H. B. Reese

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H. B. Reese
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Harry Burnett Reese

(1879-05-24)May 24, 1879
DiedMay 16, 1956(1956-05-16) (aged 76)
Resting placeHershey Cemetery, Hershey, PA
Other namesHB, Harry Reese, Poppy Reese, Mr. Reese's
Occupation Chocolatier/Confectioner
Known forInventing Reese's Peanut Butter Cups
Net worthapprox. $1.8 Billion USD
TitleFounder and Chairman of the Board, H.B. Reese Candy Company, Hershey, PA
Blanche Edna Hyson(m. 1900)
Website www.harryburnettreese.info

Harry Burnett "H. B." Reese (May 24, 1879 – May 16, 1956) was an American inventor and businessman known for creating the No. 1 selling candy brand in the United States, Reese's Peanut Butter Cups [1] and founding the H.B. Reese Candy Company. [2] In 2009, he was posthumously inducted into the Candy Hall of Fame. [3]

Reeses Peanut Butter Cups

Reese's Peanut Butter Cups are an American candy consisting of a milk, white, or dark chocolate cup filled with peanut cream, marketed by The Hershey Company. They were created by H. B. Reese, a former dairy farmer and shipping foreman for Milton S. Hershey. Reese left his job as a shipping foreman for The Hershey Company to start his own candy business.


Early life

H.B. Reese was born on May 24, 1879 on the Frosty Hill Farm, an agricultural and dairy farm located near the Muddy Creek Forks Historic District in York County, Pennsylvania. [2] He was the only child of Annie Belinda Manifold (1854–1935) and Aquilla Asbury Reese Jr. (1845–1914). When it came to earning money as a young man, Reese was creative. He farmed the land, but also milked cows because doing so was a quick way to earn cash. He even built a pond where he raised frogs that he sold to restaurants in the Baltimore area. By 1898, Reese was an accomplished French horn player who performed with local area bands. [4]

Muddy Creek Forks Historic District

Muddy Creek Forks Historic District is a national historic district located at the Village of Muddy Creek Forks in East Hopewell, Fawn, and Lower Chanceford Townships in York County, Pennsylvania. The district includes 12 contributing buildings, 1 contributing site, and 5 contributing structures. The buildings and structures were constructed between about 1800 and 1935. The buildings include the general store, six houses, a mill, grain elevator, warehouse, and Sweitzer barn. Most of the buildings incorporate Late Victorian style details. The structures are two bridges, a corn crib, a weigh station, and a mill race. The site is the site of a former mill and mill pond.

York County, Pennsylvania County in the United States

York County is a county in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 434,972. Its county seat is York. The county was created on August 19, 1749, from part of Lancaster County and named either after the Duke of York, an early patron of the Penn family, or for the city and shire of York in England.

Baltimore Largest city in Maryland

Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 602,495 in 2018, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States. As of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.802 million, making it the 21st largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles (60 km) northeast of Washington, D.C., making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area (CSA), the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2018 population of 9,797,063.

Marriage and family

On August 1, 1900 Reese married Blanche Edna Hyson (1882–1968), the daughter of Mary Elizabeth Markey (1857–1952) and Robert Bortner Hyson (1853–1930). Together they had 16 children, 8 daughters and 8 sons (13 of whom survived to adulthood). [5]

A true family man, Reese's mother Annie Belinda Manifold (1854–1935) as well as her two sisters, Elizabeth Turner Manifold (1846-1910) and Mary Collins Manifold (1847-1933), lived with him for the rest of their lives. At least 20 family members were present during a typical Reese family supper and sometimes more than 40 people were present when friends and relatives were invited to join them. [4]

Early career

By 1903, Reese was managing the fishing operations of his father-in-law’s cannery business located in Ditchley, Virginia. In 1912 he managed a dairy farm in Woodbine, Pennsylvania, but took a factory job in New Freedom, Pennsylvania in 1915 to support his growing family. [6]

Fishing Activity of trying to catch fish

Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods, crustaceans, and echinoderms. The term is not normally applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, and caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies. When bioblitzes occur, fish are typically caught, identified, and then released.

Ditchley is an unincorporated community in Northumberland County, in the U.S. state of Virginia.

Woodbine, Pennsylvania Unincorporated community in Pennsylvania, United States

Woodbine is an unincorporated community in York County, Pennsylvania, United States. Until 1978, this community was served by the Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad at milepost 50.6.

Dairy manager for Mr. Hershey

In 1916, Reese read an employment ad in the York Daily Record by Milton S. Hershey seeking to hire people to manage and operate his numerous dairy farms that were located in the Hershey, Pennsylvania area. In 1917, Hershey hired Reese to work as a dairyman at Farm 28-A. In 1918, Hershey asked Reese to manage a dairy farm called the Round Barn. Milton Hershey visited the Round Barn every two weeks because it was an experimental dairy farm that used new milking machines (more efficient than milking cows by hand) as he sought new approaches to animal treatment and milk production. However by 1919, Hershey found the Round Barn too expensive to operate and closed it down. [6]

The York Daily Record is a news organization that produces multi-platform news products and serves York, Pennsylvania and the surrounding region. The print version of its publications are the York Daily Record and York Sunday News. The newspaper's circulation is 37,323 daily and 61,665 on Sundays.

Milton S. Hershey American chocolatier

Milton Snavely Hershey was an American chocolatier and philanthropist.

Hershey, Pennsylvania Census-designated place in Pennsylvania, United States

Hershey is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in Derry Township, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, United States. Hershey's chocolates are made in Hershey, which was founded by candy magnate Milton S. Hershey.

Early candy ventures

R&R Candy Company

Jobless in 1919, Reese formed a new business called the R&R Candy Company that he operated from an old canning factory located in Hummelstown, Pennsylvania where he manufactured milk chocolate covered almonds and raisins, selling them to local stores. [7]

Superior Chocolate and Confectionery Company

Reese knew he needed high-quality manufacturing equipment in order to boost the potential of his Hummelstown, Pennsylvania candy business. So in January, 1920 he reorganized the R&R Candy Company as the Superior Chocolate and Confectionery Company and proceeded to raise today's equivalent of $290,000 by issuing stock in the newly formed company. A State charter for the new company was issued on May 14, 1920 with the following company officers: [8]

Nonetheless, the business ultimately failed. [9]

Under pressure to support his 10-children with yet another baby on the way, Reese took a paper mill job in Spring Grove, Pennsylvania where he worked a second job as a butcher and also a third job canning vegetables. [7]

Hershey factory employee

In 1921, Reese's father-in-law purchased a home at 18 E. Areba Avenue in Hershey, Pennsylvania for his son-in-law's growing family. With his return to Hershey, Reese began working at The Hershey Company factory in the shipping department and was soon promoted to foreman. [9]

On the side, working from the basement of his Areba Avenue home, he made a variety of confectionery products including hard candy, chocolate covered nuts and raisins, mint (candy) as well as two popular milk chocolate covered caramel-coconut candy bars that he invented: [10]

  1. The Lizzie Bar named for his oldest daughter, Mary Elizabeth.
  2. And the Johnny Bar named for his son, John, who worked alongside his father in The Hershey Company shipping department.

The ingredients for both bars included fresh grated coconut, caramel, molasses, cocoa butter and honey. The main difference between the two bars was that the Johnny Bar had nuts as an ingredient. From the very beginning, Reese used chocolate manufactured by The Hershey Company for his chocolate coatings. [11]

Reese enjoyed enough success to finally quit his factory job at The Hershey Company and set out on his own to "make a living" manufacturing candy. [6]

H.B. Reese Candy Company

Reese incorporated the H.B. Reese Candy Company in 1923. Selling a large assortment of candies on consignment, his employees coated by hand each piece of candy on marble slabs, some coated with milk chocolate and others with dark chocolate that were placed in two-pound and five-pound boxes that were sold in department store candy displays. To promote sales, Reese set up special coating tables in the front display windows of large, downtown department stores and had his employees coat candies in full view of shoppers passing by while other employees handed out freshly made samples. [12]

Here's a brief list of the candy initially manufactured by the H.B. Reese Candy Company. They were made with ingredients such as real cocoa butter, fresh cream, fresh grated coconut and freshly roasted peanuts: [4]

Butter cream Marshmallow
Butterscotch Marshmallow-Nut*
Chocolate Jets* Nougat*
Coated Dates*Nuttees*
Coconut Caramel* Peanut Butter Cups*
Coconut Cream* Peanut Clusters*
Cream Caramel Peppermint Cream*
Honey Dew Coconut* Raisin Clusters*

Note: *These 12-candies were sold in five-pound boxes during the holiday season. [4]

Borrowing money from a York County, Pennsylvania bank in 1926, Reese built a large home and a new factory that were located next to each other at 203-205 W Caracas Ave in Hershey, Pennsylvania. By 1935, he had 62 employees as well as his 6 sons working for him and was so successful that he was able to pay off all his mortgages. [13]

Reese's Peanut Butter Cups

By 1928, H.B. (Poppy Reese) and Blanche (Mommy Reese) had sixteen children. That same year, H.B. Reese invented Reese's Peanut Butter Cups which became part of his assorted chocolate line. [9]

How H.B. Reese Invented Reese's Peanut Butter Cups

"In late 1927, H.B. was delivering some of his candy to a store in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, the Bluebird Candy Shop. The owner of the shop was having problems with another supplier who could not keep him supplied with a candy made of peanut butter covered with chocolate. He asked H.B. if he could supply him with something like that. H.B. saw an opportunity and with considerable persistence, seized it. H.B. originally rolled the peanut butter into a small ball and dipped it into chocolate; the peanut butter manufacturing process was easy to automate, and the cup was used to help that process, since it provided a small compartment for each item. The candy was quickly added to the assortment box in 1928." [4]

The Success of Reese's Peanut Butter Cups

Soon the company was packaging 120 individually wrapped pieces per box that sold for a penny per cup. The penny peanut butter cup was the candy that helped Reese pay off the mortgages on both his house and factory by 1935. This was especially noteworthy since the United States was still in the grip of the Great Depression and chocolate was considered a luxury. [4]

During World War II, economic constraints and scarcity of materials led him to discontinue his other candies and concentrate solely on his Peanut butter cup, his most Template:Popular offering.[ citation needed ]

Throughout the war, Reese built his company based on the success of a single product, Reese's Peanut Butter Cups. And instead of selling the product by weight, peanut butter cups were packaged for retail sale with each candy wrapper prominently displaying the slogan: "Made in Chocolate Town, So They Must Be Good". Additionally in 1943, the five-cent cup was introduced and as packaging machine and plant automation were placed into production, the sales of Reese's Peanut Butter Cups doubled every four years. [14]

Before H.B. Reese died in 1956, he began construction of a second plant located at 925 Reese Avenue, Hershey, Pennsylvania. Completed on November 30, 1957, this new modern plant contained 100,000 square feet of state-of-the-art manufacturing technology built at a cost equivalent of $6.9 million at a time when the sales of Reese's Peanut Butter Cups were equivalent to $125 million. [15]


After a short illness, H.B. Reese died of a myocardial infarction [16] on May 16, 1956 at the St. Mary's Medical Center located in West Palm Beach, Florida (where Reese had been vacationing). His residence at the time of his death was located at 630 Linden Road, Hershey, PA.


On July 2, 1963 (seven years after the death of H.B. Reese), when the sales of Reese's Peanut Butter Cups were equivalent to $243 million, his sons Robert, John, Ed, Ralph, Harry and Charles Richard Reese, merged the H.B. Reese Candy Company with The Hershey Company in a tax free stock-for-stock merger. In 2018 after 55 years of stock splits, the Reese brothers' original 666,316 shares of Hershey common stock represent 16 million Hershey shares valued at over $1.8 billion that pay annual cash dividends of $46 million. [17] [18] At the time of its 1963 merger, the H.B. Reese Candy Company was celebrating its 40th Anniversary and had just added 200,000 square feet of new state-of-the-art manufacturing capacity to its 925 Reese Avenue, Hershey, PA plant. [8] In 1969, only 6 years after the Reese/Hershey merger, Reese's Peanut Butter Cups became the best-selling product of The Hershey Company. [9]

As of September 20, 2012, Reese's Peanut Butter Cups were the No. 1 selling candy brand in the United States with sales of $2.603 billion. [1] Furthermore back in 1973, the non-union H.B. Reese Candy Company plant added yet another 200,000 square feet of manufacturing space in order to begin production of the Kit Kat for sale in the United States [8] which had 2012 U.S. sales of $948 million, making Kit Kat the No. 4 selling candy brand in the United States. [1]

See also

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