Habibullah Khan

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Habibullah Khan
King Habibullah I
Amir of Afghanistan
Habibullah.jpg
Emir of Afghanistan
ReignOctober 1, 1901 – February 20, 1919
Predecessor Abdur Rahman Khan
Successor Nasrullah Khan
BornJune 3, 1872
Samarkand, Uzbekistan [1] [2]
DiedFebruary 20, 1919(1919-02-20) (aged 46)
Kalagosh, Afghanistan
Father Abdur Rahman Khan
MotherAsal Begum, Uzbek consort
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Habibullah Khan (June 3, 1872 – February 20, 1919) was the Emir of Afghanistan from 1901 until 1919. He was the eldest son of the Emir Abdur Rahman Khan, whom he succeeded by right of primogeniture in October 1901. His grandfather was Mohammad Afzal Khan. [1] [2]

Abdur Rahman Khan Emir of Afghanistan, 1880-1901

Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.

Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter. The descendant of a deceased elder sibling inherits before a living younger sibling by right of substitution for the deceased heir. In the absence of any children, brothers succeed, individually, to the inheritance by seniority of age. Among siblings, sons usually inherit before daughters. In the absence of male descendants in the male-line, there are variations of primogeniture which allocate the inheritance to a daughter or a brother or, in the absence of either, to another collateral relative, in a specified order.

Mohammad Afzal Khan Emir of Afghanistan (1865-1867)

Mohammad Afzal Khan was the Emir of Afghanistan from 1865 to 1867. The oldest son of Dost Mohammad Khan, Afzal Khan seized power from his brother Sher Ali Khan three years after their father's death. Following Afzal Khan's death the following year, Mohammad Azam Khan was proclaimed Amir of Afghanistan. He was an ethnic Pashtun and belong to the Barakzai tribe.

Contents

Early life

Habillah was the eldest son of Emir Abdur Rahman, born in Samarkand, Uzbekistan in 1871. He had a younger brother Nasrullah, born in 1874. [1]

Samarkand Place in Samarqand Region, Uzbekistan

Samarkand, alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan, and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia. There is evidence of human activity in the area of the city from the late Paleolithic era, though there is no direct evidence of when Samarkand was founded; some theories propose that it was founded between the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Prospering from its location on the Silk Road between China and the Mediterranean, at times Samarkand was one of the greatest cities of Central Asia.

Uzbekistan Landlocked Republic in Central Asia

Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan, is a landlocked country in Central Asia. The sovereign state is a secular, unitary constitutional republic, comprising 12 provinces, one autonomous republic, and a capital city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan to the southeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest. Along with Liechtenstein, it is one of the world's only two doubly landlocked countries.

Nasrullah Khan (Afghanistan) Emir of Afghanistan (1919)

Nasrullah Khan (1874–1920), sometimes spelt as Nasr Ullah Khan, was shahzada of Afghanistan and second son of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan. He held the throne of Afghanistan as Emir for one week, from February 21 to February 28, 1919.

Reign

Habibullah was a relatively reform-minded ruler who attempted to modernize his country. During his reign he worked to bring modern medicine and other technology to Afghanistan. In 1903, Habibullah founded the Habibia school as well as a military academy. He also worked to put in place progressive reforms in his country. He instituted various legal reforms and repealed many of the harshest criminal penalties. But one of his chief advisers Abdul Lateef was sentenced to death in 1903 for apostasy. He was stoned to death in Kabul. Other reforms included the dismantling of the repressive internal intelligence organization that had been put in place by his father.

Habibia High School is a school in southwestern Kabul, Afghanistan which has educated many of the former and current Afghan elite, including President Hamid Karzai and musician Ahmad Zahir. It was founded by King Habibullah Khan in 1903.

Sahibzada Abdul Latif Afghan royal advisor

Syed Abdul Latif or Sahibzada Abdul Latif Shaheed among the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam was the Royal Advisor to Abdur Rahman Khan and Habibullah Khan, the father and son kings of Afghanistan between the late 19th century and early 20th century. It is believed that Abdul Latif helped King Abdur Rahman Khan during the negotiation of the Durand Line Agreement with the British India in 1893. In 1902 he became a follower of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and is remembered as one of the first martyrs of the Ahmadiyya movement.

Apostasy Formal disaffiliation from or abandonment or renunciation of a religion

Apostasy is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person. It can also be defined within the broader context of embracing an opinion contrary to one's previous beliefs. One who undertakes apostasy is known as an apostate. Undertaking apostasy is called apostatizing. The term apostasy is used by sociologists to mean renunciation and criticism of, or opposition to, a person's former religion, in a technical sense and without pejorative connotation.

World War I

Habibullah maintained the country's neutrality in World War I, despite strenuous efforts by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a German military mission (Niedermayer–Hentig Expedition) to enlist Afghanistan on its side. He also greatly reduced tensions with British India, signing a treaty of friendship in 1905 and paying an official state visit in 1907. While in India, he was initiated into Freemasonry, at Lodge Concordia, No. 3102. [3] [4]

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Ottoman dynasty dynasty

The Ottoman dynasty was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman, also known as the Ottomans. According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe branch of the Oghuz Turks, under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia in the district of Bilecik Söğüt. The Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire from c. 1299 to 1922.

Niedermayer–Hentig Expedition diplomatic mission to Afghanistan sent by the Central Powers in 1915–1916

The Niedermayer–Hentig Expedition was a diplomatic mission to Afghanistan sent by the Central Powers in 1915–1916. The purpose was to encourage Afghanistan to declare full independence from the British Empire, enter World War I on the side of the Central Powers, and attack British India. The expedition was part of the Hindu–German Conspiracy, a series of Indo-German efforts to provoke a nationalist revolution in India. Nominally headed by the exiled Indian prince Raja Mahendra Pratap, the expedition was a joint operation of Germany and Turkey and was led by the German Army officers Oskar Niedermayer and Werner Otto von Hentig. Other participants included members of an Indian nationalist organisation called the Berlin Committee, including Maulavi Barkatullah and Chempakaraman Pillai, while the Turks were represented by Kazim Bey, a close confidante of Enver Pasha.

Death

Habibullah was assassinated while on a hunting trip at Laghman Province on February 20, 1919. [5] His assassination was carried out by Mustafa Seghir, an Indian spy, employed by Britain.[ citation needed ] Seghir was again hired by Britain to assassinate Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.[ citation needed ] He was arrested in Ankara and confessed that he received a regular salary from the British. He was hanged till death. [6] Habibullah's brother Nasrullah Khan briefly succeeded him as Emir and held power for a week between February 21 and February 28, 1919, before being ousted and imprisoned by Amanullah Khan, Habibullah's third son. [7]

Laghman Province Province in Afghanistan

Laghman is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country. It has a population of about 445,600, which is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural society. The city of Mihtarlam serves as the capital of the province. In some historical texts the name is written as "Lamghan" or as "Lamghanat".

Amanullah Khan King and Emir of Afghanistan (1919-1929)

Amānullāh Khān was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Emir and after 1926 as Malik (King). After the third Anglo-Afghan War, Afghanistan was able to pursue an independent foreign policy free from the influence of the United Kingdom, and his rule was marked by dramatic political and social change. He was the first Afghan ruler who attempted to modernize Afghanistan on Western designs. However, he did not succeed in this because of a popular uprising by Habibullah Kalakani and his followers. On 14 January 1929, Amanullah abdicated and fled to neighbouring British India whilst the country went into a short civil war. From British India he went to Europe where he died in Zürich, Switzerland, in 1960.

Honours

Related Research Articles

European influence in Afghanistan

The European influence in Afghanistan refers to political, social, and mostly imperialistic influence several European nations and colonial powers have had on the historical development of Afghanistan.

The following lists events that happened during 1901 in Afghanistan.

Related to 1896 in Afghanistan: Negotiations are going on between the Indian government and the amir tending to the appointment of a joint commission for determining the last 100 miles (160 km) of Indo-Afghan frontier yet unsettled, from Landi Kotal in the Khyber to Nawar Kotal on the Kunar River.

Treaty of Gandamak

The Treaty of Gandamak officially ended the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mohammad Yaqub Khan ceded various frontier areas to Britain while retaining full sovereignty over Afghanistan.

Id Gah Mosque mosque in Afghanistan

Id Gah Mosque or Eid Gah Mosque is the second largest mosque in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. It is considered the cardinal religious mosque in the country, where a million people offer Eid prayers twice a year. It is located near the Mahmud Khan bridge and National Stadium in the eastern part of the city, in the Shar-e-barq of Kabul, which is one of the wealthier areas of the city. The "Id Gah" or "Eid Gah" refers to an open space where people congregate during national and religious celebrations. The open grounds of Id Gah are also used as a parking lot for trucks that transport goods to and from Peshawar.

Mohammadzai, also spelled "Moḥammadzay" is a sub-tribe or clan of the Barakzai which is part of the Durrani confederacy of tribes. They are primarily centered on Kandahar, Kabul and Ghazni in Afghanistan. The Mohammadzai ruled Afghanistan from 1826 to 1978, for a total 152 years. The monarchy ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah when his brother in law Sardar Daoud Khan took power via a coup.

Provisional Government of India provisional government-in-exile

The Provisional Government of India was a provisional government-in-exile established in Kabul, Afghanistan on December 1, 1915 by Indian nationalists, during World War I with support from the Central Powers. Its purpose was to enrol support from the Afghan Emir as well as Tsarist Russia, China, and Japan for the Indian Movement. Established at the conclusion of the Kabul Mission composed of members of the Berlin Committee, German and Turkish delegates, the provisional government was composed of Mahendra Pratap as President, Maulana Barkatullah as Prime Minister, Deobandi Maulavi Ubaidullah Sindhi as Home Minister, Deobandi Maulavi Bashir as War Minister, and Champakraman Pillai as Foreign Affairs Minister. The provisional government found significant support from the internal administration of the Afghan government, although the Emir refused to declare open support, and ultimately, under British pressure it was forced to withdraw from Afghanistan in 1919.

The following lists events that happened during 1919 in Afghanistan.

Emirate of Afghanistan emirate in Central Asia between 1823-1926

The Emirate of Afghanistan was an emirate between Central Asia and South Asia, which is now today's Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The emirate emerged from the Durrani Empire, when Dost Mohammed Khan, the founder of the Barakzai dynasty in Kabul, prevailed. The history of the Emirate was dominated by 'the Great Game' between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom for supremacy in Central Asia. This period was characterized by the expansion of European colonial interests in South Asia. The Emirate of Afghanistan continued the war with the Sikh Empire, which led to the invasion of Afghanistan by British-led Indian forces who did not accomplish their war objectives. However, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the British again fought against the Afghans and this time the British took control of Afghanistan's foreign affairs until Emir Amanullah Khan regained them after the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 was signed following the Third Anglo-Afghan War.

Mohammed Nadir Shah King of Afghanistan (1929-1933)

Muhammad Nadir Shah was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in November 1933. Previously, he served as Minister of War, Afghan Ambassador to France, and as a general in the military of Afghanistan. He and his son Muhammad Zahir Shah, who succeeded him, are part of the Musahiban.

Barakzai family name

Bārakzai is the name of a Pashtun tribe from present-day, Kandahar, Afghanistan. '"Barakzai" is a common name among the Pashtuns and it means "son of Barak" in Pashto. There are seven distinct Pashtun tribes named Barakzai, with the Zirak branch of the Durrani tribe being the most important and largest tribe with over 4 million people.

Arg (Kabul) presidential palace in Kabul, Afghanistan

The Arg serves as the presidential palace in Kabul, Afghanistan. It sits on a 34-hectare (83-acre) site in District 2, between Deh Afghanan and the affluent neighbourhood of Wazir Akbar Khan. The Arg was built after the destruction of the Bala Hissar in 1880 by the British Indian troops. It has been used by many Afghan kings and presidents, from Emir Abdur Rahman Khan to current President Ashraf Ghani.

<i>Seraj al Akhbar</i> Persian newspaper


Seraj al Akhbar was a Persian newspaper that circulated in Kabul, Afghanistan from 1911-1919. Published in 1911, the newspaper was founded by Mahmud Tarzi as an attempt at modernization, with the support of Emir Habibullah Khan. It was primarily a political newspaper, purposing to keep the country informed about international affairs, and the current events of the country. Seraj al Akhbar promoted Pan-Islamism, and supported the young Turks coalition in the Ottoman Empire. As the first recognized newspaper in the country, Seraj al Akhbar is regarded as the founding of the Afghan press.

Mahmud Tarzi Afghan writer

Sardar Mahmud Beg Tarzi was a politician and one of Afghanistan's greatest intellectuals. He is known as the father of Afghan journalism. As a prominent modern thinker, he became a key figure in the history of Afghanistan, following the lead of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Turkey by working for modernization and secularization, and strongly opposing religious extremism and obscurantism. Tarzi emulated the Young Turks coalition. Perhaps to the point of the emulation Pashtun nationalism.

Ahmadiyya in Afghanistan

Ahmadiyya is an Islamic community in Afghanistan, under the leadership of the caliph in London. The earliest contact with the Ahmadiyya movement in Islam and the Pashtun people within modern-day boundaries of Afghanistan, occurred during the lifetime of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. The movement began by Ahmad, was largely seen as apostasy by most other Muslim groups, including by those in Afghanistan, and accordingly only twelve years after Ahmad's claim of Mahdi-hood, two of the foremost Ahmadi Muslims were stoned to death in Kabul during 1901 to 1903. The killings continued until 1925, when in 1924-1925, under Emir Amanullah Khan affiliation with Ahmadiyya beliefs became a capital offence and those who converted were forcibly reverted.

Sir Thomas Acquin Martin, was an English industrial pioneer in India, and agent-general for Afghanistan.

District Grand Lodge of Bengal

The District Grand Lodge of Bengal is a Masonic Lodge in India under the United Grand Lodge of England, based out of Freemasons Hall, Park Street, Kolkata.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Vogelsang, The Afghans (2001, p. 270)
  2. 1 2 http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~royalty/afghan/i105.html#I105 Archived 2012-10-24 at the Wayback Machine
  3. http://nationalheritagemuseum.typepad.com/library_and_archives/2008/10/amir-habibullah.html
  4. McMahon, Henry A (1939). An Account of the Entry of H. M. Habibullah Khan Amir of Afghanistan into Freemasonry. London, UK: Favil Press, Ltd.
  5. Islam and Politics in Afghanistan, Olesen, page 101
  6. Lords of The Golden Horn, Noel Barber, page 283
  7. Afghanistan 1919–1928: Sources in the India Office Records

Bibliography


Regnal titles
Preceded by
Abdur Rahman Khan
Barakzai dynasty
Emir of Afghanistan

1901–1919
Succeeded by
Nasrullah Khan