This article needs additional citations for verification .(August 2015)
|Hódmezővásárhely Megyei Jogú Város|
Hotel Black Eagle
|• Mayor||Péter Márki-Zay (Independent)|
|• Total||487.98 km2 (188.41 sq mi)|
|• Density||97.87/km2 (253.5/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code||(+36) 62|
Hódmezővásárhely (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈhoːdmɛzøːvaːʃaːrhɛj] ( listen ); in Serbian : Вашархељ, romanized: Vašarhelj, in Romanian : Ionești) is a city in south-east Hungary, on the Great Hungarian Plain, at the meeting point of the Békés-Csanádi Ridge and the clay grassland surrounding the river Tisza.
The city's name – which literally translates to Marketplace on the Beavers' Field – was first mentioned after the unification of two Árpád-era villages, Hód and Vásárhely – the former getting its name after Beaver's lake, an apocope term of Hód-tó (nowadays marking one of the city's districts and the canal Hód-tavi-csatorna), the latter Vásárhely coming from the medieval legal term marking the settlements with the right of hosting markets, literally meaning Market town . The interim term mező, which also refers to the city's state as an oppidum – a city with certain rights given by its feudal ruler – was later added to the town and its name.
There is evidence of human habitation close to the modern town dating back 6,000 years, and archaeological evidence suggests that the area has been continuously inhabited since then by a variety of different cultures. Neolithic dwellings recessed into the ground stored domestic items such as plates, as well as the Kökénydombi Vénusz fertility symbol. Remains have also been found from the Copper Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age and the great migrations period. The town's archaeological treasures can now be seen at the permanent archaeological exhibition of the Tornyai János Museum.
At the end of the 8th century, the Avars found mostly remnants of the nomadic population and of the agrarian and animal-breeding Slavs.
Before the Mongol invasion of Hungary, at least seven villages with churches existed in the area. After the devastation caused by the Mongols, more villages were established, but these later became victims of the Turkish invasion. The territories of these villages were later absorbed by Hódmezővásárhely as the town grew. Evidence of more than twenty villages and churches from the Middle Ages have been found.
The present town of Hódmezővásárhely developed in the 15th century when Hód, Vásárhely, Tarján, and Ábrány, once small villages, became joined and the market town was established. The town is known to have been called Hódvásárhely in 1437. The town's location next to the road leading from Csongrád to Csanád was advantageous for the development of trade. In the Middle Ages markets, and particularly the trade in livestock, fuelled its growth.
Hódmezővásárhely was part of Csongrád comitatus. Part of that county was under Turkish control after 1542. The region between the Tisza and the Danube belonged to the Ottoman Empire, while the area to the east of the Tisza, including Hódmezővásárhely, belonged to Transylvania. After the military expedition of 1552, the whole of Csongrád county was taken by the Turks. The entire area was devastated by the Turkish offensive in 1566. The region was occupied by the Turks for the next 150 years.
At the time of the Rákóczi war of independence (1703–1711), the town was under the control of Count Miklós Bercsényi. The royal court confiscated the estate and gave it to imperial general Leopold Schlick. During the war of independence, Miklós Bercsényi seized the town back and gave it to the Kuruts general Sándor Károlyi for leasehold. The royal court in Vienna did not accept Károlyi's claim to the territory after the peace of Szatmár and he was only able to retrieve it by buying it back years later. From 1722 to 1818, when landowner jurisdiction was abolished, the Károlyi family possessed the town.
In the 1848–49 fights for freedom, Hódmezővásárhely played a significant part in national events. Lajos Kossuth reached the town on 3 October 1848 on his second recruiting trip. While there, he received the news that the Hungarian Army had been engaged in battle at Pákozd, and patriotic fervour gripped the town. Troops from Hódmezővásárhely took part in beating off the southern Serbian attacks.
After the control of the Theiss in the 1860s, the surrounding lakes and brooks dried up. The inner areas were progressively filled and the town's population increased.
Hódmezővásárhely seceded from the county in 1873 and received the independent municipals rights. The first signs of industrialisation were apparent from that time. In 1890 Hódmezővásárhely was the fourth largest Hungarian town with 55,475 inhabitants.
The modern picture of the town was established at the turn of the century. These decades were characterised by the construction of wells, dynamic building operations, and the construction of canals. 70 per cent of the population, however, was engaged in farming and animal breeding.
A typical system of settlement was established with a huge system of detached farms. Animal breeding still dominated the livelihood of the inhabitants. Rural animal breeding was characterised by economic efficiency. Quality horse breeding, which was partly an export product and partly demanded by the needs of agriculture, was profitable. Poultry and egg production for the markets also flourished. Animal breeding was gradually replaced by extensive growing of corn, which became the basis of the town's economy and employed large numbers of workers.
The First World War hindered the development of the town and its people suffered losses. The human costs of the war contributed to the social tension around this time which led to demonstrations in Vásárhely.
In the first decade of the Horthy era, there was a fairly good market for the town's agricultural products. Although the war and the occupation debilitated the economy of the town, the possibilities for the sale of the high-quality corn increased. Pork breeding grew, as did the export of poultry. Dozens of medium-scale factories sprung up, but the great world economic crisis demolished this new-found prosperity. Unemployment increased, until a new economic boom in the late 1930s.
The Second World War interrupted the development again. Soviet troops reached the town on 25 September 1944. Most of the powerful and well-off citizens escaped from Vásárhely. The war surged through the town on 8 October. The damage in human lives and buildings was not so huge as the damage to industrial equipment and infrastructure.
At the end of the 1960s giant factories were established. Full employment was realised but the town's industry proved inefficient. Political and economic bankruptcy, however, only emerged at the end of the 1980s.
After the transition in 1990, Hódmezővásárhely became a municipal town of county rank. After the municipal elections, its government was established.
The town is now a destination for foreign and domestic tourism. Museums, churches, triumphal wells, statues, parks, and a thermal swimming hall are notable attractions.
The most recent mayor of Hódmezővásárhely was István Almási (Fidesz-KDNP), but he died on 20 November 2017, leaving the position vacant. The independent candidate Péter Márki-Zay won the mayoral by-election on 25 February 2018. His unexpected victory against the Fidesz candidate received international attention and was seen as a possible indicator for a change in the Hungarian parliamentary election on 8 April 2018.The swing was not replicated in the parliamentary election.
The current mayor of Hódmezővásárhely is Péter Márki-Zay (Mindenki Magyarországa).
The local Municipal Assembly, elected at the 2019 local government elections, is made up of 15 members (1 Mayor, 10 Individual constituencies MEPs and 4 Compensation List MEPs) divided into this political parties and alliances:
|Party||Seats||Current Municipal Assembly|
|Mindenki Magyarországa-For a clean Vásárhely||10||M|
List of City Mayors from 1990:
|Member||Party||Term of office|
|János Lázár||Fidesz (-KDNP)||2002–2012|
The association football club, Hódmezővásárhelyi FC, is based in Hódmezővásárhely.
Hódmezővásárhely is twinned with:
The Tisza, Tysa or Tisa, is one of the main rivers of Central and Eastern Europe. Once, it was called "the most Hungarian river" because it flowed entirely within the Kingdom of Hungary. Today, it crosses several national borders.
Szeged is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád-Csanád county. The University of Szeged is one of the most distinguished universities in Hungary.
Csongrád-Csanád is the name of an administrative county in southern Hungary, straddling the river Tisza, on the border with Serbia and Romania. It shares borders with the Hungarian counties Bács-Kiskun County, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County and Békés. The administrative centre of Csongrád-Csanád county is Szeged. The county is also part of the Danube–Criș–Mureș–Tisa Euroregion.
Count István Imre Lajos Pál Tisza de Borosjenő et Szeged was a Hungarian politician, prime minister, political scientist, international lawyer, macroeconomist, member of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and champion duelist. The prominent event in his life was Austria-Hungary's entry into the First World War when he was prime minister for the second time. He was later assassinated during the Aster Revolution on 31 October 1918 - the same day that Hungary terminated its real union with Austria. Tisza supported the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary and was representative of the then liberal-conservative consent.
Kecskemét is a city in the central part of Hungary. It is the eighth-largest city in the country, and the county seat of Bács-Kiskun.
Nagykanizsa is a medium-sized city in Zala County in southwestern Hungary.
Szolnok is the county seat of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county in central Hungary. Its location on the banks of the Tisza river, at the heart of the Great Hungarian Plain, has made it an important cultural and economic crossroads for centuries.
Szentes is a town in south-eastern Hungary, Csongrád county, near the Tisza river. The town is a cultural and educational center of the region.
Count Mihály Ádám György Miklós Károlyi de Nagykároly, archaically English: Michael Adam George Nicholas Károlyi, or in short simple form: Michael Károlyi was a Hungarian politician who served as a leader of the short-lived and unrecognized First Hungarian Republic from 1918 to 1919. He served as Prime Minister between 1 and 16 November 1918 and as President between 16 November 1918 and 21 March 1919.
Csongrád is a town in Csongrád County in southern Hungary.
Csongrád was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory, which was smaller than that of present-day Csongrád-Csanád County, is now part of Hungary, except a very small area which belongs to Serbia. The capital of the county was Szentes.
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok is the name of an administrative county in Hungary. It lies in central Hungary and shares borders with the Hungarian counties Pest, Heves, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Hajdú-Bihar, Békés, Csongrád, and Bács-Kiskun. The rivers Tisza and Körös flow through the county. The capital of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county is Szolnok. Its area is 5582 km². The county is named after the Ossetians (Jasz) and Cumans (Kun) who settled there, along with Szolnok. The county was part of the Danube–Criș–Mureș–Tisa Euroregion between 1997 and 2004.
The Hungarian–Romanian War was fought between Hungary and Romania from 13 November 1918 to 3 August 1919. The conflict had a complex background, with often contradictory motivations for the parties involved.
János Lázár is a Hungarian politician and Member of Parliament. He was former leader of the Fidesz parliamentary group (2010–2012) and State Secretary, then Minister of Prime Minister's Office (2012–2018) in the cabinets of Viktor Orbán. In this capacity, he was regarded as de facto the second most powerful member of the cabinet, but lost political influence by 2018. He also served as Mayor of Hódmezővásárhely from 2002 to 2012.
Lilla Bodor, Hungarian painter.
The Danube–Criș–Mureș–Tisa Euroregion is a euroregion located in Hungary, Romania and Serbia. It is named after four rivers: Danube, Criș, Mureș and Tisa.
Szeged is a district in southern part of Csongrád County. Szeged is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Southern Great Plain Statistical Region.
Hungarian local elections were held in Hungary on 13 October 2019. Mayors and assembly members were elected for a term of 5 years.
Irma Keméndy was a Hungarian teacher who operated a girls' boarding school, and later a high school in Szeged. She opened one of the first normal schools in the area and taught for over 40 years in Hungary. She was the recipient of the Golden Crowned Cross of Merit of Austria-Hungary, in recognition of her social contributions.
Péter Márki-Zay is a Hungarian politician, marketer, economist and electrical engineer. He is the mayor of Hódmezővásárhely since 2018, as well as the cofounder of the Everybody's Hungary Movement.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hódmezővásárhely .|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hódmezővásárhely .|