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Hilda Doolittle
H.D. in Tendencies in Modern American Poetry, 1917 - cropped.jpg
H.D. circa 1925, photographed by Man Ray [2]
Born(1886-09-10)September 10, 1886
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, US
DiedSeptember 27, 1961(1961-09-27) (aged 75)
Zurich, Switzerland
Pen nameH.D.
  • Poet
  • novelist
  • memoirist
Alma mater Bryn Mawr College

Hilda Doolittle (September 10, 1886 – September 27, 1961) was an American poet, novelist, and memoirist, associated with the early 20th-century avant-garde Imagist group of poets, including Ezra Pound and Richard Aldington. She published under the pen name H.D.


Hilda was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in 1886, and grew up just outside Philadelphia in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, and attended Bryn Mawr College. She moved to London in 1911, where she played a central role within the then-emerging Imagist movement. Young and charismatic, she was championed by the modernist poet Ezra Pound, who was instrumental in building her career. From 1916 to 1917, she acted as the literary editor of the Egoist journal, while her poetry appeared in the English Review and the Transatlantic Review . During World War I, H.D. suffered the death of her brother and the breakup of her marriage to the poet Richard Aldington, [3] and these events weighed heavily on her later poetry. Imagist authority Glenn Hughes wrote that 'her loneliness cries out from her poems'. [4] She had a deep interest in Ancient Greek literature, and her poetry often borrowed from Greek mythology and classical poets. Her work is noted for its incorporation of natural scenes and objects, which are often used to evoke a particular feeling or mood.

She befriended Sigmund Freud during the 1930s, and became his patient in order to understand and express her bisexuality, her residual war trauma, her writing, and her spiritual experiences. [5] H.D. married once, and undertook a number of relationships with both men and women. She was unapologetic about her sexuality, and thus became an icon for both the LGBT rights and feminist movements when her poems, plays, letters and essays were rediscovered during the 1970s and 1980s.


Early life

H.D. was born on September 10, 1886, into the Moravian community in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. [6] [7] Her father, Charles Doolittle, was professor of astronomy at Lehigh University [8] and her mother, Helen (Wolle), was a Moravian with a strong interest in music. H.D. was their only surviving daughter in a family of five sons. [9] In 1896, Charles Doolittle was appointed Flower Professor of Astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania, and the family moved to a house in the Highland Park neighborhood of Upper Darby. She attended Philadelphia's Friends' Central High School, at Fifteenth and Race streets, graduating in 1905. In 1901, she met and befriended Ezra Pound, who was to play a major role both in her private life and her emergence as a writer. In 1905, Pound presented her with a sheaf of love poems under the collective title Hilda's Book. [10]

That year, H.D. attended Bryn Mawr College [11] to study Greek literature, but left after only three terms due to poor grades and the excuse of poor health. While at the college, she met poets Marianne Moore and William Carlos Williams. Her first published writings, stories for children, were published in The Comrade, a Philadelphia Presbyterian Church paper, between 1909 and 1913, mostly under the name Edith Gray. In 1907, she became engaged to Pound. Her father disapproved of her fiancé, [12] and by the time Pound left for Europe in 1908, the engagement had been called off. Around this time, H.D. started a relationship with a young female art student at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Frances Josepha Gregg. [13] After spending part of 1910 living in Greenwich Village, she sailed to Europe with Gregg and Gregg's mother in 1911. In Europe, H.D. began a more serious career as a writer. Her relationship with Gregg cooled, and she met a writing enthusiast named Brigit Patmore with whom she became involved in an affair. Patmore introduced H.D. to another poet, Richard Aldington.

H.D. Imagiste

H.D., c. 1921 Hilda 'H.D.' Doolittle.jpg
H.D., c. 1921

Soon after arriving in England, H.D. showed Pound some of her poems. He had already begun to meet with other poets at the Eiffel Tower restaurant in Soho. He was impressed by her poems' closeness to the ideas and principles he had been discussing with Aldington, with whom he had shared plans to reform contemporary poetry through free verse, the tanka and the tightness and conciseness of the haiku, and the removal of all unnecessary verbiage. In summer 1912, the three poets declared themselves the "three original Imagists", and set out their principles as:

  1. Direct treatment of the 'thing' whether subjective or objective.
  2. To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation.
  3. As regarding rhythm: to compose in the sequence of the musical phrase, not in the sequence of a metronome. [14] [15]

During a meeting with H.D. in a tea room near the British Museum that year, Pound appended the signature H.D. Imagiste to her poetry, creating a label that was to stick to the poet for most of her writing life. [16] However, H.D. told different versions of this story at various times, and during her career published under a variety of pseudonyms. [17] That same year Harriet Monroe started her magazine Poetry , and asked Pound to act as foreign editor. In October, he submitted three poems each by H.D. and Aldington under the rubric Imagiste. Aldington's poems were in the November issue of Poetry, and H.D.'s poems "Hermes of the Ways", "Orchard" and "Epigram" in the January 1913 issue. Imagism as a movement was launched with H.D. as its prime exponent.

The early models for the Imagist group were from Japan, and H.D. often visited the exclusive Print Room at the British Museum in the company of Richard Aldington and the curator and poet Laurence Binyon, in order to examine Nishiki-e prints that incorporated traditional Japanese verse. [18] [19] However, she also derived her way of making poems from her reading of Classical Greek literature and especially of Sappho, [20] an interest she shared with Aldington and Pound, each of whom produced versions of the Greek poet's work. In 1915, H.D. and Aldington launched the Poets' Translation Series, pamphlets of translations from Greek and Latin classics. H.D. worked on the plays by Euripides, publishing in 1916 a translation of choruses from Iphigeneia at Aulis , in 1919 a translation of choruses from Iphigeneia at Aulis and Hippolytus , an adaptation of Hippolytus called Hippolytus Temporizes (1927), a translation of choruses from The Bacchae and Hecuba (1931), and Euripides' Ion (1937) a loose translation of Ion . [21]

She continued her association with the group until the final issue of the Some Imagist Poets anthology in 1917. She and Aldington did most of the editorial work on the 1915 anthology. Her work also appeared in Aldington's Imagist Anthology 1930. All of her poetry up to the end of the 1930s was written in an Imagist mode, utilising spare use of language, [22] and a classical, austere purity. [23] This style of writing was not without its critics. In a special Imagist issue of The Egoist magazine in May 1915, the poet and critic Harold Monro called H.D.'s early work "petty poetry", denoting "either poverty of imagination or needlessly excessive restraint". [24]

"Oread", one of her earliest and best-known poems, which was first published in the 1915 anthology, illustrates this early style:

Whirl up, sea—
Whirl your pointed pines.
Splash your great pines
On our rocks.
Hurl your green over us—
Cover us with your pools of fir. [25]

World War I and after

44 Mecklenburgh Square HD Plaque.jpg
44 Mecklenburgh Square

H.D. married Aldington in 1913; however, their first and only child, a daughter, was stillborn in 1915. Aldington enlisted in the army. The couple became estranged, and he reportedly took a mistress in 1917. H.D. became involved in a close but platonic relationship with D. H. Lawrence. Her first book, Sea Garden, was published in 1916, and she was appointed assistant editor of The Egoist, replacing her husband. In 1918, her brother Gilbert was killed in action, and that March she moved into a cottage in Cornwall with the composer Cecil Gray, a friend of Lawrence. She became pregnant with Gray's child; [26] however, by the time she realised she was expecting, the relationship had cooled and Gray had returned to live in London. [27] When Aldington returned from active service he was noticeably traumatised, and he and H.D. later separated.

Close to the end of the war, H.D. met the wealthy English novelist Bryher (Annie Winifred Ellerman). They lived together until 1946, and although both took numerous other partners, Bryher remained her lover for the rest of H.D.'s life. In 1919, H.D. came close to death when she gave birth to her daughter Frances Perdita Aldington—although the father was not Aldington, but Gray—while suffering from war influenza. [28] During this time, her father, who had never recovered from Gilbert's death, died. In 1919, H.D. wrote one of her few known statements on poetics, [29] Notes on Thought and Vision, which was unpublished until 1982. [30] In this, she speaks of poets (herself included) as belonging to a kind of elite group of visionaries with the power to "turn the whole tide of human thought".

H.D. and Aldington attempted to salvage their relationship during this time, but he was suffering from the effects of his participation in the war (possibly post-traumatic stress disorder) and they became estranged, living completely separate lives, but not divorcing until 1938. They remained friends, however, for the rest of their lives. From 1920, her relationship with Bryher became closer, and the pair travelled in Egypt, Greece and the United States before eventually settling in Switzerland. Bryher entered a marriage of convenience in 1921 with Robert McAlmon, which allowed him to fund his publishing ventures in Paris by utilising some of her personal wealth for his Contact Press. [31] Both Bryher and H.D. slept with McAlmon during this time. Bryher and McAlmon divorced in 1927. [32]

Novels, films and psychoanalysis

In the early 1920s, H.D. began three projected cycles of novels. [33] The first, Magna Graeca, consists of Palimpsest (1921) and Hedylus (1928). The Magna Graeca novels use their classical settings to explore the poetic vocation, particularly as it applies to women in a patriarchal literary culture. The Madrigal cycle consists of HERmione , Bid Me to Live, Paint It Today and Asphodel, and is largely autobiographical, dealing with the development of the female artist and the conflict between heterosexual and lesbian desire. Kora and Ka and The Usual Star, two novellas from the Borderline cycle, were published in 1933. In this period, she also wrote Pilate's Wife, Mira-Mare and Nights.

During this period her mother had died, and Bryher had divorced her husband, only to marry H.D.'s new male lover, Kenneth Macpherson. H.D., Bryher and Macpherson lived together and traveled through Europe as what the poet and critic Barbara Guest termed in her biography of H.D. as a 'menagerie of three.' [34] Bryher and Macpherson adopted H.D.'s daughter, Perdita. [6] H.D. became pregnant in 1928, but chose to abort the pregnancy in November. Bryher and Macpherson set up the magazine Close Up (to which H.D. regularly contributed) as a medium for intellectual discussion of cinema. In 1927, the small independent film cinema group POOL or Pool Group was established (largely funded with Bryher's inheritance) and was managed by all three. [35] Only one POOL film survives in its entirety, Borderline (1930), which featured H.D. and Paul Robeson in the lead roles. In common with the Borderline novellas, the film explores extreme psychic states and their relationship to surface reality. As well as acting in this film, H.D. wrote an explanatory pamphlet to accompany it, a piece later published in Close Up. [36]

In 1933, H.D. traveled to Vienna to undergo analysis with Sigmund Freud. [37] She had an interest in Freud's theories as far back as 1909, when she read some of his works in the original German. [38] H.D. was referred by Bryher's psychoanalyst due to her apparent paranoia about the rise of Adolf Hitler which indicated another world war, an idea that H.D. found intolerable. The 'Great War' (World War I) had left her feeling shattered. She had lost her brother in action, while her husband suffered effects of combat experiences, and she believed that the onslaught of the war indirectly caused the death of her child with Aldington: she believed it was her shock at hearing the news about the RMS Lusitania that directly caused her child to be stillborn. [39] Writing on the Wall, her memoir about this psychoanalysis, was written concurrently with Trilogy and published in 1944; in 1956 it was republished with Advent, a journal of the analysis, under the title Tribute to Freud. [40]

World War II and after

H.D. and Bryher spent the duration of World War II in London. During this time, H.D. wrote The Gift, a memoir of her childhood and family life in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, which reflects on people and events in her background that helped shape her as a writer. [41] The Gift was eventually published in 1960 and 1982. [42] She also wrote Trilogy, published as The Walls do not Fall (1944), Tribute to the Angels (1945) and The Flowering of the Rod (1946). The opening lines of The Walls do not Fall clearly and immediately signal H.D.'s break with her earlier work:

An incident here and there,
and rails gone (for guns)
from your (and my) old town square. [43]

After the war, H.D. and Bryher no longer lived together, but remained in contact. H.D. moved to Switzerland where, in the spring of 1946, she suffered a severe mental breakdown, which resulted in her staying in a clinic until the autumn of that year. Apart from a number of trips to the States, H.D. spent the rest of her life in Switzerland. In the late 1950s, she underwent more treatment, this time with the psychoanalyst Erich Heydt. [44] At Heydt's prompting, she wrote End to Torment, a memoir of her relationship with Pound, who allowed the poems of Hilda's Book to be included when the book was published. Doolittle was one of the leading figures in the bohemian culture of London in the early decades of the century. Her later poetry explores traditional epic themes, such as violence and war, from a feminist perspective. H.D. was the first woman to be granted the American Academy of Arts and Letters medal. [11]

Later life and death

During the 1950s, H.D. wrote a considerable amount of poetry, most notably Helen in Egypt (written between 1952 and 1954), an examination of a male-centred epic poetry from a feminist point of view. She used Euripides's play Helen as a starting point for a reinterpretation of the basis of the Trojan War and, by extension, of war itself. [45] This work has been seen by some critics, including Jeffrey Twitchell-Waas, as H.D.'s response to Pound's Cantos , a work she greatly admired. Other poems from this period include Sagesse, Winter Love and Hermetic Definition. These three were published posthumously with the collective title Hermetic Definition (1972). The poem Hermetic Definition takes as its starting points her love for a man 30 years her junior and the line 'so slow is the rose to open' from Pound's Canto 106. Sagesse, written in bed after H.D. had broken her hip in a fall, serves as a kind of coda to Trilogy, being partly written in the voice of a young female Blitz survivor who finds herself living in fear of the atom bomb. Winter Love was written together with End to Torment and uses as narrator the Homeric figure of Penelope to restate the material of the memoir in poetic form. At one time, H.D. considered appending this poem as a coda to Helen in Egypt. [46]

H.D. visited the United States in 1960 to collect an American Academy of Arts and Letters medal. [47] Returning to Switzerland, she suffered a stroke in July 1961 and died a couple of months later in the Klinik Hirslanden in Zürich. [48] Her ashes were returned to Bethlehem, and were buried in the family plot in the Nisky Hill Cemetery on October 28, 1961. Her epitaph consists of the following lines from her early poem "Epitaph":

So you may say,
Greek flower; Greek ecstasy
reclaims forever
one who died
following intricate song's
lost measure. [49]


The rediscovery of H.D. began in the 1970s, and coincided with the emergence of a feminist criticism that found much to admire in the questioning of gender roles typical of her writings. [50] [51] Specifically, those critics who were challenging the standard view of English-language literary modernism based on the work of such male writers as Ezra Pound, TS Eliot and James Joyce, were able[ citation needed ] to restore H.D. to a more significant position in the history of that movement. Her writings have served as a model for a number of more recent women poets working in the modernist tradition, including the New York School poet Barbara Guest, the Anglo-American poet Denise Levertov, the Black Mountain poet Hilda Morley and the Language poet Susan Howe. [52] Her influence is not limited to female poets, and many male writers, including Robert Duncan [53] and Robert Creeley, [54] have acknowledged their debt. The Dutch poet H.C. ten Berge adapts parts of 'Winter Love' in his 2008 'Het vertrapte mysterie'.

Among her grandchildren was the author and Beatles biographer Nicholas Schaffner. [55]

See also





  1. "Hilda Doolittle". npg.si.edu. Retrieved January 14, 2020.
  2. "Hilda Doolittle". npg.si.edu. Retrieved January 14, 2020.
  3. Featherstone, Simon. "War Poetry: An Introductory Reader (Critical Readers in Theory & Practice)". Routledge, 1995. 164
  4. Hughes, Glenn, Imagism & the Imagists, Stanford University Press, 1931
  5. Bertram, Vicki. "Kicking Daffodils: Twentieth-century Women Poets". Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997. 39. ISBN   0-7486-0782-X
  6. 1 2 Scott, Bonnie Kime. "The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States". Oxford University Press, 1995.
  7. Zilboorg, p. 5
  8. Champion, Laurie; Sampath, Emmanuel Nelson. American Women Writers, 1900–1945: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2000. 87. ISBN   0-313-30943-4
  9. Gilbert, Sandra M.; Gubar, Susan (2007). The Norton Anthology Of Literature By Women. New York, NY: Norton. p. 280. ISBN   978-0-393-93014-6.
  10. "Selected Poetry of H. D. (Hilda Doolittle; 1886–1961) Archived February 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine ". Department of English, University of Toronto. Retrieved on October 6, 2007.
  11. 1 2 "H.D. and Bryher Papers, c. 1916–1972 Archived May 29, 2016, at the Wayback Machine ". Bryn Mawr: Bryn Mawr College Library. Retrieved on October 6, 2007.
  12. Nadel, Ira. "The Cambridge Introduction to Ezra Pound." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 5. ISBN   978-0-521-63069-6. OCLC 74523220
  13. "Doolittle, Hilda (1886–1961) Archived June 27, 2015, at the Wayback Machine ". New England Publishing Associates. Retrieved on October 5, 2007.
  14. Lan, Feng. "Ezra Pound and Confucianism: Remaking Humanism in the Face of Modernity". Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 61. ISBN   0-8020-8941-0
  15. Kolocotroni, Vassiliki; Goldman, Jane; Taxidou, Olga. "Modernism: An Anthology of Sources and Documents." Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. 374. ISBN   0-226-45074-0
  16. King, Michael * Pearson, Norman. "H. D., and Ezra Pound, End to Torment: A Memoir of Ezra Pound." New York: New Directions, 1979. 18
  17. Friedman (1990), 35–46
  18. Arrowsmith, Rupert Richard. Modernism and the Museum: Asian, African and Pacific Art and the London Avant Garde Archived June 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine . Oxford University Press, 2011, pp.103–164. ISBN   978-0-19-959369-9
  19. Video of a Lecture discussing the Imagists' use of Japanese Art, School of Advanced Study , March 2012 at timestamp 01:09:38.
  20. Keeling, Bret L. "H.D. and 'The Contest': Archaeology of a Sapphic gaze Archived February 16, 2016, at the Wayback Machine ". Twentieth Century Literature (Summer 1998). Retrieved on October 6, 2007.
  21. H.D. (2004). "Introduction". Hippolytus Temporizes & Ion: Adaptations of Two Plays by Euripides. Introduction by Camper, Carol. New Directions. pp. xi. ISBN   978-0-8112-1553-4.
  22. Marshall, Bill & Johnston, Cristina. "France and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History." ABC-CLIO, 2005. 560. ISBN   1-85109-411-3
  23. Ward, Alfred Charles. "Longman Companion to Twentieth Century Literature." University of Michigan, 2007. 241. ISBN   0-582-32803-9
  24. Levenson, Michael. "A Genealogy of Modernism: A Study of English Literary Doctrine 1908–1922". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. 162. ISBN   0-521-33800-X
  25. Gilbert, Sandra M. & Gubar, Susan. "Shakespeare's Sisters: Feminist Essays on Women Poets". Indiana University Press, 1979. 157
  26. Champion, Laurie; Sampath, Emmanuel Nelson. American Women Writers, 1900–1945: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2000. ISBN   0-313-30943-4. 88
  27. Korg, 50
  28. Friedman, 9
  29. Blau DuPlessis, Rachel. "H.D., the Career of that Struggle: The Career of That Struggle". 40. Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1986. ISBN   0-253-32702-4
  30. Laity, Cassandra. "H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 80. ISBN   0-521-55414-4
  31. Caserio, Robert L. "1944–Material Modernism: The Politics of the Page, and: Becoming Marianne Moore: The Early Poems, 1907–1924." American Literature 76, Number 2, June 2004. 400–402
  32. Freud, Sigmund; H.D.; Bryher; Stanford Friedman, Susan. Analyzing Freud: Letters of H.D., Bryher, and Their Circle. New Directions, 2002. 568
  33. Stanford Friedman, Susan. "Gender, Modernity; H.D.'s Fiction". American Literature 64, No. 4, December 1992. 839–40
  34. Kakutani, Michiko. "Herself Defined. The Poet H. D. and Her World". Book review, New York Times , January 4, 1984. Retrieved on October 17, 2008.
  35. Connor, 19
  36. Mandel, Charlotte. "Garbo/Helen: The self-projection of beauty by H.D. Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine ." Women's Studies 7, 1980. 127–35. Retrieved on October 7, 2007.
  37. Billington, James H. "The Individual: Therapy and Theory Archived April 26, 2016, at the Wayback Machine ." Library of Congress. Retrieved on October 7, 2007.
  38. McCabe, Susan. "Cinematic Modernism: Modernist Poetry and Film." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 133. ISBN   0-521-84621-8
  39. Willis, Elizabeth. "A Public History of the Dividing Line: H.D., the Bomb, and the Roots of the Postmodern". Arizona Quarterly 63, Number 1, Spring 2007. 81–108
  40. Blau DuPlessis, Rachel; Stanford Friedman, Susan. "'Woman Is Perfect': H.D.'s Debate with Freud." Feminist Studies, 7, No. 3, Autumn 1981. 417–30
  41. Mandel, Charlotte "H.D.'s The Gift Archived May 11, 2015, at the Wayback Machine ". English Literature in Transition 1880–1920, September 1999. 344–48. Retrieved on October 6, 2007.
  42. However the 1982 edition omits one of the original 7 chapters and heavily edits portions of the other 6. See Morris, 147
  43. Anthology. "Sagetrieb." University of Michigan, 2008. 49.
  44. Stanford Friedman, Susan. The Emergence of H.D. The Emergence of H.D. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987. 20
  45. Twitchell-Waas, Jeffrey. "Seaward: H.D.'s 'Helen in Egypt' as a response to Pound's 'Cantos' Archived August 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine ". Twentieth Century Literature Volume 44, Number 4, Winter 1998, pp. 464–483. Retrieved on October 7, 2007.
  46. Sword, Helen. Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 14, No. 2, Autumn 1995. 347–62
  47. Beate, Lohser; Newton, Peter M. Unorthodox Freud: The View from the Couch. New York: Guilford Press, 1996. 40. ISBN   1-57230-128-7.
  48. "Hilda Doolittle, Poet, Dead at 75. Imagist Who Signed Works H.D. Wrote Novel in 1960 Archived August 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine ". New York Times September 29, 1961. Retrieved on November 23, 2008.
  49. Lohr Martz, Louis. Collected Poems, 1912–1944, By H. D. (Hilda Doolittle). New York: New Directions, 1983. ISBN   0-8112-0876-1. 299
  50. "H. D.: Introduction Archived June 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine ". eNotes. Retrieved on October 14, 2007.
  51. Ramsay, Tamara Ann (1998). Discursive departures: A reading paradigm affiliated with feminist, lesbian, aesthetic and queer practices (with reference to Woolf, Stein and H.D.) Archived May 29, 2016, at the Wayback Machine (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
  52. Clippinger, David. "Resurrecting the Ghost: H.D., Susan Howe, and the Haven of Poetry Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine ". Retrieved on October 7, 2007.
  53. Keenaghan, Eric. "Vulnerable Households: Cold War Containment and Robert Duncan's Queered Nation". Journal of Modern Literature 28, Number 4, Summer 2005. 57–90
  54. Wagner, Linda W. "The Lost America of Love: Rereading Robert Creeley, Edward Dorn, and Robert Duncan." South Atlantic Review, 48.2 (1983): 103–4.
  55. Schaffner, Val. "Perdita Macpherson Schaffner (1919–2001)" . Retrieved February 23, 2019.


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Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature.

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature.

The Pool Group were a trio of interwar period artists, filmmakers and poets consisting of Hilda Doolittle, Kenneth Macpherson and Bryher. Their work has been studied by poetry and film historians as well as by scholars of mysticism, feminism, psychoanalysis and LGBT history. They are perhaps best known for creating what is their only surviving film, the silent avant garde classic from 1930, Borderline featuring the African American activist and entertainer Paul Robeson in the lead role. They also published a progressive and opinionated film journal called Close Up. The Pool Group were virtually forgotten for more than half a century after they broke up in the mid-1930s until the early 1980s when they were rediscovered by historians of 20th century arts and cinema

Norman Holmes Pearson

Norman Holmes Pearson was an American academic at Yale University, and a prominent counterintelligence agent during World War II. As a specialist on American literature and department chairman at Yale University he was active in establishing American Studies as an academic discipline.

Brigit Patmore was an English author and London society hostess.