenus, an arm of the Propontis.
Praenetus or Prainetos, also known as Prinetos or Prinetus (Πρίνετος) was a town of ancient Bithynia on the coast of the Propontis. It on the north side of Mount Arganthonius, and at the southern entrance of the Sinus Astacenus. It was situated 28 Roman miles to the northwest of Nicaea. Stephanus of Byzantium calls it Pronectus or Prokektos (Πρόνεκτος) and states that it was founded by the Phoenicians. If this be true, it would be a very ancient place, which can scarcely be conceived, as it is mentioned only by very late writers. According to Cedrenus it was destroyed by an earthquake. It was a bishopric; no longer the seat of a residential bishop, it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
Eribolum or Eribolon, or Eribolus or Eribolos (Ἐρίβωλος), or Eriboia (Ἐριβοία), was a port town of ancient Bithynia, on the Sinus Astacenus near Nicomedia. It appears in the Tabula Peutingeriana under the name of Eribulo, south of the bay of Astacus, with the numeral XII, and north of Nicaea; the figure of a house in the Tabula indicates a town, perhaps with warm springs. It is Hyribolum in the Jerusalem Itinerary. Cassius Dio speaks of it as a naval station opposite to Nicomedia. After the Battle of Antioch, the Roman emperor Macrinus fled to Eribolum seeking passage westwards while avoiding the large port of Nicomedia whose governor was in favour of the emperor Heliogabalus.
Arbeila was a town of ancient Bithynia on the coast of the Sinus Astacenus west of Nicomedia. Its name does not appear in ancient authors but is inferred from epigraphic and other evidence.
Elaea or Elaia was a town of ancient Bithynia on the coast of the Sinus Astacenus in the Propontis.
Potamoi was a town of ancient Bithynia located on the road from Libyssa to Chalcedon on the north coast of the Sinus Astacenus, an arm of the Propontis.
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