Haeju

Last updated
Haeju

해주시
Korean transcription(s)
   Chosŏn'gŭl
   Hancha
   McCune-Reischauer Haeju-si
   Revised Romanization Haeju-si
Haeju montage.png
Views of Haeju
DPRK2006 Hwangnam-Haeju.PNG
Map of South Hwanghae showing the location of Haeju
Haeju
North Korea adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Haeju
Location within North Korea
Coordinates: 38°3′N125°43′E / 38.050°N 125.717°E / 38.050; 125.717
CountryFlag of North Korea.svg  North Korea
Province South Hwanghae Province
Administrative divisions 25 tong, 4 ri
Area
  Total206.9 km2 (79.9 sq mi)
Population
 (2008)
  Total273,300
  Dialect
Hwanghae
Time zone UTC+9 (Pyongyang Time)

Haeju [lower-alpha 1] (Korean pronunciation:  [hɛ.dzu] ) is a city located in South Hwanghae Province near Haeju Bay in North Korea. It is the administrative centre of South Hwanghae Province. As of 2008, the population of the city is estimated to be 273,300. At the beginning of the 20th century, it became a strategic port in Sino-Korean trade. Haeju has chemical-related enterprises and a cement factory.

Contents

History

The area around Haeju is known to have been inhabited since the Neolithic period, as shellmounds, pottery, and stone tools have been found at Ryongdangp'o. During the early Three kingdoms period, it was briefly governed by a small chieftain, when it was known as "Naemihol" ( ). In 757, however, it was conquered by the Goguryeo kingdom, who later lost it to Silla. It was under the Goryeo dynasty's King T'aejo that it received its current name.

Sohyon Academy (소현서원) was a Confucian academy founded near Haeju by the famous scholar Yi I (1536–84) after his retirement. It is situated in Unbyong Valley, a part of Soktamgugok (Nine valleys of pools and rocks.

According to the North Korean government, the North Korean attack on South Korea on 25 June 1950 was a response to a two-day long bombing by the South Koreans and their surprise attacks on Haeju and other places. Early in the morning of 25 June, before the dawn counterattack in the North Korean account, the South Korean Office of Public Information announced that the Southern forces had captured Haeju. [2] The South Korean government later denied capturing the town and blamed the report on an exaggerating officer. Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union proposed that North Korea would be invited to the UN Security Council to present its side of the story. Both proposals were voted down. [3]

Geography

Haeju City is located on the westernmost edge of the Korean Peninsula, 60 km north of the Military Demarcation Line and 100 km south of Pyongyang. The city, being not very mountainous, is composed mostly of plains. All the mountains located within the city are under 1,000 m in elevation.

Mountains

Climate

Haeju has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dwa), with cold, dry winters and hot, humid summers.

Climate data for Haeju (1981–2010, extremes 1957–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)12.0
(53.6)
14.7
(58.5)
22.9
(73.2)
27.7
(81.9)
34.5
(94.1)
36.0
(96.8)
36.0
(96.8)
37.2
(99.0)
34.0
(93.2)
29.6
(85.3)
25.0
(77.0)
17.2
(63.0)
37.2
(99.0)
Average high °C (°F)0.9
(33.6)
3.9
(39.0)
9.2
(48.6)
16.1
(61.0)
21.1
(70.0)
25.3
(77.5)
26.9
(80.4)
28.9
(84.0)
25.4
(77.7)
19.4
(66.9)
10.9
(51.6)
4.0
(39.2)
16.0
(60.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)−3.5
(25.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
4.3
(39.7)
10.9
(51.6)
16.2
(61.2)
20.9
(69.6)
23.7
(74.7)
24.9
(76.8)
20.6
(69.1)
14.1
(57.4)
6.3
(43.3)
−0.3
(31.5)
11.4
(52.5)
Average low °C (°F)−7.2
(19.0)
−4.9
(23.2)
−0.2
(31.6)
6.5
(43.7)
12.0
(53.6)
17.3
(63.1)
21.1
(70.0)
21.8
(71.2)
16.7
(62.1)
9.7
(49.5)
2.4
(36.3)
−3.8
(25.2)
7.7
(45.9)
Record low °C (°F)−18.9
(−2.0)
−19.0
(−2.2)
−12.0
(10.4)
−6.1
(21.0)
0.0
(32.0)
2.0
(35.6)
10.9
(51.6)
9.8
(49.6)
2.3
(36.1)
−4.7
(23.5)
−11.1
(12.0)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−19.0
(−2.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)12.7
(0.50)
14.6
(0.57)
30.0
(1.18)
49.9
(1.96)
91.8
(3.61)
110.3
(4.34)
297.0
(11.69)
219.0
(8.62)
115.8
(4.56)
39.9
(1.57)
37.7
(1.48)
13.9
(0.55)
1,032.6
(40.65)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)4.63.04.75.37.68.013.810.75.94.65.45.278.8
Average snowy days6.83.61.70.00.00.00.00.00.00.22.15.620.0
Average relative humidity (%)67.063.863.464.170.476.085.580.772.167.368.668.670.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 1881842132242351971331882102151641692,320
Source 1: Korea Meteorological Administration [4]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990), [5] [6] [lower-alpha 2] Meteo Climat (extremes) [7]

Administrative divisions

Haeju is divided into several urban neighborhoods ("dong") and several rural villages ("ri"). [8]

Chosŏn'gŭl Hancha
Changch'un-dong장춘동
Haech'ŏng-dong해청동
Haeun-dong해운동 海運
Hakhyŏn-dong학현동
Kuje-dong구제동
Kwangha-dong광하동
Kwangsŏk-tong광석동
Kyŏlsŏng-dong결성동
Namsan-dong남산동
Okkye-dong옥계동
Puyong-dong부용동 芙蓉
Ryongdang-dong룡당동
Saegŏri-dong새거리동 거리
Sami-dong사미동
Sansŏng-dong산성동
Sŏae-dong서애동 西
Sŏkch'ŏn-dong석천동
Sŏkmi-dong석미동
Sŏnsan-dong선산동
Sŭngma-dong승마동
Taegok-tong대곡동
Ŭpp'a-dong읍파동
Yangsa-dong양사동
Yŏnggwang-dong영광동
Yŏnha-dong연하동
Chakch'ŏl-li작천리
Changbang-ri장방리
Singwang-ri신광리
Yŏngyang-ri영양리

Culture and travel

Famous tourist attractions in the city center include Puyong Pavilion, the Haeju Dharani Monument, the Haeju Sokbinggo, and several trees classified as living monuments. Farther out, scenic spots include Suyangsan Falls, the Sokdamgugok scenic area, Suyangsan Fortress and the Sohyon Academy.

Economy

Haeju Special Economic Zone was announced in the Second Inter-Korean summit meeting between the South Korean president Roh Moo-Hyun and the North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il. It was to be a Special Economic Zone centered on the Haeju port. The zone would have consisted of 16.5 km2 of development, and also the expansion of the Haeju port. This project was estimated to cost over US$4.5 billion.

This economic agreement between South Korea and North Korea would have allowed trading across the Northern Limit Line [9] between the ports of Incheon and Haeju, only 110 km apart. Recent military skirmishes make any revival of this deal unlikely for the time being.

Transportation

Haeju has a military and civilian dual purposes air station (HAE), with a 12/30 runway (Haeju Airport). Haeju also has one of the major economic and military ports in North Korea. It is connected to Sariwŏn via the Hwanghae Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line of the Korean State Railway.

Education

Haeju is home to Haeju University of Education, Haeju College of Art, and Kim Je Won Haeju University of Agriculture. Sohyon Academy (소현서원) was a Confucian academy founded by the famous scholar Yi Yulgok (1536–84). It is situated in the Unbyong Valley west of Haeju.

Media

The Korean Central Broadcasting Station airs on AM 1080 kHz using a 1.5-megawatt mediumwave transmitter. [ citation needed ]

Sister cities

People born in Haeju

Haeju is the home of the Haeju Choi and the Haeju Oh clan.

See also

Notes

  1. In the 19th century, Haeju was sometimes spelled Hai-tsiou. [1]
  2. Station ID for Haeju is 47069 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

Citations

  1. EB (1878), p. 390.
  2. Keum, Jooseop (2008). "Korean War: The Origin of the Axis of Evil in the Korean Peninsula". In Kim, Kollontai and Holyland (ed.). Peace & Reconciliation. Hampshire, UK: Ashgate. p. 110. Cummings
  3. William Blum (2004). Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. Zed Books Ltd. pp.  46–48.
  4. "30 years report of Meteorological Observations in North Korea" (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. pp. 232–281. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  5. "Klimatafel von Haeju / Korea (Nordkorea)" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  6. "Station 47069 Haeju". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  7. "Station Haeju" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  8. "중앙일보 - 아시아 첫 인터넷 신문".
  9. Rodger Baker (24 November 2010). "Importance of the Koreas' Northern Limit Line". STRATFOR . Retrieved 4 December 2010.
  10. "Agreements Signed between DPRK and Ecuador". KCNA. 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
  11. "Sister Relations Established between Cities in DPRK and Russia". KCNA. 30 September 2012. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.

Bibliography

Further reading

Coordinates: 38°02′N125°43′E / 38.033°N 125.717°E / 38.033; 125.717

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