|Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd|
|Princess consort of Deheubarth|
Aberffraw, Ynys Môn, Kingdom of Gwynedd
|Died||1136 (aged 35–36)|
Kidwelly Castle, Cydweli, Wales
|Spouse||Gruffydd ap Rhys, Prince of Deheubarth|
|Issue||Morgan ap Gruffydd |
Maelgwyn ap Gruffydd
Gwladus ferch Gruffydd
Nest ferch Gruffydd
Owain ap Gruffydd
Maredudd ap Gruffydd
Rhys ap Gruffydd
Sion ap Gruffydd
|Father||Gruffudd ap Cynan|
|Mother||Angharad ferch Owain|
Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd (Gwenllian, daughter of Gruffydd; c. 1100 – 1136) was Princess consort of Deheubarth in Wales, and married to Gruffydd ap Rhys, Prince of Deheubarth. Gwenllian was the daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan (1055–1137), Prince of Gwynedd and Angharad ferch Owain, and a member of the princely Aberffraw family of Gwynedd. Gwenllian's "patriotic revolt" and subsequent death in battle at Kidwelly Castle contributed to the Great Revolt of 1136.
There are several notable artistic depictions of Gwenllian, often depicting her with a sword in hand, or riding a chariot into battle in the style of Boudicca. She is sometimes confused with Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, who lived two centuries later.
Gwenllian was the youngest daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan, Prince of Gwynedd, and his wife, Angharad. She was born on Ynys Môn at the family seat at Aberffraw, and was the youngest of eight children; four older sisters: Mared, Rhiannell, Susanna, and Annest, and three older brothers: Cadwallon, Owainand Cadwaladr. She was the great-great-great-granddaughter of Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig, High King of Ireland.
Gwenllian grew to be strikingly beautiful. After Gruffydd ap Rhys, the Prince of Deheubarth, ventured to Gwynedd around 1113 to meet her father, Gwenllian and Deheubarth's prince became romantically involved and eloped.She married Gruffydd ap Rhys shortly after 1116. Gwenllian and Gruffydd had the following children:
Gwenllian joined her husband at his family seat of Dinefwr in Deheubarth. Deheubarth was struggling against the Norman invasion in South Wales, with Norman, English, and Flemish colonists in footholds throughout the country. While the conflict between the Normans and the Welsh continued, the princely family were often displaced, with Gwenllian joining her husband in mountainous and forested strongholds.From here, she and Gruffydd ap Rhys led retaliatory strikes, aka "lightning raids" against Norman-held positions in Deheubarth.
By 1136 an opportunity arose for the Welsh to recover lands lost to the Marcher Lords when Stephen de Blois displaced his cousin, Empress Matilda, from succeeding her father to the English throne the year prior, sparking the Anarchy in England.The usurpation and conflict it caused eroded central authority in England. The revolt began in South Wales, as Hywel ap Maredudd, Lord of Brycheiniog ( Brecknockshire ), gathered his men and marched to Gower, defeating the Norman and English colonists there at the Battle of Llwchwr. Inspired by Hywel of Brycheiniog's success, Gruffydd ap Rhys hastened to meet with Gruffudd ap Cynan of Gwynedd, his father-in-law, to enlist his aid in the revolt.
While her husband was in Gwynedd seeking an alliance with her father against the Normans, Maurice de Londres and other Normans led raids against Deheubarth's Welsh and Gwenllian was compelled to raise an army for their defence.In a battle fought near Kidwelly Castle, Gwenllian's army was routed, she was captured in battle and beheaded by the Normans. In the battle her son Morgan was also slain and another son, Maelgwyn captured and executed.
Though defeated, her patriotic revolt inspired others in South Wales to rise.The Welsh of Gwent, led by Iowerth ab Owain (grandson of Caradog ap Gruffydd, Gwent's Welsh ruler displaced by the Norman invasions), ambushed and slew Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare, the Norman lord who controlled Ceredigion.
When word reached Gwynedd of Gwenllian's death and the revolt in Gwent, Gwenllian's brothers Owain and Cadwaladr invaded Norman controlled Ceredigion, taking Llanfihangel, Aberystwyth, and Llanbadarn.
Gwenllian's actions have been compared with those of another Celtic leader: Boadicea (Buddug). Gwenllian is also the only woman of the medieval period who is known to have led a Welsh army into battle. The field where the battle is believed to have taken place, close to Kidwelly Castle and north of the town, is known as Maes Gwenllian (Welsh : Field of Gwenllian). A spring in the field is also named after her, supposedly welling up on the spot where she died.
For centuries after her death, Welshmen cried-out Revenge for Gwenllian when engaging in battle.Gwenllian and her husband also harassed Norman, English, and Flemish colonists in Deheubarth, taking goods and money and redistributed them among the Deheubarth Welsh who were themselves dispossessed by those colonizers, like a pair of "Robin Hoods of Wales", as historian and author Philip Warner writes.
Gwenllian's youngest son went on to become a notable leader of Deheubarth, The Lord Rhys.
Dr Andrew Breeze has argued that Gwenllian could have been the author of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi.
|16. Idwal ap Meurig ap Idwal Foel|
|8. Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig|
|4. Cynan ab Iago|
|2. Gruffudd ap Cynan|
|20. Sigtrygg Silkbeard|
|10. Amlaíb mac Sitriuc|
|21. Sláine daughter of Brian Boru|
|5. Ragnhilda of Ireland|
|1. Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd|
|24. Einion ab Owain|
|12. Edwin ab Einion|
|6. Owain ab Edwin|
|3. Angharad ferch Owain|
Rhys ap Gruffydd or ap Gruffudd was the ruler of the kingdom of Deheubarth in south Wales from 1155 to 1197. Today, he is commonly known as The Lord Rhys, in Welsh Yr Arglwydd Rhys, although this title may have not been used in his lifetime. He usually used the title "Proprietary Prince of Deheubarth" or "Prince of South Wales", but two documents have been discovered in which he uses the title "Prince of Wales" or "Prince of the Welsh". Rhys was one of the most successful and powerful Welsh princes, and, after the death of Owain Gwynedd of Gwynedd in 1170, the dominant power in Wales.
Owain ap Gruffudd was King of Gwynedd, North Wales, from 1137 until his death in 1170, succeeding his father Gruffudd ap Cynan. He was called "Owain the Great" and the first to be styled "Prince of Wales". He is considered to be the most successful of all the North Welsh princes prior to his grandson, Llywelyn the Great. He became known as Owain Gwynedd to distinguish him from the contemporary king of Powys Wenwynwyn, Owain ap Gruffydd ap Maredudd, who became known as Owain Cyfeiliog.
Gruffudd ap Cynan, sometimes written as Gruffydd ap Cynan, was King of Gwynedd from 1081 until his death in 1137. In the course of a long and eventful life, he became a key figure in Welsh resistance to Norman rule, and was remembered as King of all Wales. As a descendant of Rhodri Mawr, Gruffudd ap Cynan was a senior member of the princely House of Aberffraw.
The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain. It very roughly covered the northern two-thirds of the modern county of Powys and part of today's English West Midlands. More precisely, and based on the Romano-British tribal lands of the Ordovices in the west and the Cornovii in the east, its boundaries originally extended from the Cambrian Mountains in the west to include the modern West Midlands region of England in the east. The fertile river valleys of the Severn and Tern are found here, and this region is referred to in later Welsh literature as "the Paradise of Powys".
Rhys ap Tewdwr was a king of Deheubarth in Wales and member of the Dinefwr dynasty, a branch descended from Rhodri the Great. He was born in the area which is now Carmarthenshire and died at the battle of Brecon in April 1093.
Aberystwyth Castle is a Grade I listed Edwardian fortress located in Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Mid Wales. It was built in response to the First Welsh War in the late 13th century, replacing an earlier fortress located a mile to the south. During a national uprising by Owain Glyndŵr, the Welsh captured the castle in 1404, but it was recaptured by the English four years later. In 1637 it became a Royal mint by Charles I, and produced silver shillings. The castle was slighted by Oliver Cromwell in 1649.
Gruffydd ap Rhys was Prince of Deheubarth, in Wales. His sister was the Princess Nest ferch Rhys. He was the father of Rhys ap Gruffydd, known as 'The Lord Rhys', who was one of the most successful rulers of Deheubarth during this period.
Madog ap Maredudd was the last prince of the entire Kingdom of Powys, Wales and for a time held the Fitzalan Lordship of Oswestry.
Maredudd ap Gruffydd (1131–1155) was a prince of the kingdom of Deheubarth in Southwest Wales.
This article is about the particular significance of the century 1201–1300 to Wales and its people.
This article is about the particular significance of the century 1101–1200 to Wales and its people.
This article is about the particular significance of the century 1001–1100 to Wales and its people.
The history of Gwynedd in the High Middle Ages is a period in the History of Wales spanning the 11th through the 13th centuries. Gwynedd, located in the north of Wales, eventually became the most dominant of Welsh principalities during this period. Distinctive achievements in Gwynedd include further development of Medieval Welsh literature, particularly poets known as the Beirdd y Tywysogion associated with the court of Gwynedd; the reformation of bardic schools; and the continued development of Cyfraith Hywel. All three of these further contributed to the development of a Welsh national identity in the face of Anglo-Norman encroachment of Wales.
The House of Aberffraw is a historiographical and genealogical term historians use to illustrate the clear line of succession from Rhodri the Great of Wales through his eldest son Anarawd.
Ferch may refer to:
Angharad ferch Llywelyn was a daughter of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of Wales. The identity of her mother is uncertain; but several later genealogical sources give Llywelyn's consort Joan as her mother. She is almost absent from contemporary records; however, she is mentioned in a document dated 1260, the year of her death and in sources recorded as married to Maelgwn Fychan.
Angharad ferch Owain (1065–1162) was the wife of Gruffudd ap Cynan, a king of Gwynedd.
Cadwallon ap Gruffydd was the eldest son of Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd.
Maurice de Londres was an Anglo-Norman noble. He was a son of William de Londres, who was one of the Twelve Knights of Glamorgan, and his wife Matilda.