|King of Northumbria|
|Reign||c. 883 – 24 August 895 (or perhaps 894)|
|Successor||Sigfroðr or Knútr (or both)|
|Died||24 August 895 (or perhaps 894)|
GuthredHardacnutsson (Old Norse: Guðrøðr; Latin : Guthfridus; born c.844 - died 24 August 895 AD) was the Christian king of Viking Northumbria from circa 883 until his death.
The first known king of Viking York, Halfdan, was expelled in 877. In c. 883, Symeon of Durham's History of the Kings simply states, "Guthred, from a slave, was made king", but his History of the Church of Durham gives a longer account. Here he writes that after Halfdan was driven out:
During this time the [Viking] army, and such of the inhabitants as survived, being without a king, were insecure; whereupon the blessed Cuthbert himself appeared in a vision to abbot Eadred [of the monastery at Carlisle]...[and] addressed him in the following words:—"Go to the army of the Danes," he said, "and announce to them that you are come as my messenger; and ask where you can find a lad named Guthred, the son of Hardacnut, whom they sold to a widow. Having found him, and paid the widow the price of his liberty, let him be brought forward before the whole aforesaid army; and my will and pleasure is, that he be elected and appointed king at Oswiesdune, (that is, Oswin's hill), and let the bracelet be placed upon his right arm.
It is not clear whether Guthfrith was a Christian, but his relations with the community of Saint Cuthbert, which was a major force in the former Bernicia, and which had lain outside the influence of Halfdan, whose authority was limited to the former Deira —approximately Yorkshire —were good. He granted much land between the River Tyne and the River Wear to the community. This had once belonged to the Wearmouth-Jarrow monastery, and formed the core lands of the church of Durham. Other lands, at the mouth of the River Tees, Guthred allowed Eadred to purchase for the church.
Symeon recounts that Guthred faced a large invasion by the Scots, which was defeated with the aid of Saint Cuthbert.
Guthred died on 24 August 895 (or perhaps 894) and was buried at York Minster.
Æthelweard the historian, whose tenth-century Chronicon is a more reliable source for this period than the later works of Symeon,[ according to whom? ] records that in 895:
There also died Guthfrith. king of the Northumbrians, on the feast of the apostle St Bartholomew [24 August]; his body is entombed in the city of York in the chief church.
Guthred appears as a character in Bernard Cornwell's The Saxon Stories series, figuring particularly in The Lords of the North (2006).
He is portrayed by Thure Lindhardt in the TV adaptation, The Last Kingdom .
In Total War Saga: Thrones of Britannia, Guthred (spelled Guthfrid in the game) leads the playable faction of Northymbre.
Northumbria was an early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdom in what is now Northern England and south-east Scotland.
Eric Haraldsson, nicknamed Eric Bloodaxe, also known as Eirik fratrum interfector was a 10th-century Norwegian ruler. It is widely speculated that he had short-lived terms as King of Norway and twice as King of Northumbria.
The Battle of Brunanburh was fought in 937 between Æthelstan, King of England, and an alliance of Olaf Guthfrithson, King of Dublin; Constantine II, King of Scotland, and Owain, King of Strathclyde. The battle is often cited as the point of origin for English nationalism: historians such as Michael Livingston argue that "the men who fought and died on that field forged a political map of the future that remains [in modernity], arguably making the Battle of Brunanburh one of the most significant battles in the long history not just of England, but of the whole of the British Isles."
Amlaíb mac Sitric, commonly called Amlaíb Cuarán, was a 10th-century Norse-Gael who was King of Northumbria and Dublin. His byname, cuarán, is usually translated as "sandal". His name appears in a variety of anglicized forms, including Olaf Cuaran, Anlaf Sihtricson and Olaf Sihtricson, particularly in relation to his short-lived rule in York. He was the last of the Uí Ímair to play a major part in the politics of the British Isles.
Scandinavian York or Danish York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings; in particular, it is used to refer to York, the city controlled by these kings.
Wulfstan was Archbishop of York between 931 and 952. He is often known as Wulfstan I, to separate him from Wulfstan II, Archbishop of York.
Ælla was King of Northumbria, a kingdom in medieval England, during the middle of the 9th century. Sources on Northumbrian history in this period are limited, and so Ælla's ancestry is not known and the dating of the beginning of his reign is questionable.
Alhred or Alchred was king of Northumbria from 765 to 774. He had married Osgifu, either the daughter of Oswulf, granddaughter of Eadberht Eating, or Eadberht's daughter, and was thus related by marriage to Ecgbert, Archbishop of York. A genealogy survives which makes Alhred a descendant of Ida of Bernicia through a son named Eadric.
Gospatric or Cospatric, , was Earl of Northumbria, or of Bernicia, and later lord of sizable estates around Dunbar. His male-line descendants held the Earldom of Dunbar, later known as the Earldom of March, in south-east Scotland until 1435, and the Lordship and Earldom of Home from 1473 until the present day.
Eadwulf or Eadulf was a ruler in Northumbria in the early tenth century. A genealogy in the text De Northumbria post Britannos recording the ancestry of Waltheof Earl of Northampton, suggests that Osulf was the son of Eadwulf, the ′King of the Northern English′. This goes on to say that Eadwulf was the son of Æthelthryth daughter of Ælla, King of Northumbria.
Ealdred was a ruler of at least part of the former kingdom of Bernicia in northern Northumbria in the early tenth century, and the son of Eadwulf.
Osberht was king of Northumbria in the middle of the 9th century. Sources on Northumbrian history in this period are limited. Osberht's descent is not known and the dating of his reign is problematic.
Ricsige was King of Northumbria from 873 to 876. He became king after Ecgberht I was overthrown and fled, with Wulfhere, Archbishop of York, to Mercia.
Ecgberht was a king in Northumbria in the late Ninth Century. Very little is known of his reign.
Events from the 10th century in the Kingdom of England.
Eadred Lulisc or Eadred of Carlisle is the abbot of Carlisle recorded by the Historia de Sancto Cuthberto. The Historia gives the abbot central place in the election of Guthred as king of Northumbria by the Viking army based in Yorkshire, and that subsequently Eadred purchased land from him, using it to endow the bishopric of St Cuthbert. The Historia also related that he and Eardwulf, Bishop of Lindisfarne, moved the body of St Cuthbert away from its previous base at Lindisfarne, tried to take it to Ireland, but failed and took it back to the east, first to Crayke and then to Chester-le-Street.
The Historia de Sancto Cuthberto is a historical compilation finished some time after 1031. It is an account of the history of the bishopric of St Cuthbert—based successively at Lindisfarne, Norham, Chester-le-Street and finally Durham—from the life of St Cuthbert himself onwards. The latest event documented is a grant by King Cnut, c. 1031. The work is a cartulary chronicle recording grants and losses of property as well as miracles of retribution, under a loose narrative of temporal progression. The text survives in three manuscripts, the earliest of which dates from around 1100. The original version of the text is not thought to be extant; rather, all surviving manuscripts are thought to be copies of an earlier but lost exemplar. The Historia is one of the sources for the histories produced at Durham in the early 12th century, particularly the Historia Regum and Symeon of Durham's Libellus de Exordio.
Siefredus was a Norse King of Northumbria. Numismatic evidence suggests he ruled from around 895 until 900, succeeding Guthfrith.
Ingwær was a Norse King of Northumbria. According to Æthelweard's Chronicon he was a co-king of Northumbria along with his brothers Eowils and Halfdan, though the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle does not mention him. By Æthelweard's account he died at the Battle of Tettenhall alongside his brothers in 910.
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