Hackney Central

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Hackney Central
  • Hackney
Hackneytownhall2.jpg
Hackney Town Hall, built 1934–37 for the Metropolitan Borough of Hackney
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Hackney Central
Location within Greater London
Population77,336 (2011) [1]
OS grid reference TQ345845
  Charing Cross 4 mi (6.4 km)  SW
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district E8 E9
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°32′36″N0°03′34″W / 51.543307°N 0.059486°W / 51.543307; -0.059486 Coordinates: 51°32′36″N0°03′34″W / 51.543307°N 0.059486°W / 51.543307; -0.059486

Hackney Central is a sub-district of Hackney in the London Borough of Hackney in London, England and is four miles (6.4 km) northeast of Charing Cross.

Contents

The Hackney Central area is focused on Mare Street and the retail areas to the north of it including Narrow Way and surrounding local area around Hackney Downs railway station. As such it extends north from Regent's Canal (with Bethnal Green), takes in most of Broadway Market and London Fields, and follows each side of Mare Street till it terminates in the vicinity of Hackney Central railway station. The area also includes the central retail area which extends from Hackney Downs station in the west to the Hackney Walk Outlet Village, on Morning Lane and goes in between Wick Road (Homerton) and Cassland Road (South Hackney) till meeting Hackney Wick, to the east.

Hackney Central is the area that once would have been known as Hackney Village. This was a place that flourished from the Tudor period, when principal members of the Court had their houses in the surrounding area, and King Henry VIII of England had a palace (located near the modern Lea Bridge Road roundabout). Hackney Central remained a popular resort for Londoners until the end of the Georgian era, when this suburb of London began to be completely built up. Railways, trams and factories brought an end to Hackney's rural atmosphere during the Victorian era, and its fortunes declined.

The industries of nearby Homerton and the Lee Valley have largely disappeared, leaving the NHS and local council as the largest employers. Successive waves of immigrants, both from abroad and within the United Kingdom, make modern Hackney a culturally vibrant part of inner London, with both the benefits and challenges that this brings. [2]

Extensive post-World War II redevelopment replaced much of the housing stock, but the Georgian housing and Victorian terraces that remain have become popular again.

History

St Augustine's Tower. Dating back to the 13th century, this is Hackney Central's oldest building. It is all that remains of the original medieval parish church, which was demolished in 1798 (September 2005) St augustines tower.jpg
St Augustine's Tower. Dating back to the 13th century, this is Hackney Central's oldest building. It is all that remains of the original medieval parish church, which was demolished in 1798 (September 2005)

In 1727 Daniel Defoe said of the villages of Hackney

All these, except the Wyck-house, are within a few years so encreas'd in buildings, and so fully inhabited, that there is no comparison to be made between their present and past state: Every separate hamlet is encreas'd, and some of them more than treble as big as formerly; Indeed as this whole town is included in the bills of mortality, tho' no where joining to London, it is in some respects to be call'd a part of it.

This town is so remarkable for the retreat of wealthy citizens, that there is at this time near a hundred coaches kept in it; tho' I will not join with a certain satyrical author, who said of Hackney, that there were more coaches than Christians in it. [3]

Early origins

In Roman times Ermine Street passed to the west of what is now Hackney Central. The land was covered with open oak and hazel woodlands, with marshland around the rivers and streams that crossed the area. Hackney lay in the Catevallauni tribal territory.

The name Hackney derives from a 5th- or 6th-century Saxon settlement known as Haca's ey – or raised ground in marshland. [4] The settlement was near Hackney Brook, and was probably on the higher ground around the later St Augustine's Tower. Hackney is not mentioned by name in the Norman Domesday Book; at that time it formed a part of the manor of Stepney.

Tudor village

Little remains of early Hackney, except the Tudor St Augustine's Tower, which survives as Hackney's oldest building. The churchyard, Hackney Brook, and the surrounding villages prevented Hackney's expansion, and by 1605 the village had a lower rateable value than the other divisions of the parish. In Tudor times there were a number of fine houses along Church Street, but many Tudor courtiers lived in nearby Homerton. [5] On the site of Brooke House college, in Clopton was sited one of Henry VIII's palaces, where his daughter Mary took the Oath of Supremacy. Her guardian was Henry's Principal Secretary of State Ralph Sadleir, a resident of Bryck Place, Homerton.

A further cluster of houses existed in medieval times, where Well Street enters Mare Street. The Loddiges family founded their extensive plant nursery business on open ground to the north-east of here in the 18th century. [6]

Georgian period

By 1724, while still consisting of a single street, there is an unbroken line of buildings, except by the churchyard and by the brook, with large gardens behind for the finer houses and inns. The 16th-century church, despite galleries being installed, became too small for the needs of the parish, and parliament was petitioned in 1790 for a modern larger church to be built. This began in 1791 on a field to the north east of the old church, but was bedeviled by builders' bankruptcies and not finally completed until 1812–1813 when the tower and porches were added. Further disaster struck in a fire of 1955. In the churchyard stands the tomb of Francis Beaufort, deviser of the Beaufort wind force scale; and that of John Hunter, the second governor of New South Wales, Australia. The Loddiges family also has a tomb in the churchyard and memorials within the church. The parish burial register records the death of "Anthony, a poore old negro, aged 105" in 1630. This is all that is known of Anthony, the first recorded black resident of Hackney.

Loddiges' family vault in St John's Church Gardens LoddigesTomb.JPG
Loddiges' family vault in St John's Church Gardens

The villages of Hackney, Lower Clapton and Homerton remained separated by fields into the 19th century. The fine houses remained, with large gardens behind. Artisans and labourers lived in cottages established in these gardens. There was not the room, or the will, for major rebuilding in the village. By 1800, St Thomas' Square, a Georgian square was laid out on the southern end of Mare Street. By the 20th century, these buildings had declined and were replaced with public housing. [7] An early 18th-century mansion, now the New Landsdown Club, but once the headquarters of Elizabeth Fry's British Ladies' Society for Promoting the Reformation of Female Prisoners remains at 195 Mare Street. It is Grade II* listed, but in poor condition and on the English Heritage register of buildings at risk. [8] In neighbouring Homerton, (to the east of the churchyard) Sutton Place was built by 1806, near Sutton House.

The rebuilding of the Church, on a field to the north of the village, altered the course of the road and allowed the establishment of Clapton Square in 1816, in nearby Lower Clapton. Much of the area to the north and east of the churchyard now forms the Clapton Square Conservation Area, designated in 1969.

Victorian Hackney

1830 Map of Hackney village 1830 HackneyVillage.png
1830 Map of Hackney village
A map showing the Hackney ward of Hackney Metropolitan Borough as it appeared in 1916. Hackney Met. B Ward Map 1916.svg
A map showing the Hackney ward of Hackney Metropolitan Borough as it appeared in 1916.

During the Victorian era, many of the old buildings were swept away and the estates broken up to form streets of terraced housing. The change from rural suburb to firmly urban, was marked by the arrival of the railway in 1850, with a great iron rail bridge crossing Mare Street. Trams began to make their appearance on the streets in the 1870s, and a tram depot opened in 1882 on Bohemia Place. [note 1]

Increased access and the culverting of Hackney Brook in 1859–1860, brought about the present road layout. Many older buildings were pulled down to intensify development and to make room for street widening and the railway. In 1802 the parish vestry hall on the Narrow Way was rebuilt. [9] In 1900 it was re-faced in stone and given a pediment inscribed 'Hackney Old Town Hall'. [10] A new town hall was built on a different site in 1866; it was in turn superseded by today's Town Hall, built in 1937. By the turn of the 20th century, only St Johns Gardens, and Clapton Square, the areas around the 1791 church, remained as public open space.

Governance

There is a Hackney Central ward electoral ward for Hackney Council, which, as electoral wards require roughly equal electorates, corresponds only very roughly to the area after which it is named.

Geography

Districts within the London Borough of Hackney. Hackney districts.gif
Districts within the London Borough of Hackney.

Hackney Central is the geographic, administrative and retail core of Hackney and is based on the village that grew up within the pre-existing parish of Hackney which had been in existence, with consistent boundaries, from the medieval period.

The term Hackney Proper was often applied to that wider district [11] which also includes Hackney Wick, South Hackney, West Hackney, Homerton, Dalston, De Beauvoir Town, Stamford Hill and Upper and Lower Clapton.

In 1965 the term Hackney was used to name the London Borough of Hackney, however the borough also includes Shoreditch and Stoke Newington.

Hackney Town Hall is about 5 miles (8 km) north-east of Charing Cross; and 3.8 miles (6.1 km) from the GLA City Hall near Tower Bridge.

Landmarks

The refurbished Hackney Empire is one of the oldest surviving music halls in Britain. (September 2005) Hackney empire 2.jpg
The refurbished Hackney Empire is one of the oldest surviving music halls in Britain. (September 2005)
The Viktor Wynd Museum of Curiosities, Fine Art & Natural History near the Regents Canal, opened 2015 Viktor Wynd Museum of Curiosities, Hackney, E8 (24566926413).jpg
The Viktor Wynd Museum of Curiosities, Fine Art & Natural History near the Regents Canal, opened 2015

South of Hackney Central railway station Mare Street slices through Hackney's 'cultural quarter' of Town Hall Square. Its north side is dominated by Frank Matcham's Grade II* listed 1901 Hackney Empire music hall, on whose stage appeared Charles Chaplin and Marie Lloyd – who lived in nearby Graham Road. [12] On the west side of Town Hall Square is the 1934–1937 Grade II Hackney Town Hall in Portland Stone, fronted by an open space created when its predecessor, the Hackney Vestry Hall of 1860 was demolished. [13] A new town hall complex is being constructed behind the existing building. Opposite on the East side, is the 2001 refurbishment of the Central Library and Methodist Hall, combined to form the Ocean Music Venue.

The Hackney Museum contains Hackney's first fire engine. HackneyMuseumFireEngine.jpg
The Hackney Museum contains Hackney's first fire engine.
Church of St John-at-Hackney Church of St John-at-Hackney.jpg
Church of St John-at-Hackney

The square is completed by the 2002 Learning and Technology Centre. This houses the new Hackney Central Library, the Hackney Archive, the local museum and the offices of the Hackney Learning Trust.

North of the railway bridge, Mare Street continues as The Narroway (originally known as Church Street). By St Augustine's Tower, a Grade I landmark, is the 'Old Town Hall' built to serve the Parish of Hackney in 1802. It is now a betting shop. To the east are St Johns' Church Gardens. In 2009, they were awarded Heritage Green Flag status. Within the gardens stands the Church of St John-at-Hackney (built 1792).

The Viktor Wynd Museum of Curiosities, Fine Art & Natural History opened in 2015, the museum and bar is situated in a former call centre on Mare Street that is run by Viktor Wynd, which is a part of the Last Tuesday Society and funded by Kickstarter. Its gallery includes classic curiosities such as hairballs, Sebastian Horsley nails from his crucifixion and drawings and archive material to do with Stephen Tennant, a collection of human remains including shrunken heads, dead babies in bottles and parts of pickled prostitutes, as well as condoms used by the Rolling Stones and tribal art, in among an art collection which spans several centuries. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]

The Ash Grove bus depot was built by London Buses in 1981 as part of a program to build more garages. The roof is of unusual design, carried by ten 35-ton triangular trusses supported on reinforced concrete columns, and was developed at a cost of £3.5 million. Ash Grove has also been used at various times as part of the London Transport Museum to house stored vehicles. [19] [20]

Transport

Rail

The area is 2 miles (3.2 km) north-east of the City of London with frequent trains from Hackney Downs railway station to Liverpool Street. Hackney Central railway station is a London Overground station with westbound trains to Richmond and Clapham Junction via Dalston Junction, and eastbound trains to Stratford via Homerton.

Buses

London bus routes 30, 38, 48, 55, 106, 236, 242, 253, 254, 276, 277, 394, D6, N38, N55, N253 and W15 serve Hackney Central. [21] Route N277 also serves here when the 277 route was withdrawn between Dalston and Highbury Corner and the N277 was retained. [22]

Economy

The Narrow Way (Church Street) remains a busy shopping area, and there is a large Tesco supermarket in nearby Morning Lane (Money Lane). This international store group was founded in Hackney, from a market stall in Well Street market in 1919. A planning application for a multi-storey shopping centre (with parking beneath, and housing above) on the Hackney Tesco site was refused permission in 2010, [23] and the future of the site remains uncertain. A former Burberry factory building is also located off Morning Lane, with a 'factory outlet' that is considered to be Hackney's most visited tourist attraction. This site is currently being redeveloped, in two phases, that will see the retention of the showroom, but add housing above.

The primary local employers are the council and the NHS at Homerton University Hospital; there are also two London Transport garages, one at the foot of the Narroway, and another about 1 mile south at Ash Grove. Between Ash Grove and London Fields there is a small industrial estate.

Education

Schools in the area include The Urswick School (formerly known as Hackney Free and Parochial Church of England Secondary School) and BSix Sixth Form College.

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. The North Metropolitan Tramways Co. from Bishopsgate ran through Mare Street, and thence to Clapton, opened in 1872, and was extended to Clapton Common in 1875, reaching Stamford Hill in 1902

Related Research Articles

London Borough of Hackney Borough in United Kingdom

The London Borough of Hackney is a London borough in Inner London. The historical and administrative heart of Hackney is Mare Street, which lies 5 miles (8 km) north-east of Charing Cross. The borough is named after Hackney, its principal district. Southern and eastern parts of the borough are popularly regarded as being part of east London, with the northwest belonging to north London. Its population is 281,120 inhabitants.

Dalston Human settlement in England

Dalston is an area of East London, in the London Borough of Hackney. It is 4 miles (6.4 km) north-east of Charing Cross. Dalston began as a hamlet on either side of Dalston Lane, and as the area urbanised the term also came to apply to surrounding areas including Kingsland and Shacklewell, all three of which being part of the Ancient Parish of Hackney.

Homerton Human settlement in England

Homerton is a district in London, England, in the London Borough of Hackney. It was a suburb of the metropolitan area of London until 1965 when it was reformed and expanded. It is bordered to the west by Hackney Central, to the north by Lower Clapton, in the east by Hackney Wick, Leyton and by South Hackney to the south. In 2019, it had a population of 14,658 people. In terms of ethnicity it was 43.9% White, 33.0% Black, 10.9% Asian and 7.8% Mixed. It covered an area of 0.830 sq kilometres.

Shoreditch Human settlement in England

Shoreditch is a district in the East End of London that forms the southern part of the London Borough of Hackney. Neighbouring parts of Tower Hamlets are sometimes also perceived as part of the area.

Stoke Newington Area in London, England

Stoke Newington is an area occupying the north-west part of the London Borough of Hackney in north-east London, England. It is five miles northeast of Charing Cross. The Manor of Stoke Newington gave its name to Stoke Newington the ancient parish.

Lee, London Human settlement in England

Lee, also known as Lee Green, is an area of South East London, England, straddling the border of the London Borough of Lewisham and the Royal Borough of Greenwich. It is located north west of Eltham and south east of Lewisham. It is within the historic county of Kent.

Metropolitan Borough of Hackney

The Metropolitan Borough of Hackney was a Metropolitan borough of the County of London from 1900 to 1965. Its area became part of the London Borough of Hackney.

Hackney Central railway station London Overground station

Hackney Central is a London Overground station on the North London line in Hackney Central, Greater London. It lies between Dalston Kingsland and Homerton and is in Travelcard Zone 2. The station and all trains serving it are operated by National Rail services under the control of the London Rail division of Transport for London. However, there is no standard red National Rail "double arrow" logo signage at the station, instead only the Overground roundel.

South Hackney Human settlement in England

South Hackney is an area of Hackney in London, England within the Borough of Hackney. It is about 4.2 miles (6.8 km) northeast of Charing Cross.

Hackney (parish)

Hackney was a parish in the historic county of Middlesex. The parish church of St John-at-Hackney was built in 1789, replacing the nearby former 16th-century parish church dedicated to St Augustine. The original tower of that church was retained to hold the bells until the new church could be strengthened; the bells were finally removed to the new St John's in 1854. See details of other, more modern, churches within the original parish boundaries below.

Sutton House, London Tudor manor house in Homerton High Street, Hackney, London, England

Sutton House is a Grade II* listed Tudor manor house in Homerton High Street, in Hackney and is in London Borough of Hackney, London, England. It is owned by the National Trust.

London Buses route 242

London Buses route 242 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. Running between Homerton University Hospital and Aldgate bus station, it is operated by Arriva London. In December 1998, it became the first double-decker route in London to solely use low-floor buses.

Sutton Place, Hackney

Sutton Place, is a small street in the London Borough of Hackney. It links Homerton High Street with St John's Church Gardens, in Hackney. The Georgian terrace of 1790–1806, is Grade II listed as a whole, together with the villas on the north side of the street which date from 1820, and is sited in the conservation area around the gardens of St John-at-Hackney. The street replaced Church Path, an historic path connecting the villages of Homerton and Hackney.

Clapton Square Garden square in Lower Clapton in the London Borough of Hackney

Clapton Square is the second largest garden square in the London Borough of Hackney, located in Lower Clapton, Clapton. It is lined by buildings on three sides. Its Conservation Area designated in 1969 – extended in 1991 and 2000 – takes in a larger green space separated by a stretch of open road: St John's Gardens. Those gardens have the tallest and largest building visible from all parts of the square's garden, the Church of St John-at-Hackney, rebuilt in 1792-97 which contains older monuments. Two sides of the square are lined with tall, partly stone-dressed, classical, Georgian terraced houses.

Church of St John-at-Hackney Church in London Borough of Hackney, United Kingdom

St John at Hackney is a Grade II* listed Anglican Church in the heart of the London Borough of Hackney with a large capacity of around 2,000. It was built in 1792 to replace Hackney's medieval parish church, of which St Augustine's Tower remains, at the edge of its churchyard. The church faces north towards Clapton Square, with the nearby Sutton House and Hackney Central station also accessible from the churchyard to the east and south, respectively.

The Gravel Pit Chapel was established in 1715–16 in Hackney, then just outside London, for a Nonconformist congregation, which by the early 19th century began to identify itself as Unitarian. In 1809 the congregation moved to the New Gravel Pit Chapel nearby, while its old premises were taken over by Congregationalists. The New Gravel Pit Chapel was closed and demolished in 1969.

Mare Street

Mare Street is a street in the London Borough of Hackney. It has existed since the 15th century, when it was one of the first roads at the centre of the parish. It was then known as Merestret. The word mere was either the Old English mǣre meaning a boundary — referring to the boundary with the parish of Stepney — or mere, a large pond which was fed by Hackney Brook.

West Hackney Human settlement in England

West Hackney is a district in the London Borough of Hackney, situated on the eastern side of Ermine Street, the major Roman Road better known as the A10.

Hackney, London Human settlement in England

Hackney is a district in East London, England, forming around two-thirds of the area of the modern London Borough of Hackney, to which it gives its name. It is 4 miles (6.4 km) northeast of Charing Cross and includes part of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. Historically it was within the county of Middlesex.

Clapton, London Human settlement in England

Clapton is a district of East London, England, in the London Borough of Hackney.

References

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  11. "The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland". 1868. Retrieved 20 February 2007.
  12. Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1226960)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 22 January 2009.
  13. Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1235869)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 22 January 2009.
  14. Viktor Wynd: Viktor Wynd's Cabinet of Wonders. Prestel Publishing.
  15. J.C. (1 October 2015). "N.B.: Horizon and the CIA". The Wall Street Journal.
  16. Oliver Wainwright. "A two-headed lamb and ancient dildos: the UK's strangest new museum". The Guardian.
  17. "Viktor Wynd's Little Shop of Horrors". Viktor Wynd. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  18. Tolhurst, Alain. "Help London's weirdest museum create home for bizarre curiosities in Hackney". Archived from the original on 4 October 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  19. Arriva London – News – Ash Grove garage fully operational again Archived 7 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  20. McLachlan, Tom (1995). London Buses 1985–1995: Managing The Change. Venture Publications. p. 33. ISBN   1-898432-74-0.
  21. "Buses from Hackney Central" (PDF).
  22. "Permanent bus changes". Transport for London. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  23. "Tesco Towers Turned Down". Hackney Citizen. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2015.

Further reading