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The H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) is a large survey for neutral atomic hydrogen (H I). [1] Most of the data was taken between 1997 and 2002 using CSIRO's 64 m Parkes Telescope. HIPASS covered 71% of the sky and identified more than 5000 galaxies; the major galaxy catalogs are: the "HIPASS Bright Galaxy Catalog" (HIPASS BGC), [2] the southern HIPASS catalog (HICAT), [3] and the northern HIPASS catalog (NHICAT) [4] Discoveries include over 5000 galaxies (incl. several new galaxies), the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Stream and a few gas clouds devoid of stars.



HIPASS covers a velocity range of −1,280 to 12,700 km/s. It was the first blind HI survey to cover the entire southern sky and the northern sky up to +25°. Technical overview, calibration and imaging (Barnes et al. 2001).

Southern Sky observations

Observations of the southern sky started in February 1997, and were completed in March 2000, consisting of 23,020 eight-degree scans of each of 9 minutes duration. HIPASS scanned the entire southern sky five times. The southern HIPASS galaxy catalog (HICAT) [3] contains 4315 HI sources.

Northern Sky observations

Northern HIPASS extended the survey into the northern sky. The entire Virgo Cluster region was observed in Northern HIPASS. NHICAT, [4] the catalogue of the northern extension of HIPASS contains 1,002 H I sources.


Archival data from HIPASS and the HI Zone of Avoidance (HIZOA) survey were reprocessed to make a new 20cm confusion-limited continuum map of the sky south of declination +25°. Its relatively high sensitivity and resolution (compared to other single-dish surveys) and low level of artefacts has made this survey invaluable, particularly for merging with interferometric data such as WALLABY to improve the coverage of extended structure. [5]

Multibeam Receiver

Observations for HIPASS were taken using the Parkes 21-cm Multibeam Receiver. [6] The instrument consists of a focal-plane array of 13 individual receivers arranged in a hexagonal pattern. [6] Built in a collaboration between numerous institutions, it was funded by the Australian Research Council (ARC) and the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) to undertake the HIPASS and ZOA surveys.


Leading arm of Magellanic Stream

HIPASS discovered the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Stream. This is an extension of the Magellanic Stream beyond the Magellanic clouds. The existence of the Leading Arm is predicted by models of a tidal interaction between the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way.

HIPASS J0731-69

HIPASS J0731-69 is a cloud of gas devoid of any stars. [7] It is associated with the asymmetric spiral galaxy NGC 2442. [7] It is likely that HIPASS J0731-69 was torn loose from NGC 2442 by a companion. [7]

HIPASS J1712-64

HIPASS J1712-64 is an isolated extragalactic cloud of neutral hydrogen with no associated stars. [8] The cloud is a binary system and is not dense enough to form stars. [8] HIPASS J1712-64 was probably ejected during an interaction between the Magellanic clouds and the Milky way.

New galaxies in the Centaurus A/M83 Group

Ten new galaxies were identified in the Centaurus A/M83 Group, bringing the total (at the time) to 31 galaxies. [9]

See also

Related Research Articles

Local Group Group of galaxies that includes the Milky Way

The Local Group is the galaxy group that includes the Milky Way. It has a total diameter of roughly 3 megaparsecs (10 million light-years; 9×1022 metres), and a total mass of the order of 2×1012 solar masses (4×1042 kg). It consists of two collections of galaxies in a "dumbbell" shape: the Milky Way and its satellites form one lobe, and the Andromeda Galaxy and its satellites constitute the other. The two collections are separated by about 800 kpc (3×10^6 ly; 2×1022 m) and are moving toward one another with a velocity of 123 km/s. The group itself is a part of the larger Virgo Supercluster, which may be a part of the Laniakea Supercluster. The exact number of galaxies in the Local Group is unknown as some are occluded by the Milky Way; however, at least 80 members are known, most of which are dwarf galaxies.

Large Magellanic Cloud Magellanic spiral galaxy that is a satellite of the Milky Way in the constellation Dorado

The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), or Nubecula Major is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way. At a distance of around 50 kiloparsecs (≈160,000 light-years), the LMC is the second- or third-closest galaxy to the Milky Way, after the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal (~16 kpc) and the possible dwarf irregular galaxy known as the Canis Major Overdensity. Based on readily visible stars and a mass of approximately 10 billion solar masses, the diameter of the LMC is about 14,000 light-years (4.3 kpc). It is roughly a hundredth as massive as the Milky Way and is the fourth-largest galaxy in the Local Group, after the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), the Milky Way and the Triangulum Galaxy (M33).

Tarantula Nebula H II region in the constellation Dorado

The Tarantula Nebula is a large H II region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), forming its south-east corner.

Messier 83 Barred spiral galaxy in the constellation Hydra

Messier 83 or M83, also known as the Southern Pinwheel Galaxy and NGC 5236, is a barred spiral galaxy approximately 15 million light-years away in the constellation borders of Hydra and Centaurus. Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered M83 on 23 February 1752 at the Cape of Good Hope. Charles Messier added it to his catalogue of nebulous objects in March 1781. It is one of the closest and brightest barred spiral galaxies in the sky, and is visible with binoculars. Its nickname of the Southern Pinwheel derives from its resemblance to the Pinwheel Galaxy (M101).

NGC 404 Field galaxy in the constellation Andromeda

NGC 404 is a field galaxy located about 10 million light years away in the constellation Andromeda. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1784, and is visible through small telescopes. NGC 404 lies just beyond the Local Group and does not appear gravitationally bound to it. It is located within 7 arc-minutes of second magnitude star Mirach, making it a difficult target to observe or photograph and granting it the nickname "Mirach's Ghost".

NGC 1569 Dwarf irregular galaxy in the constellation Camelopardalis

NGC 1569 is a dwarf irregular galaxy in Camelopardalis. The galaxy is relatively nearby and consequently, the Hubble Space Telescope can easily resolve the stars within the galaxy. The distance to the galaxy was previously believed to be only 2.4 Mpc. However, in 2008 scientists studying images from Hubble calculated the galaxy's distance at nearly 11 million light-years away, about 4 million light-years farther than previous thought, meaning it is a member of the IC 342 group of galaxies.

The Magellanic Stream is a stream of high-velocity clouds of gas extending from the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds over 100° through the Galactic south pole of the Milky Way. The stream contains a gaseous feature dubbed the leading arm. The stream was sighted in 1965 and its relation to the Magellanic Clouds was established in 1974.

NGC 2442 and NGC 2443 Spiral galaxy in the constellation Volans

NGC 2442 and NGC 2443 are two parts of a single intermediate spiral galaxy, commonly known as the Meathook Galaxy or the Cobra and Mouse. It is about 50 million light-years away in the constellation Volans. It was discovered by Sir John Herschel on December 23, 1834 during his survey of southern skies with a 18.25 inch diameter reflecting telescope from an observatory he set up in Cape Town, South Africa. Associated with this galaxy is HIPASS J0731-69, a cloud of gas devoid of any stars. It is likely that the cloud was torn loose from NGC 2442 by a companion.

NGC 1566 Intermediate spiral galaxy in the constellation Dorado

NGC 1566, sometimes known as the Spanish Dancer, is an intermediate spiral galaxy in the constellation Dorado, positioned about 3.5° to the south of the star Gamma Doradus. It was discovered on May 28, 1826 by Scottish astronomer James Dunlop. At 10th magnitude, it requires a telescope to view. The distance to this galaxy remains elusive, with measurements ranging from 6 Mpc up to 21 Mpc.

NGC 4605 Barred spiral galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major

NGC 4605 is a dwarf barred spiral galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major, located at a distance of 18.1 ± 0.3 megalight-years from the Milky Way. Physically it is similar in size and in B-band absolute magnitude to the Large Magellanic Cloud. It is a member of the M81 Galaxy Group, along with Messier 81 and Messier 101.

NGC 346 Open cluster in the constellation Tucana

NGC 346 is a young open cluster of stars with associated nebula located in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) that appears in the southern constellation of Tucana. It was discovered August 1, 1826 by Scottish astronomer James Dunlop. J. L. E. Dreyer described it as, "bright, large, very irregular figure, much brighter middle similar to double star, mottled but not resolved". On the outskirts of the cluster is the multiple star system HD 5980, one of the brightest stars in the SMC.

NGC 1808 Barred spiral galaxy in the constellation Columba

NGC 1808 is a barred spiral galaxy located in the southern constellation of Columba, about two degrees to the south and east of Gamma Caeli. It was discovered by Scottish astronomer James Dunlop, who described it as a "faint nebula". The galaxy is a member of the NGC 1808 group, which is part of the larger Dorado Group.

NGC 290 Open cluster in the constellation Tucana

NGC 290 is an open cluster of stars in the southern constellation of Tucana. This cluster was discovered September 5, 1826 by Scottish astronomer James Dunlop. It lies some 200,000 light years away from the Sun in the Small Magellanic Cloud galaxy. The cluster is an estimated 30–63 million years old and is around 65 light years across.

NGC 4449 Irregular magellanic type galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici

NGC 4449, also known as Caldwell 21, is an irregular Magellanic type galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici, being located about 13 million light-years away. It is part of the M94 Group or Canes Venatici I Group that is relatively close to the Local Group hosting our Milky Way galaxy.

NGC 24 Spiral galaxy in the constellation Sculptor

NGC 24 is a spiral galaxy in the southern constellation of Sculptor, about 23.8 megalight-years distant from the Milky Way. It was discovered by British astronomer William Herschel in 1785, and measures some 40,000 light-years across. The general shape of this galaxy is specified by its morphological classification of SA(s)c, which indicates it is an unbarred spiral with no ring-like structure and moderate to loosely-wound spiral arms. This galaxy is positioned in the vicinity of the Sculptor Group, but is actually a background object that is more than three times as distant. It may form a pair with another background galaxy, NGC 45.

NGC 925 Barred spiral galaxy in the constellation Triangulum

NGC 925 Amatha Galaxy is a barred spiral galaxy located about 30 million light-years away in the constellation Triangulum. The morphological classification of this galaxy is SB(s)d, indicating that it has a bar structure and loosely wound spiral arms with no ring. The spiral arm to the south is stronger than the northern arm, with the latter appearing flocculent and less coherent. The bar is offset from the center of the galaxy and is the site of star formation all along its length. Both of these morphological traits—a dominant spiral arm and the offset bar—are typically characteristics of a Magellanic spiral galaxy. The galaxy is inclined at an angle of 55° to the line of sight along a position angle of 102°.

NGC 2397 Flocculent spiral galaxy in the constellation Volans

NGC 2397 is a flocculent spiral galaxy located in the southern Volans constellation, about one degree to the SSE of Delta Volantis. English astronomer John Herschel discovered the galaxy on February 21, 1835. It is located at a distance of approximately 69 million light years from the Sun, and is a member of the small NGC 2442 group that includes NGC 2434.

NGC 299 Open star cluster in the constellation Tucana

NGC 299 is an open cluster of stars in the main body of the Small Magellanic Cloud – a nearby dwarf galaxy. It is located in the southern constellation of Tucana, just under 200,000 light years distant from the Sun. The cluster was discovered on August 12, 1834 by English astronomer John Herschel.

NGC 3256 Peculiar galaxy in the constellation Vela

NGC 3256 is a peculiar galaxy formed from the collision of two separate galaxies in the constellation of Vela. NGC 3256 is located about 100 million light years away and belongs to the Hydra-Centaurus supercluster complex. NGC 3256 provides a nearby template for studying the properties of young star clusters in tidal tails. The system hides a double nucleus and a tangle of dust lanes in the central region. The telltale signs of the collision are two extended luminous tails swirling out from the galaxy. The tails are studded with a particularly high density of star clusters. NGC 3256 is the most luminous galaxy in the infrared spectrum located within z 0.01 from Earth.

NGC 5084 Lenticular galaxy in the constellation Virgo

NGC 5084 is a lenticular galaxy in the constellation of Virgo. It is located at a distance of circa 80 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 5084 is at least 200,000 light years across. It is one of the largest and most massive galaxies in the Virgo Supercluster. It was discovered by William Herschel on March 10, 1785. The galaxy is seen nearly edge-on, with inclination 86°, and features a warped disk and large quantities of HI gas extending along the disk, probably accumulated after multiple accretions of smaller galaxies.


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