A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
Gulf of İzmit (Turkish: İzmit Körfezi), anciently, Sinus Astacenus and Olbianus Sinus (Ancient Greek : Ὀλβιανὸς κόλπος, romanized: Olbianos kolpos), also referred to as Izmit Bay, is a bay at the easternmost edge of the Sea of Marmara, in Kocaeli Province, Turkey. In antiquity it was known first as the Gulf of Astacus and later as the Gulf of Nicomedia .
İzmit, known as Nicomedia in antiquity, is a city in Turkey, the administrative center of the Kocaeli Province as well as the Metropolitan Municipality. It is located at the Gulf of İzmit in the Sea of Marmara, about 100 km (62 mi) east of Istanbul, on the northwestern part of Anatolia. The city center has a population of 300,611. The population of the province is 1,459,772. Unlike other provinces in Turkey, apart from Istanbul, the whole province is included within the municipality of the metropolitan center.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is usually called a gulf, sea, sound, or bight. A cove is a type of smaller bay with a circular inlet and narrow entrance. A fjord is a particularly steep bay shaped by glacial activity.
The gulf takes its name from the city of İzmit, other cities and towns around the bay being Gebze, Körfez, Gölcük, and Altınova. In the east–west direction, it extends for a length of about 48 kilometres (30 mi), while in the north–south direction its width varies from 2 to 3 kilometres (1.2 to 1.9 mi) at the narrowest spots to about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) at its widest. The İzmit Bay Bridge is a suspension bridge that bridges the gulf.
Gebze is a district in Kocaeli Province, Turkey. It is situated 65 km southeast of Istanbul, on the Gulf of Izmit, the eastern arm of the Sea of Marmara. Gebze is the second largest district in Kocaeli after İzmit, the provincial centrum in terms of population. Gebze has experienced rapid growth in recent years, from 159,116 residents in 1990 to 299,047 in 2011.
Gölcük is a town and district of Kocaeli Province in the Marmara region of Turkey. The town is located at the northern gulf of Armutlu Peninsula on the coast of Marmara Sea and south of the province.
Altınova is a town and district of Yalova Province in the east of Marmara region of Turkey. The mayor is Metin Oral (AKP).
Astacus is a genus of crayfish found in Europe and western Asia, comprising three extant and four extinct, fossil species.
Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs, or yabbies are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters. Taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea. They breathe through feather-like gills. Some species are found in brooks and streams where fresh water is running, while others thrive in swamps, ditches, and paddy fields. Most crayfish cannot tolerate polluted water, although some species such as Procambarus clarkii are hardier. Crayfish feed on animals and plants, either living or decomposing, and detritus.
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea. It bordered Mysia to the southwest, Paphlagonia to the northeast along the Pontic coast, and Phrygia to the southeast towards the interior of Asia Minor.
Chalcedon was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor. It was located almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari and it is now a district of the city of Istanbul named Kadıköy. The name Chalcedon is a variant of Calchedon, found on all the coins of the town as well as in manuscripts of Herodotus's Histories, Xenophon's Hellenica, Arrian's Anabasis, and other works. Except for a tower, almost no above-ground vestiges of the ancient city survive in Kadıköy today; artifacts uncovered at Altıyol and other excavation sites are on display at the Istanbul Archaeological Museum.
Nicomedia was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey. In 286 Nicomedia became the eastern and most senior capital city of the Roman Empire, a status which the city maintained during the Tetrarchy system (293–324).
Kocaeli Province is a province of Turkey and one of only two to not have the same official name as its capital, İzmit, which is thus also sometimes called Kocaeli. The province is the successor of the Ottoman-era Sanjak of Kocaeli. The largest towns in the province are İzmit and Gebze. The traffic code is 41. The province is located at the easternmost end of the Marmara Sea around the Gulf of İzmit. Kocaeli is bordered by the province of Istanbul and the Marmara Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north, the province of Sakarya to the east, the province of Bursa to the south and the province of Yalova to the southwest. The metropolitan area of Istanbul extends to the Kocaeli-Istanbul provincial border. The size and natural conditions of the Bay of İzmit allow for extensive port facilities, including the Gölcük Naval Base. The province is called the industrial capital of Turkey. Kocaeli has an airport named Cengiz Topel Naval Air Station which is used for military and civilian transport. Kocaeli has two universities: Kocaeli University and Gebze Technical University.
The Osmangazi Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Gulf of İzmit at its narrowest point, 2,620 m (8,600 ft). The bridge links the Turkish city of Gebze to the Yalova Province and carries the O-5 motorway across the gulf. The bridge was opened on 1 July 2016 and surpassed the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge to become the longest bridge in Turkey and the fourth-longest suspension bridge in the world by the length of its central span.
The Turkish Motorcycle Grand Prix was a motorcycling event that was part of the World Motorcycle Racing season.
The University of Kocaeli (KOU) is a state university in Kocaeli, Turkey. It was founded as the Academy of Engineering and Architecture of Kocaeli in 1976. The electrical and mechanical engineering departments, basic sciences, and department of modern languages were the original departments of the academy. It became a part of Yıldız University in 1982.
Hereke is a town in Kocaeli province, Turkey, located to the north of the Gulf of İzmit, near Istanbul. It is famous for Hereke carpets. It was bound to Gebze district until transferring to Körfez in 1987 and had municipality status until 2009. It consists of 17 Ağustos, Agah Ateş, Cumhuriyet, Hacı Akif, Kışladüzü, Şirinyalı and Yukarı Hereke mahalles. It can be reached by minibus, public bus, Adapazarı Express train, ship and sea bus.
İzmit Körfez Circuit is a motor sports race track about 17 km west of İzmit, in Körfez district of Kocaeli Province, Turkey. Sponsored by the Turkish Automobile Sports Federation (TOSFED) and built by the Istanbul Motorsports Club (İMK), it was inaugurated in 1993 as the first asphalted race track in Turkey. The venue is home to motor sport races in various categories.
The Kocaeli Peninsula lies in the northwest corner of Anatolia, Turkey, separating the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the Asian side of the strait of Bosphorus. Approximately one-third of Istanbul, one of the most populous cities of the world, occupies its western part, and İzmit, another big city, is at the easternmost point of the peninsula.
Astacus is the name of an ancient city in Bithynia; it was also called Olbia. Stephanus of Byzantium records an aetiological myth that it was founded by Astacus, son of Poseidon and the nymph Olbia. The city was founded in the Second Greek colonisation by the Megarans together with the Athenians.
Hersek headland is a headland in Turkey.
Yarımca station is railway station located in Körfez, Turkey. Situated on the northern shore of the Gulf of İzmit, it is one of the three operating stations between Gebze and İzmit, the other two being Hereke and Derince. The station is currently served by the Ada Express, which consists of four round trips between Pendik, Istanbul and Mithatpaşa, Adapazarı.
Charax in Bithynia was a Roman and Byzantine port town of ancient Bithynia, in what is now Turkey. It was on the north side of the Sinus Astacenus on the road between the erstwhile Eastern Roman and Byzantine capital Nicomedia and Libyssa. Stephanus of Byzantium calls it a place of great trade.
The Sanjak of Kocaeli was a second-level Ottoman province with capital at Iznikmid/Izmid.
The Otoyol is the national network of controlled-access highways in Turkey. The network spans 2,542 kilometres (1,580 mi) and was first opened in 1973. Another term for the system is Otoban, which is a popular but unofficial term transcribed from the German word autobahn. The term Otoyol translates to motorway while the literal meaning is auto-route.
Eribolum or Eribolon, or Eribolus or Eribolos (Ἐρίβωλος), or Eriboia (Ἐριβοία), was a port town of ancient Bithynia, on the Sinus Astacenus near Nicomedia. It appears in the Tabula Peutingeriana under the name of Eribulo, south of the bay of Astacus, with the numeral XII, and north of Nicaea; the figure of a house in the Tabula indicates a town, perhaps with warm springs. It is Hyribolum in the Jerusalem Itinerary. Cassius Dio speaks of it as a naval station opposite to Nicomedia. After the Battle of Antioch, the Roman emperor Macrinus fled to Eribolum seeking passage westwards while avoiding the large port of Nicomedia whose governor was in favour of the emperor Heliogabalus.
Arbeila was a town of ancient Bithynia on the coast of the Sinus Astacenus west of Nicomedia. Its name does not appear in ancient authors but is inferred from epigraphic and other evidence.
|This Turkey-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|