Hämeenlinna

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Hämeenlinna

Tavastehus
City
Hämeenlinnan kaupunki
Tavastehus stad
Lento 13.12.2007 070.jpg
Aerial view of the city centre of Hämeenlinna.
Hameenlinna.vaakuna.svg
Coat of arms
Hameenlinna.sijainti.Suomi.2020.svg
Location of Hämeenlinna in Finland
Coordinates: 60°59′40″N24°28′00″E / 60.99444°N 24.46667°E / 60.99444; 24.46667 Coordinates: 60°59′40″N24°28′00″E / 60.99444°N 24.46667°E / 60.99444; 24.46667
CountryFlag of Finland.svg  Finland
Region Kanta-Hame.vaakuna.svg Kanta-Häme
Sub-region Hämeenlinna sub-region
Charter 1639
Government
   City manager Timo Kenakkala
Area
 (2018-01-01) [1]
  Total2,031.53 km2 (784.38 sq mi)
  Land1,785.76 km2 (689.49 sq mi)
  Water245.79 km2 (94.90 sq mi)
Area rank 34th largest in Finland
Population
 (2021-03-31) [2]
  Total67,864
  Rank 14th largest in Finland
  Density38/km2 (100/sq mi)
Population by native language
[3]
   Finnish 97.5% (official)
   Swedish 0.3%
  Others2.2%
Population by age
[4]
  0 to 1414.5%
  15 to 6459.3%
  65 or older26.2%
Time zone UTC+02:00 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Municipal tax rate [5] 21%
Website www.hameenlinna.fi

Hämeenlinna (Finnish:  [ˈhæmeːnˌlinːɑ] ; Swedish : Tavastehus; Karelian : Hämienlinna; Latin : Tavastum or Croneburgum [6] ) is a city and municipality of about 68,000 inhabitants [2] in the heart of the historical province of Tavastia and the modern province of Kanta-Häme in the south of Finland. Hämeenlinna is the oldest inland city of Finland and was one of the most important Finnish cities until the 19th century. It still remains an important regional center.

Contents

Hämeenlinna is the birthplace of composer Jean Sibelius. Today, it belongs to the region of Tavastia Proper (Kanta-Häme), and before 2010 it was the residence city for the Governor of the province of Southern Finland. Nearby cities include the capital Helsinki (98 km or 61 mi), Tampere (73 km or 45 mi) and Lahti (72 km or 45 mi), the regional center of Päijänne Tavastia (Päijät-Häme).

The medieval Häme Castle (Hämeen linna) is located in the city. The municipalities of Hauho, Kalvola, Lammi, Renko and Tuulos were consolidated with Hämeenlinna on 1 January 2009; with these municipal associations, the Hattula municipality is almost completely surrounded by Hämeenlinna.

Geography

View of Lake Vanajavesi, next to Hameenlinna. The Tavastia Castle is visible to the right. Hameenlinna lake vanajavesi.jpg
View of Lake Vanajavesi, next to Hämeenlinna. The Tavastia Castle is visible to the right.

There are a total of 339 lakes in whole or in part in the area of the city of Hämeenlinna. The largest of them are Lake Vanajavesi, Lake Kukkia and Lake Kuohijärvi. [7] The main features of the Hämeenlinna landscape are the Häme Lake Plateau, the Vanajavesi Valley and the Kanta-Häme Grove Center. In many places, the landscapes are marked by the prosperous Tavastian agricultural culture. [8] [9]

History

There was a settlement called Vanaja by the Lake Vanajavesi where the city now stands since the Viking Age. The castle was built in the late 13th century to secure Swedish power in central Finland. A village was established near Häme Castle to provide services and goods to its inhabitants.

The village was granted city rights in 1639 and soon after that the King of Sweden moved it one kilometre (0.6 miles) south to the hill on which it still stands. The city is known for its schools and academies where many famous Finns have studied. Schools, government and the military have characterised the life of Hämeenlinna throughout history. Finland's first railway line, the Finnish Main Railway  [ fi ] (Finnish : Suomen päärata, Swedish : Finlands stambanan), opened between Hämeenlinna and Helsinki in 1862. [10] The current Hämeenlinna railway station (Rautatieasema in Finnish) was built in 1921.

Demographics

People with a foreign background
Country of originPopulation (2017)
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 485 (0.72%)
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 484 (0.72%)
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 352 (0.53%)
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 278 (0.41%)
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 218 (0.33%)
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia 208 (0.31%)
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 206 (0.31%)
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 141 (0.21%)
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 130 (0.19%)
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  DR Congo 106 (0.16%)

Notable natives or residents

Hameenlinna: Sibelius House Hameenlinna Sibelius House 1.jpg
Hämeenlinna: Sibelius House

Economy

Goodman Shopping Centre Hameenlinna linja-auto 4.jpg
Goodman Shopping Centre

The economic structure of Hämeenlinna is close to the national average. In 2015, there were 28,270 jobs in the city. Of these, 75% were in the service sector, 3% in primary production (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) and 21% in processing. The share of the unemployed was 13,6%. [11]

Largest employers (by number of employees) [12]

Culture

Food

In the 1980s, the following dishes were named Hämeenlinna's traditional cuisine: as a daily meal, smoked ham and sourdough; as a festive meal, the herring wrapped in rye dough, i.e. "fish bread", buttermilk and beer, and the riistansylttääjän lintupaisti, which means pheasant stuffed almonds with potato and apple slices. [13]

Sport

Transport

Distances to other places

Cities

  • Turku – 141 kilometres (88 mi)
  • Helsinki – 100 kilometres (62 mi)
  • Tampere – 75 kilometres (47 mi)
  • Lahti – 74 kilometres (46 mi)
  • Hyvinkää – 49 kilometres (30 mi)

Former municipal centers

  • Hauho – 35 kilometres (22 mi)
  • Lammi – 35 kilometres (22 mi)
  • Tuulos – 25 kilometres (16 mi)
  • Kalvola – 20 kilometres (12 mi)
  • Renko – 15 kilometres (9.3 mi)

International relations

October sunset - Hameenlinna October sunset - Hameenlinna.jpg
October sunset - Hämeenlinna

Twin towns – Sister cities

The castle Hameenlinna.JPG
The castle

Hämeenlinna is twinned with: [14]

See also

Related Research Articles

Tavastia (historical province)

Tavastia is a historical province in the south of Finland. It borders Finland Proper, Satakunta, Ostrobothnia, Savonia and Uusimaa.

Häme is the name of a geographical region in Finland, associated with the Tavastians, or Häme people (hämäläiset), a subgroup of the Finnish people. The precise area referred to can vary depending on the context.

Southern Finland Province Place in Finland

Southern Finland was a province of Finland from 1997 to 2009. It bordered the provinces of Western Finland and Eastern Finland. It also bordered the Gulf of Finland and Russia.

Asikkala Municipality in Päijänne Tavastia, Finland

Asikkala is a municipality of Finland. Its seat is in Vääksy, at the shores of the Lake Päijänne. It is located in the province of Southern Finland and is part of the Päijänne Tavastia region.

The former Province of Southern Finland in Finland was divided into six regions, 16 sub-regions, and 88 municipalities.

Kanta-Häme Region in Tavastia, Finland

Kanta-Häme, sometimes referred to as Tavastia Proper is a region of Finland. The region is also sometimes called the Häme region. It borders the regions of Southwest Finland, Pirkanmaa, Päijät-Häme, and Uusimaa.

Hattula Municipality in Tavastia Proper, Finland

Hattula is a municipality of Finland. It is part of the Tavastia Proper region and until 2010 it was located in the province of Southern Finland. Hattula is almost completely surrounded by Hämeenlinna, only in the north it shares the border with Valkeakoski and Pälkäne on the Pirkanmaa region side.

Hauho Former municipality in Tavastia Proper, Finland

Hauho is a former municipality of Finland. It was situated in the province of Southern Finland and is today a part of the region of Tavastia Proper.

Hausjärvi Municipality in Tavastia Proper, Finland

Hausjärvi is a municipality of Finland. Its seat is in Oitti.

Iitti Municipality in Päijänne Tavastia, Finland

Iitti is a municipality of Finland. It seats is in Kausala.

Janakkala Municipality in Tavastia Proper, Finland

Janakkala is a municipality of Finland. Its administrative centre is in Turenki, which is often erroneously shown on maps as being "Janakkala". Janakkala is located along the Highway 3 (E12) in the province of Southern Finland and is part of the Tavastia Proper region. To the south, Janakkala shares a boundary with Riihimäki, the Northern neighbour being Hämeenlinna. It is 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from Turenki to Hämeenlinna, 94 kilometres (58 mi) to Tampere and 96 kilometres (60 mi) to Helsinki.

Hämeenkoski Former municipality in Päijänne Tavastia, Finland

Hämeenkoski is a former municipality of Finland. It was merged to the municipality of Hollola on 1 January 2016.

Lammi

Lammi is a former municipality of Finland. It was consolidated with Hämeenlinna on 2009-01-01.

Tavastians ethnic group

Tavastians are a historic people and a modern subgroup (heimo) of the Finnish people. They live in areas of the historical province of Tavastia (Häme) and speak Tavastian dialects.

Häme Castle

Tavastia Castle or Häme Castle is a medieval castle in Tavastia Proper, Finland. It is located in Hämeenlinna, the city between Helsinki and Tampere. Originally located on an island, the castle now sits on the coast of lake Vanajavesi. The castle consists of a central keep and surrounding curtain walls, enclosed by a moat. The keep originally had five turrets, but only two are apparent today. The curtain wall has a gatehouse, battlements, an octagonal brick corner turret, and a round gun turret. The lower tiers of the keep and curtain wall are of masoned granite and the upper tiers are red brickwork.

Vanaja is a former municipality of Finland. It was located in Tavastia Proper about 100 kilometres (60 mi) north of Helsinki. It is also speculated that it might have been the name for an Iron Age and early Middle Ages settlement found opposite to the Häme Castle.

Finnish national road 3

Finnish national road 3 is a highway in Finland between Helsinki and Vaasa via Hämeenlinna and Tampere. The road is 424 kilometres (263 mi) long and it is part of the European route E12. 180 kilometres (110 mi) of the highway is motorway, connecting Helsinki to Tampere. North of Tampere, the road is mostly two-lane road, with a share of 2+1 road. The busiest point on Highway 3 is in Helsinki, north of the Ring I junction, where the average traffic volume is about 90,000 vehicles per day.

Vanajavesi

Vanajavesi is a large lake in southern Finland, in the provinces of Pirkanmaa and Kanta-Häme. It is part of the Kokemäenjoki basin. The lake gathers waters from a wide area in the regions of Pirkanmaa, Tavastia Proper and parts of the Päijänne Tavastia region.

Hämeen Härkätie

Hämeen Härkätie is an ancient road in Finland, connecting Turku in Finland Proper to Hämeenlinna in Tavastia Proper. The 162 kilometers long road has been in use at the latest in the 9th century and in many parts it has been in use since. Today, Finnish national road 10 fulfills the same purpose as the connection between Turku and Hämeenlinna, but it follows the original route only near Turku.

Sipi Antinpoika, was a Finnish Pagan practitioner, who was executed for witchcraft after having performed a Pagan ritual.

References

  1. "Area of Finnish Municipalities 1.1.2018" (PDF). National Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  2. 1 2 "Preliminary population structure by area, 2021M01*-2021M03*". StatFin (in Finnish). Statistics Finland . Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  3. "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  4. "Population according to age (1-year) and sex by area and the regional division of each statistical reference year, 2003-2020". StatFin. Statistics Finland . Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  5. "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2021" (PDF). Tax Administration of Finland. 1 December 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  6. J. G. Th. Graesse: Orbis Latinus (Dresdae: Schönfeld, 1861; 1909. Brunsvici, 1972, 3 voll.) (in Latin)
  7. "Hämeenlinna". Järviwiki (in Finnish). Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  8. Jutila, Heli; Harju, Hannu (2005). "Kalvolan luonto-opas" (PDF). Hämeenlinnan seudun kansanterveystyön kuntayhtymän ympäristöosasto, NAPA-projekti (in Finnish). Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  9. Jutila, Heli; Harju, Hannu (2004). "Rengon luonto-opas" (PDF). Hämeenlinnan seudun kansanterveystyön kuntayhtymän ympäristöosasto, NAPA-projekti (in Finnish). Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  10. "Ensimmäinen Juna Hämeenlinnaan". Hämäläinen (in Finnish). 31 January 1862. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  11. "Kuntien avainluvut". Tilastokeskus (in Finnish). Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  12. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 December 2006. Retrieved 13 November 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), Taskutietoa Hämeenlinnasta, a factbook published by the city of Hämeenlinna (PDF download, in Finnish)
  13. Kolmonen, Jaakko 1988. Kotomaamme ruoka-aitta: Suomen, Karjalan ja Petsamon pitäjäruoat, s. 67. Helsinki: Patakolmonen Ky. (in Finnish)
  14. "Ystävyyskaupungit" (in Finnish). City of Hämeenlinna. Retrieved 22 August 2019.