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Hafiz ( // ; Arabic : حافظ, romanized: ḥāfiẓ, حُفَّاظ, pl. ḥuffāẓ, حافظة f. ḥāfiẓa), literally meaning "guardian" or "memorizer", depending on the context, is a term used by Muslims for someone who has completely memorized the Quran. Hafiza is the female equivalent.
In the classical Arabic lexicon, the word hafiz was not traditionally used to refer to one who had memorized the Quran. Instead, the word used was hamil (i.e., one who carries). Hafiz was used for the scholars of hadith, specifically one who had committed 100,000 hadiths to memory (for example, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani).[ citation needed ]
The Quran (lit. a "reading" or "recitation") is distinct from the recorded sayings and deeds (Sunnah) which have traditionally been ascribed to Muhammad, which are instead preserved in a separate set of literature collectively called the "Ahadeeth" (lit. "news"; "report"; or "narration").[ citation needed ]
Although there are various definitions for the keeper of the Quran that examine the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the person keeping the Quran, generally, the keeper of the Quran is capable of fluent, eloquent recitation of all the verses of the Quran. The Hafiz should also understand the meaning of each verse without referring to the text or asking for help from others.[ citation needed ]
The Islamic prophet, Muhammad, lived in the 7th century CE, in Arabia in a time when few people were literate.[ citation needed ]
The huffaz were also highly appreciated as reciters, whose intoned words were accessible even to the illiterate. Memorization required no expensive materials; at the time there was no paper in the Muslim world, only vellum.[ citation needed ]
Muslims believe that even after Caliph Uthman ibn Affan collected and organized the Quran circa 650–656 CE, recitation (from memory) of the Quran was still honored and encouraged. There are numerous traditions of recitation. Most huffaz know only one version, but some experts can recite in several traditions. However this does not change the meaning of the content.[ citation needed ]
The Quran is divided into 114 Surahhs (chapters), containing 6,236 verses (comprising some 80,000 words or 330,000 individual characters). If a person were to memorize 20 ayah (verses) a day, it can be completed within a year. Most huffaz have studied as children in special Islamic schools or madrasahs, being instructed in tajwid (rules of recitation) and vocalisation as well as committing the Quran to memory.[ citation needed ]
Huffaz are highly respected within the Islamic community. They are privileged to use the title "Hafiz" before their names. They are tested on their knowledge. For example, in one test they are asked to continue the recitation of a passage taken randomly from the Quran. As they do not know which passage will be chosen, they must know the whole text in order to be sure of passing. In another test, a would-be hafiz might be asked to recite verses containing a specific word or phrase.[ citation needed ]
The 2.5 million strong Isma'ili Shia Dawoodi Bohra Muslim community led by the 53rd Da'i al-Mutlaq Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin counts 4000 members as huffaz. [ citation needed ]The Syedna is a hafiz himself as was his predecessor Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin. The Syedna has wished for at least one hafiz in each household which has resulted in over 100,000 people taking up the hifz aided by Mahad al-Zahra, an appendage of Aljamea-tus-Saifiyah, dedicated to Quranic knowledge and memorization.
Hifz is memorization of the Quran. Muslims believe that whoever memorizes Quran and acts upon it, Allah will reward and honour them greatly, so that they will rise in status in Paradise to a level commensurate with what they memorized of the Book of Allah. Abdullah ibn Amr narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: “The Hafiz-e-Quran (a person who has memorized Quran) will be said on the day of Judgment: Recite and rise in status, recite as you used to recite in the world, for your status will be at the last verse that you recite.” (Jami` at-thirmidhi 2914) [ citation needed ]
Having memorised the Quran, the hafiz or hafiza must then ensure they do not forget it. To ensure perfect recall of all the learned verses requires constant practice. [ citation needed ] Yearly, thousands of students master the Quran and complete the book with interpretation and also memorisation. The Quran is perhaps the only book, religious or secular, that has been memorized completely by millions of people. In Pakistan alone, Qari Hafeez Jalandhari, the general secretary of the Wafaq-ul-Madaris, which is a central board accounting for most of the religious seminaries in Pakistan, says that, in its network of madaris, "one million children have become Hafiz-e-Quran after an exam was introduced in 1982", with more than 78 000 (including 14 000 girls) every year, which he compared to the yearly output of Saudi Arabia, which is of 5000.The memorisation of the Quran was important to Muslims in the past and is also in the present.
For Muslims who are attempting to memorize certain suras but are unfamiliar with the Arabic script, the ulema have made various elucidations. There are mixed opinions on the usage of romanization of Arabic due to concerns about mispronunciations, higher approval of writing systems with close consonantal and vocalic equivalents to classical Arabic or relevant and effective diacritics, and a preference for Quran tutors or recorded recitations from qaris or any device with clear audible sound storage technology, such as CDs or cassettes. [ circular reference ]Keeping the Quran memorized as a person has always been a challenging and at the same time important issue in Muslim countries. In Iran, according to Resolution 573 of the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution, there is at least one specialized examination of the preservation of the Quran each year, according to specific criteria. The reviewer of this evaluation is Dar al-Qur'an al-Karim, a subsidiary of the Islamic Advertising Organization. According to Article 5 of the above Decree, holders of specialized qualifications for memorizing the Quran will enjoy the benefits of one to five art degrees, subject to the approval of the 547th session of the Supreme Council for Cultural Revolution. Therefore, the approval of the Qualification Degrees 1 to 5 of the Quran are in line with the Doctoral, Master's, Bachelor, Associate's Diploma and Diploma degrees, respectively.
According to Shi'a sources, Ali, the cousin of Muhammad, is considered one of the first Hafiz in Islamic history because he was known to have memorized the entire Quran while other Sahabah including 'ibn Masud, Umar, and Hudhayfah knew only portions.
The Quran, also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature. Slightly shorter than the New Testament, it is organized in 114 chapters — not according to chronology or subject matter, but according to length of surahs. Surah are subdivided into verses.
In Islam, duʿāʾ, literally meaning appeal or "invocation", is a prayer of supplication or request. Muslims regard this as a profound act of worship. Muhammad is reported to have said, "Dua is the very essence of worship."
Al-Fātiḥah is the first chapter (sūrah) of the Quran. Its seven verses (āyāt) are a prayer for the guidance, lordship, and mercy of God. This chapter has an essential role in Islamic prayer (salāt). The primary literal meaning of the expression "al-Fātiḥah" is "The Opener," which could refer to this Surah being "the opener of the Book", to its being the first Surah recited in full in every prayer cycle (rakʿah), or to the manner in which it serves as an opening for many functions in everyday Islamic life. Some Muslims interpret it as a reference to an implied ability of the Surah to open a person to faith in God.
Al-Ikhlāṣ, also known as al-Tawḥīd is the 112th chapter (sūrah) of the Quran. In the early years of Islam, some surahs of the Quran came to be known by several different names, sometimes varying by region. This surah was among those to receive many different titles. It is a short declaration of tawhid, Allah's absolute oneness, consisting of four ayat. Al-Ikhlas means "the purity" or "the refining".
Al-Baqarah is the second and longest chapter (sūrah) of the Quran. It consists of 286 verses (āyāt), 6,201 words and 25,500 letters.
At-Tawbah, also known as Bara'ah, is the ninth chapter (sūrah) of the Quran. It contains 129 verses (āyāt) and is one of the last Medinan surah. This Surah is reported to have been revealed at the time of the Battle of Tabuk in Madinah in the 9th year of the Hijrah. It is the only Surah of the Quran that does not begin with Bismillah. It deals with almost the same topics as those dealt with in Surat al-Anfal. It is the only surah in the Qur'an which does not begin with the usual opening formula, In the name of God, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate. In contrast to all other surahs, prophet Muhammad, did not order that this formula should be put at the beginning of this surah.
A qāriʾ is a person who recites the Quran with the proper rules of recitation (tajwid).
A muṣ·ḥaf is an Arabic word for a codex or collection of sheets, but also refers to a written copy of the Quran. The chapters of the Quran, which Muslims believe was revealed during a 23-year period in Muhammad's lifetime, were written on various pieces of paper during Muhammad's era. Two decades later, these papers were assembled into one volume under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, and this collection has formed the basis of all written copies of the Quran to the present day.
According to Islamic traditions, Zayd bin Thabit was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and was from the ansar (helpers). He joined the ranks of the Muslim army at age 19. After Muhammad's passing he collected the Quran into a single volume from various written and oral sources. He was a noted expert on the Quran and spent much time reciting it.
In the context of the recitation of the Quran, tajwīd is a set of rules for the correct pronunciation of the letters with all their qualities and applying the various traditional methods of recitation (Qira'at). In Arabic, the term tajwīd is derived from the triliteral root j-w-d, meaning enhancement or to make something excellent. Technically, it means giving every letter its right in reciting the Qur'an.
The history of the Qur'an deals with the timeline and origin of the Qur'an, the Islamic holy book and its written compilations into manuscripts. It spans several centuries, based on historical findings, and forms an important part of early Islamic history.
In Islam, Qira'at refers to variants in the recitation of the Quran. There are ten different recognised schools of qira'at, each one deriving its name from a noted Quran reciter or "reader" (Qari). Each reciter recited to two narrators whose narrations are known as riwaya (transmissions) and named after its primary narrator. Each Rawi has turuq with more variants created by notable students of the master who recited them and named after the student of the master. Passed down from Turuq are wujuh: the wajh of so-and-so from the tariq of so-and-so. There are about twenty riwayat and eighty turuq.
Pious Muslims consider the Quran to be a holy book, the word of God, and a miracle. The text itself is believed to be a miraculous on the grounds that the Arabic text would not conform to the standard poetry and prose categories commonly expressed by other forms of written and spoken languages and therefore is attributed to supernatural, esp. divine, agency.
Nur ad-Din Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Sultan Muhammad al-Hirawi al-Qari, known as Mulla Ali al-Qari was an Islamic scholar.
Mohamed Siddiq El-Minshawi or Mohamed Seddik El-Menshawy or Muhammad Siddik al-Minshawi, also simply known as El Minshawy, born in Upper Egypt, was a Qur'anic reciter and a Huffaz. The quadrumvirate of El Minshawy, Abdul Basit, Mustafa Ismail, and Al-Hussary are generally considered the most important and famous Qurra' of modern times to have had an outsized impact on the Islamic world.
Shaykh Mahmoud Khalil al-Hussary, also known as Al-Hussary, was an Egyptian Qari widely acclaimed for his accurate recitation of the Qur'an. Al-Hussary committed the entire Qur'an to memory by age 8 and started reciting at public gatherings by age 12. In 1944, Al-Hussary won Egypt Radio's Qu'ran Recitation competition which had around 200 participants, including veterans like Muhammad Rifat. The quadrumvirate of El Minshawy, Abdul Basit, Mustafa Ismail, and Al-Hussary are generally considered the most important and famous Qurra' of modern times to have had an outsized impact on the Islamic world.
Salat al-jama‘ah or prayer in congregation (jama'ah) is considered to have more social and spiritual benefit than praying by oneself. When praying in congregation, the people stand in straight parallel rows behind the chosen imam, facing qibla. The imam, who leads the congregation in salat, is usually chosen to be a scholar or the one who has the best knowledge of the Qur'an, preferably someone who has memorised it in its entirety. In the first row behind the Imam, if available, would be another hafiz to correct the Imam in case a mistake is made during the performance of the salat. The prayer is performed as normal, with the congregation following the actions and movements of the imam as he performs the salat.
Shahzada Husain Burhanuddin or Husain Mufaddal Saifuddin is the third and youngest son of Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin, the current incumbent of the office of the 53rd Da'i al-Mutlaq, and the grandson of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin. He is a renowned reciter of the Quran (qāriʾ) and is also an honorary member of Naqabāt Qurrāʾ al-Quran in Cairo. He is the provost of Aljamea-tus-Saifiyah, Mahad al-Zahra and administers a number of socio-economic institutions run by the Dawoodi Bohra community.
Maulana Muhammad Hanif Jalandhari is a Pakistani Islamic scholar, current 6th General Sectary of Wifaq ul Madaris Al-Arabia, Pakistan and the 3rd Muhtamim (principal) of Jamia Khair-ul-Madaris Multan since 1981.