Hai River

Last updated
Hai River
Hai He
Xuan Cai Jin Men 99Hai He Ye Jing .jpg
Hai River in Tianjin
Hai River Basin EN.svg
Hai River basin
Native name海河
Location
Country China
State Tianjin, Hebei, Beijing, Henan, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shandong
Physical characteristics
Source Taihang MountainsYan Mountains
Mouth Bohai Sea
Length1,329 km (826 mi)
Basin size318,200 km2 (122,900 sq mi)
Discharge 
  average717 m3/s (25,300 cu ft/s)
Hai River
Chinese
Literal meaningSea River
Peiho
Chinese
Literal meaningWhite River

The Hai River (海河, lit. "Sea River"), also known as the Peiho, Pei Ho ("White River"), or Hai Ho, is a Chinese river connecting Beijing to Tianjin and the Bohai Sea.

Contents

The Hai River at Tianjin is formed by the confluence of five rivers, the Southern Canal, Ziya River, Daqing River, Yongding River, and the Northern Canal. The southern and northern canals are parts of the Grand Canal. The Southern Canal is joined by the Wei River at Linqing. The Northern Canal joins with the Bai He (or Chaobai River ) at Tongzhou. The Northern Canal (sharing a channel with Bai He) is also the only waterway from the sea to Beijing. Therefore, early Westerners also called the Hai He the Bai He.

At Tianjin, through the Grand Canal, the Hai connects with the Yellow and Yangtze rivers. The construction of the Grand Canal greatly altered the rivers of the Hai He basin. Previously, the Wei, Ziya Yongding and Bai Rivers flowed separately to the sea. The Grand Canal cut through the lower reaches of these rivers and fused them into one outlet to the sea, in the form of the current Hai He.

The Hai River is 1,329 kilometers (826 mi) long measured from the longest tributary. However, the Hai River is only around 70 kilometers (43 mi) from Tianjin to its estuary. Its basin has an area of approximately 319,000 km2 (123,000 sq mi).

History

The Bund of the Hai River. Tianjin Hai River 2.JPG
The Bund of the Hai River.

On 20 May 1858, the Pei-ho, as it was then known, was the scene of an invasion by Anglo-French forces during the Second Opium War whereby the Taku Forts were captured. [1]

In 1863 seagoing ships could reach the head of navigation at Tongzhou, but the crooked river was difficult for large vessels. [2] During the Boxer Rebellion, Imperial Chinese forces deployed a weapon called "electric mines" on June 15, at the Baihe river before the Battle of Taku Forts (1900), to prevent the western Eight-Nation Alliance from sending ships to attack. This was reported by American military intelligence in the United States. War Dept. by the United States. Adjutant-General's Office. Military Information Division. [3] [4] [5] [6]

Like the Yellow River, the Hai is exceedingly muddy because of the powdery soil through which it flows. The silt carried by the water deposits in the lower reaches, sometimes causing flooding. The waters from the five major tributaries only have one shallow outlet to the sea, which makes such floods stronger. Because China's capital (and second largest city), Beijing, and the third largest city, Tianjin, both lie in the Hai He Basin, Hai He floods cause a significant loss. To alleviate flooding, reservoirs have been built and artificial channels dug to divert excess water directly into the sea. For example, the Chaobai River is diverted to the Chaobai Xin River and no longer joins with the Northern Canal.

Due to industrial and urban development in the Hai He Basin, the volume of water flow has greatly decreased. Many smaller tributaries and some of the major tributaries are dry for most of the year. With reduced water flow, water pollution worsens. The water shortage in the Hai He basin is expected to be alleviated by the South-North Water Transfer Project.

See also

Related Research Articles

Naval mine Explosive weapon for use in seas and waterways, triggered by the targets approach

A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines. Unlike depth charges, mines are deposited and left to wait until they are triggered by the approach of, or contact with, any vessel. Naval mines can be used offensively, to hamper enemy shipping movements or lock vessels into a harbour; or defensively, to protect friendly vessels and create "safe" zones. Mines allow the minelaying force commander to concentrate warships or defensive assets in mine-free areas giving the adversary three choices: undertake an expensive and time-consuming minesweeping effort, accept the casualties of challenging the minefield, or use the unmined waters where the greatest concentration of enemy firepower will be encountered.

Grand Canal (China)

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Jing–Hang Grand Canal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest canal or artificial river in the world. Starting in Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou, linking the Yellow River and Yangtze River. The oldest parts of the canal date back to the 5th century BC, but the various sections were first connected during the Sui dynasty. Dynasties in 1271–1633 significantly restored and rebuilt the canal and altered its route to supply their capital.

Tianjin City and province-level municipality of China

Tianjin, alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population estimated at 15,621,200 in 2016. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is also the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th-most populous city proper.

The United States Government Publishing Office is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government. The office produces and distributes information products and services for all three branches of the Federal Government, including U.S. passports for the Department of State as well as the official publications of the Supreme Court, the Congress, the Executive Office of the President, executive departments, and independent agencies.

Taku may refer to:

Geography of Beijing

Beijing is a municipality located in North China at the northern tip of the North China Plain, near the meeting point of the Xishan and Yanshan mountain ranges. The city itself lies on flat land that opens to the east and south. The municipality's outlying districts and counties extend into the mountains that surround the city from the southwest to the northeast. The highest peaks are over 2,000 m (6,600 ft).

China Relief Expedition

The China Relief Expedition was an expedition in China undertaken by the United States Armed Forces to rescue United States citizens, European nationals, and other foreign nationals during the latter years of the Boxer Rebellion, which lasted from 1898 to 1901. The China Relief Expedition was part of a multi-national military effort known as the Eight-Nation Alliance to which the United States contributed troops between 1900 and 1901. Towards the close of the expedition, the focus shifted from rescuing non-combatants to suppressing the rebellion. By 1902, at least in the city of Peking, the Boxer Rebellion had been effectively controlled.

Adna Chaffee 2nd Chief of Staff of the United States Army

Adna Romanza Chaffee was a lieutenant general in the United States Army. Chaffee took part in the American Civil War and Indian Wars, played a key role in the Spanish–American War, and fought in the Boxer Rebellion in China. He was the Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1904 to 1906, overseeing far-reaching transformation of organization and doctrine in the army.

Edward Seymour (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Edward Hobart Seymour, was a Royal Navy officer. As a junior officer he served in the Black Sea during the Crimean War. He then took part in the sinking of the war-junks, the Battle of Canton and the Battle of Taku Forts during the Second Opium War and then saw action again at the Battle of Cixi during the Taiping Rebellion.

Adna R. Chaffee Jr. United States Army general

Adna Romanza Chaffee Jr. was an officer in the United States Army, called the "Father of the Armored Force" for his role in developing the U.S. Army's tank forces.

Taku Forts

The Taku Forts or Dagu Forts, also called the Peiho Forts are forts located by the Hai River estuary in the Binhai New Area, Tianjin, in northeastern China. They are located 60 km (37 mi) southeast of the Tianjin urban center.

Eight-Nation Alliance Military coalition that defeated the Chinese Boxer Rebellion

The Eight-Nation Alliance was a multi-national military coalition that invaded North China in 1900 to relieve the foreign legations in Beijing besieged by popular Boxer militia determined to expunge foreign influence and government troops determined to defend China. The Allied forces consisted of approximately 45,000 troops from the eight nations of Germany, Japan, Russia, Britain, France, the United States, Italy and Austria-Hungary. Neither the Chinese or foreign side issued a formal declaration of war, and no treaty or formal agreement bound the Alliance together. The first phase of hostilities starting in August 1900 was more or less an inter-state war, but with the success of the invasion the later stages developed into a punitive expedition that pillaged Beijing and North China for over a year. The fighting ended with the signing of the Boxer Protocol.

Quảng Ninh Province Province of Vietnam

Quảng Ninh is a province along the northeastern coast of Vietnam. It is 153 km (95 mi) east of Hanoi. The province is home to Hạ Long Bay, a World Heritage Site. The provincial capital is Hạ Long. Nearly 80% of the province is mountainous with abundant land, forest water and mineral resources. Nearly 90% of coal output in the country is extracted in this province. Hạ Long Bay has 1,969 islands, out of which 989 have been given names. The province covers an area of 6,102.4 square kilometres and as of 2014 it had a population of 1,185,200 people.

Battle of the Taku Forts (1900)

The Battle of Taku or Dagu Forts was a battle during the Boxer Rebellion between the Chinese military and allied Western and Japanese naval forces. The Allies captured the forts after a brief but bloody battle.

The Bohai Economic Rim (BER) or Bohai Bay Economic Rim (BBER) is the economic region surrounding Tianjin (Tientsin). It also includes areas in Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong surrounding the Bohai Sea. This region has undergone major economic and infrastructural changes and is an emerging economic powerhouse of North China, rivaling both the Pearl River Delta in southern China and the Yangtze River Delta in eastern China.

Battle of Taku Forts (1859)

The Second Battle of Taku Forts was a failed Anglo-French attempt to seize the Taku Forts along the Hai River in Tianjin, China, in June 1859 during the Second Opium War. A chartered American steamship arrived on scene and assisted the French and British in their attempted suppression of the forts.

Battle of Yangcun

The Battle of Yangcun was a battle during the march of Eight-Nation Alliance forces from Tianjin to Beijing during the Boxer Rebellion. The Alliance forces defeated the Qing and were able to continue their march towards Peking.

The Battle of Beicang known also as the Battle of Peitsang, was fought August 5, 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion, between the Eight Nation Alliance and the Chinese army. The Chinese army was forced out of its prepared entrenchments and retreated to Yangcun. The Japanese contingent led the Alliance attack; with contingents also being present from Russia, Britain, America and France.

The Battle of Langfang was a battle in the Seymour Expedition during the Boxer Rebellion, in June 1900, involving Chinese imperial troops, the Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves and Boxers ambushing and defeating the Eight-Nation Alliance expeditionary army on its way to Beijing, pushing the Alliance forces to retreat back to Tientsin (Tianjin). The Alliance force at Langfang consisted of Germans.

Ziya River

The Ziya River is one of the five major tributaries of Hai River system in northern China. The total length of Ziya River is 730 km (450 mi) and the size of its drainage basin is 78,700 square kilometers (30,400 sq mi). The discharge rate of Ziya River is about 1 m3/s.

References

  1. "List of Casualties". Bulletins and Other State Intelligence for the Year 1858. London: Harrison and Sons. Part 3: 2869–2874. 1860.
  2. Alexander Michie,The Siberian Overland Route from Peking to Petersburg, 1864
  3. United States. Adjutant-General's Office. Military Information Division (1901). Publication, Issue 33. WASHINGTON: G.P.O. p. 533. Retrieved February 19, 2011.(Document (United States. War Dept.))(Original from Harvard University)
  4. United States. Adjutant-General's Office. Military Information Division, Stephen L'H. Slocum, Carl Reichmann, Adna Romanga Chaffee (1901). Reports on military operations in South Africa and China. July, 1901. WASHINGTON: Govt. print. off. p.  533 . Retrieved February 19, 2011. June 15, it was learned that the mouth of the river was protected by electric mines, that the forts at Taku were.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)(Issue 33 of Publication (United States. Adjutant-General's Office. Military Information Division) Issue 143 of Document, United States War Dept Issue 33 of Publication, United States Adjutant-General's Office)
  5. Monro MacCloskey (1969). Reilly's Battery: a story of the Boxer Rebellion. R. Rosen Press. p. 95. Retrieved February 19, 2011.(Original from the University of Wisconsin - Madison)
  6. Stephan L'H. Slocum, Carl Reichmann, Adna Romanza Chaffee, United States. Adjutant-General's Office. Military Information Division (1901). Reports on military operations in South Africa and China. WASHINGTON: G.P.O. p.  533 . Retrieved February 19, 2011. June 15, it was learned that the mouth of the river was protected by electric mines, that the forts at Taku were.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)(Issue 143 of Document (United States. War Dept.))(Original from the New York Public Library)

Bibliography

Further reading

Coordinates: 38°57′N117°43′E / 38.950°N 117.717°E / 38.950; 117.717