Last updated
Thành phố Hải Phòng
Hải Phòng City
Hai Phong City.jpg
Statue of Madam Le-Chan in Haiphong City (1).jpg
Chua Ve Terminal, Port of Hai Phong.JPG
Khu du lich Do Son, Do Son, Hai Phong, Vietnam - panoramio.jpg
From top, left to right: Downtown Haiphong, Haiphong seen from Haiphong Opera House, Lê Chân statue, Nguyen Binh Khiem overpass, Hai Phong Port, Đồ Sơn.
Emblem of Haiphong.png
Flamboyant City (Thành phố Hoa Phượng Đỏ)
Hai Phong in Vietnam.svg
Provincial location in Vietnam
Coordinates: 20°51′54.5″N106°41′01.8″E / 20.865139°N 106.683833°E / 20.865139; 106.683833
Country Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam
Region Red River Delta
Seat Hồng Bàng
Subdivision 7 urban districts, 8 rural districts
  Type Municipality
  BodyHaiphong People's Council
  Secretary of the Party Trần Lưu Quang
  Chairman of People's CouncilPhạm Văn Lập
  Chairman of People's CommitteeNguyễn Văn Tùng
   Municipality (Class-1) 1,561.76 km2 (603.00 sq mi)
 (2021) [2]
   Municipality (Class-1) 2,358,741
  Density1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)
Ethnic groups
   Vietnamese 99.6%
Time zone UTC+07:00 (ICT)
Postal code
04000 - 05000
Area codes 225
License plate 15, 16
GRP (Nominal)2020 [3] [4]
- TotalUS$12 billion
- Per capitaUS$5.863
HDI (2020)0.782 (4th) [5]
International airport Cat Bi International Airport
Website Haiphong.gov.vn

Haiphong (Vietnamese : Hải Phòng, IPA:  [haːj˧˩ fawŋ͡m˨˩] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), or Hải Phòng, is a major industrial city and the third-largest in Vietnam. [6] Hai Phong is also the center of technology, economy, culture, medicine, education, science and trade in the Red River delta.


Haiphong was founded in 1887 as a major seaport city of Vietnam. In 1888, the president of the French Third Republic, Sadi Carnot, promulgated a decree to establish Haiphong. From 1954 to 1975, Haiphong served as the most important maritime city of North Vietnam, and it became one of direct-controlled municipalities of a reunified Vietnam with Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City in 1976. In the 21st century, Haiphong has emerged as a trading gateway, modern, green industrial city of Vietnam, oriented to become the third special-class city of Vietnam by 2030 to 2050 at the latest.

Haiphong has a Human Development Index of 0.782 (high), ranking fourth among all municipalities and provinces of Vietnam. [7]


Dynastic Vietnam

Haiphong was the home of Lê Chân, one of the female generals under the command of the Trưng Sisters who rose against Chinese rule in 40 AD and ruled until their defeat in 43 AD. Centuries later under the Mạc dynasty, the area earned the appellation Hải-dương thương-chính quan-phòng ("The trading defensive area of Hải Dương Province") as it protected the eastern flank of Mac kings' home province.

A street in the late 19th century Rue chinoise, Haiphong, Tonkin.jpg
A street in the late 19th century

By the 19th century at the end of Nguyễn Emperor Tự Đức's reign, the Hang Kenh Communal House in what is now the city's Le Chan District was made the administrative seat of An Dương District, restoring its regional importance. [8] The area by then had developed into a sizable commercial port.

At the eve of the French conquest in 1881, a typhoon ravaged the area, killing about 3,000 people in and around Haiphong. Despite the damages, Haiphong was developed by the French to serve as Indochina's main naval base over the ensuing decades.

Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the Vietnam War

Following the defeat of Japan in World War II, Vietnamese nationalists agitated for independence against French return. French forces landed in Haiphong and encountered resistance which resulted in the deaths of three French soldiers. In retaliation, the French ships, among them the cruiser Suffren, shelled the city, setting it ablaze [9] and precipitating the First Indochina War. [10] [11] French infantry forces under the command of Jean-Étienne Valluy entered the city, fighting house to house with the support of armored units and airplanes. [12]

Late in the Vietnam War, Haiphong was subjected to heavy bombing by US Navy and Air Force strike aircraft because it was North Vietnam's only major port. U.S. Admiral Thomas H. Moorer ordered the mining of Haiphong harbor on 8 May 1972, effectively sealing the port. Until it was lifted, the mining caused no casualty. [13] [14] Despite being targeted, the physical structure of the city was mostly unaffected by the war as the US had a self-imposed prohibition zone for the city. After the war, the city recovered its role as a significant industrial center. [8]


Haiphong is a coastal city located at the mouth of the Cấm River, in Vietnam's north-eastern coastal area, 120 kilometres or 75 miles east of Hanoi. The Bính Bridge crosses the Cam and connects the city with Thủy Nguyên District. It has a total natural area of 152,318.49 hectares or 376,387 acres (2001). It borders Quảng Ninh Province to the north, Hải Dương Province to the west, Thái Bình Province to the south, and the Gulf of Tonkin to the east. Bach Long Vi island, Cat Ba Island and the Long Châu islands, located in the Gulf, are also administered as part of the city. Tidal flat ecosystems occur adjacent to the city, however, many have been reclaimed for agriculture or development purposes. [15]


Haiphong features a humid subtropical climate with hot, humid summers and warm, dry winters. The city is noticeably wetter from April through October; roughly 90% of the city's annual rainfall (which totals approximately 1,700 millimetres or 67 inches) typically falls during these months. There is a noticeable difference in temperatures between the city's winters and summers. Haiphong's coolest months, January and February, sees average high temperatures reach 20 °C (68 °F) and average low temperatures at around 14 °C (57.2 °F). Its warmest months, June and July, sees average high temperatures hover around 33 °C (91.4 °F) and average low temperatures at around 26 °C (78.8 °F). Sea temperatures range from a low of 21 °C (70 °F) in February to a high of 30 °C (86 °F) during the months of July and August. [16]

Climate data for Haiphong (Phù Liễn, located in Kiến An District)
Record high °C (°F)30.4
Average high °C (°F)19.8
Daily mean °C (°F)16.3
Average low °C (°F)14.2
Record low °C (°F)5.9
Average rainfall mm (inches)26
Average rainy days8.313.417.113.912.314.613.517.413.810.66.35.2146.4
Average relative humidity (%)83.187.790.890.586.986.185.887.885.381.477.978.385.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 874643881901832071791871901561391,695
Source: Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology [17]
Average sea temperature [16]
Average temperature °C (°F)22 °C (72 °F)21 °C (70 °F)22 °C (72 °F)24 °C (75 °F)27 °C (81 °F)29 °C (84 °F)30 °C (86 °F)30 °C (86 °F)29 °C (84 °F)28 °C (82 °F)26 °C (79 °F)23 °C (73 °F)26 °C (79 °F)

Administrative divisions

Political Division of Hai Phong BAN DO HANH CHINH HAI PHONG.png
Political Division of Hai Phong

Haiphong is subdivided into 15 district-level sub-divisions:

They are further subdivided into 10 commune-level towns (or townlets), 148 communes, and 72 wards.

Table of local government districts

DistrictNumber of wards
(communes and towns)
Area (km2)
Dương Kinh 6 wards48.8560,3191,235
Đồ Sơn 6 wards42.3749,0291,157
Hải An 8 wards95.93132,9431,504
Kiến An 10 wards26.7118,0474,421
Hồng Bàng 9 wards14.496,1116,674
Ngô Quyền 12 wards10.97165,30915,069
Lê Chân 15 wards12.31219,76217,852
Sub-Total (Urban Districts)66 wards243.99841,5203,449
An Dương 1 town + 15 communes98.32195,7171,991
An Lão 2 towns + 15 communes114.58146,7121,280
Bạch Long Vĩ -3.05624205
Cát Hải 2 towns + 10 communes327.6632.09098
Kiến Thụy 1 town + 17 communes107.53140,4171,306
Tiên Lãng 1 town + 22 communes189.04154,789819
Vĩnh Bảo 1 town + 29 communes180.6182,8351012
Thủy Nguyên 2 towns + 35 communes242.8333,8101,375
Sub-Total (Rural Districts)10 towns + 141 communes1,263.581,191,352943
Total 66 wards, 10 towns, 141 communes1,507.57 2,032,8721,348


Haiphong is a major economic center of the North in particular and Vietnam in general both. Under French domination, Haiphong was level 1 city, equal to Saigon and Hanoi. The last years of the 19th century, the French had proposed to build Haiphong into the economic capital of Indochina. [18] Today, Haiphong is still one of the most important economic centers of Vietnam. In 2009, Haiphong state budget revenue reached 34,000 billion Vnd. In 2011, budget revenues in the city reached 47,725 billion, increase 19% compared to 2010. [19] In 2015, total revenues of the city reached 56 288 billion. Government plans that to 2020, Haiphong's revenues will be over 80,000 billion and the domestic revenue reach 20.000 billion. In the ranking of the Provincial Competitiveness Index (PCI) 2013 of Vietnam, Haiphong city ranked at No. 15/63 provinces. [20] Haiphong has relationship of trading goods with more than 40 countries and territories around the world. Haiphong is striving to become one of the largest commercial centers of the country. [21]


Industry is a key sector in Haiphong including food processing, light industries and heavy industries. Major products include fish sauce, beer, cigarettes, textiles, paper, plastic pipes, cement, iron, pharmaceuticals, electric fans, motorbikes, steel pipes and ships and out-sourcing software implementation. [22] Most of these industries have been growing significantly between 2000 and 2007, with the exceptions of the cigarette and pharmaceutical industries. Shipbuilding, steel pipes, plastic pipes and textiles are among the industries with the most rapid growth. [22]

There are also growing industries supplying products used by existing industries in the city. PetroVietnam set up a joint-venture PVTex with textile manufacturer Vinatex to build Vietnam's first polyester fiber plant in Haiphong. The factory will use by-products from oil-refining and reduce reliance on imported materials. [23] 270,600 people were employed in Haiphong's industry. 112,600 industrial jobs were created between 2000 and 2007. [22]

Agriculture, forestry and fishery

Despite its status as a city, around one third of Haiphong's area or 52,300 ha (as of 2007) are used for agriculture. Rice is the most important crop, taking up around 80% of the agricultural land with an output of 463,100 tons in 2007. [22] Other agricultural products include maize, sugar and peanuts. [22]

Haiphong has a relatively large fishing sector with an output of 79,705 tons (2007). Gross output has almost doubled between 2000 and 2007, mostly due to fast growth in aquaculture, which made up 60% of gross output in 2007. Despite its coastal location, sea fish contribute relatively little to the sector (around one fourth). Nam Định Province and Thái Bình Province have much larger fishing sectors and even the inland Hải Dương Province has a larger gross output from fishing than Haiphong. [22]

As of 2007, 315,500 were employed in agriculture and fishery, a significant decrease from 396,300 in 2000. However, these sectors still account for almost a third of total employment in Haiphong, a larger share than industry. [22] However, gross output in both agriculture and fishery have been growing significantly between 2000 and 2007.


Haiphong is the third most populous city in Vietnam, with a population of 2.103.500 for the metropolitan area (2015), encompassing an area of 1,507.57 km2 (582.08 sq mi), 46,1 % of population reside in the urban districts. [24] The gender distribution is half female (50.4%). [25]

Population growth

As of the 2009 census, Haiphong's average annual population growth rate was given as 4.0%. Haiphong's crude birth rate was recorded at 18.1 live births per 1000 persons vs the crude death rate of 7.6 per 1000 persons. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at 77.1 years for women and 72.0 years for men, or 74.5 years overall. Infant mortality rate was measured at 11.8 infant deaths per 1000 live births, just over two points above the nation's average for urban areas. In the same census, the city's out-migration was 1.9% vs in-migration of 2.8% and, for a net migration rate of 0.9%. [25]



NASA image of Haiphong Haiphong 106.70132E 20.84440N.jpg
NASA image of Haiphong


Haiphong is located at the junction of two National Highways: Route 5, leading west to Hanoi, and Route 10, leading south to Nam Định and onward to connect with National Route 1 at Ninh Bình. Highway 356 passes west–east from the Route 5/10 junction through Haiphong's city center all the way to the coast. A connecting road from route 5 to route 18 links Haiphong with Quảng Ninh Province. In 2015, the new highway connecting Haiphong with Hanoi was completed; this is the most modern highway in Vietnam and reduces the trip by one hour as compared to the previous route. [26]

Within the city there are several long-distance bus depots: Niem Nghia, Vinh Niem, Thuong Ly.

A new highway route was completed last year 2016 to make the transfer faster and easier. From Hanoi to Haiphong and back, it takes less than 2 hours to reach not so long as 3 hours as before. Also shorten the distance from Haiphong to Thai Binh, Hai Duong, Hung Yen.

Tourists can easily catch a coach from Niem Nghia bus station to Hanoi or Cat Ba island, either Quang Ninh, or South of Vietnam.


The main airport serving Haiphong is Cat Bi International Airport with three flights daily to Ho Chi Minh city. In April 2011, Vietnam Airlines launched routes to Da Nang with 5 flights a week. An international airport for Haiphong, situated in Tien Lang district, is in the planning stages; if realized it would become the largest airport in northern Vietnam.


Porte conteneur a quai, attendant de reprendre la mer. Container Ship at the Hai Phong International Container Terminal 01.jpg
Porte conteneur à quai, attendant de reprendre la mer.

Haiphong port is one of the largest ports in Vietnam and south-east Asia as a whole. The Port of Haiphong on the Cấm River is divided into three main docks: Hoang Dieu (Central terminal) located near the city's center, Chua Ve, and Dinh Vu both farther downstream to the east. [27] Several ferry terminals connect Haiphong with the neighboring Cát Hải and Cát Bà Islands; Ben Binh Ferry terminal is located near the city center while Dinh Vu Ferry is located on a spit of land on the coast. The government had approved the plans to build an international port in Lach Huyen – 15 kilometers from the current port. Once completed this will be one of the deepest port in Vietnam with draft of 14m, capable of receiving ships up to 100.000 DWT.


Hai Phong Railway Station built in 1902 is the eastern terminus of the Kunming–Hai Phong Railway, also known as the Yunnan–Vietnam Railway. Built at by the French during their occupation, the railway once connected Haiphong to the city of Kunming in Yunnan, China, although service along the Chinese portion of the line is currently suspended. Rail travel from Haiphong with connections to the rest of the Vietnamese railway network is via Hanoi.

There are daily trains start from 6AM until 6PM from Hai Phong city to the capital Hanoi and return. The trains take approximately 3 hours to arrive to Hanoi as well as the same period back to the landport city.


Hai Phong cuisine is well known for seafood dishes. Seafood restaurants in the Do Son area have very fresh and affordable shrimp, crab, fish, and squid. The style of seafood processing in Hai Phong follows a simple style, emphasizing the essence and freshness of ingredients more than the fussiness in seasoning.

Dishes such as bánh đa cua (red noodle soup with crab), bún cá (fish rice noodle soup), bánh mỳ que cay (spicy stick-bread), cơm cháy hải sản (crispy rice cracker with seafood), nem cua bể (square crab spring rolls),... are now so familiar and famous. These dishes can be found on the streets of other places like Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi,... but enjoying them on the Red Phoenix Flower City (the other name of Haiphong City) is still the most ideal because of the choice of raw ingredients and cooking secrets of local chefs. Hai Phong cuisine has been promoted to Europe at the Brest Maritime Festival 2008 (France) and resonated greatly.

In addition, Hai Phong also has many other dishes such as mantis shrimp hot pot, bean sprouts salad, sủi dìn, bánh bèo (Haiphong's version, which is different from Hue's version),...

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

Container Ship at the Hai Phong International Container Terminal 03 Container Ship at the Hai Phong International Container Terminal 03.jpg
Container Ship at the Hai Phong International Container Terminal 03

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Provinces of Vietnam</span> Wikipedia list article

On the first tier, Vietnam is divided into fifty-eight provinces (tỉnh) and five municipalities under the command of the central government. Municipalities are the highest-ranked cities in Vietnam. Municipalities are centrally-controlled cities and have special status equal to the provinces.

Articles related to Vietnam and Vietnamese culture include:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bắc Ninh province</span> Province of Vietnam

Bắc Ninh is a province of Vietnam, located in the Red River Delta of the northern part of the country. It is the smallest province of Vietnam by area and is situated to the east of the nation's capital, Hanoi, and borders Bắc Giang province, Hưng Yên province, Hải Dương province and Hanoi. The province covers an area of 822.71 square kilometres and as of 2019 it had a population of 1,368,840. The province's name literally means "northern serenity".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Quảng Ninh province</span> Province of Vietnam

Quảng Ninh or Quangninh is a province along the northeastern coast of Vietnam. It is about 153 km (95 mi) east of Hanoi, comprising four cities, two district-level towns and seven rural districts. The provincial capital is Hạ Long. The province covers an area of 6178.21 square kilometres and, as of 2019, had a population of 1,320,324. Nearly 80% of the province is mountainous with abundant land, forest, water and mineral resources, with 90% of Vietnam's coal output extracted from the province. The province is also home to Hạ Long Bay, a World Heritage Site that has 1,969 islands, out of which 989 have been given names.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hải Dương province</span> Province of Vietnam

Hải Dương is a province in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam. Its name derives from Sino-Vietnamese "ocean sun", though the modern province is in fact landlocked. Located in the Northern Key Economic Region, Hai Duong Province has a dynamic economy with a focus on industrial manufacturing.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hưng Yên province</span> Province of Vietnam

Hưng Yên is a province in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam. It covers an area of 930.22 km2 (359.2 sq mi), comprising 1 city, 8 rural districts, and 1 district-leveled town, with a population of over 1 million people as of 2019. The province is a settlement along the banks of the Red River, bordered by 5 provinces and municipalities.

Hải Dương is a city in Vietnam. It is the capital of Hải Dương, an industrialized province in the Hanoi Capital Region and the Red River Delta in Northern Vietnam. The city is at the midpoint between the capital Hanoi and major port Haiphong, and is part of the Northern Key Economic Zone. In 2019, Hai Duong city had a population of 507,469.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Central Coast</span> Region of Vietnam

South Central Coast or Nam Trung Bộ is one of the regions of Vietnam. It consists of the independent municipality of Đà Nẵng and seven other provinces. The two southern provinces Ninh Thuận and Bình Thuận are sometimes seen as part of the Southeast region. The Paracel Islands, and Spratly Islands, are also part of this region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cẩm Phả</span> City in Northeast, Vietnam

Cẩm Phả is a city of Quảng Ninh Province in the north-east region of Vietnam. It is an important coal exporting port of Vietnam. As of February 2012, the city had a population of 195,800. The city covers an area of 486 km2. The city was promoted from Cẩm Phả District by February 2012. Cẩm Phả was the site of one of the biggest coal mines in south of Asia which has been exploited for almost a century. The coal mine featured on a special commemorative Vietnam stamp in March 1959. Coal still forms the basis of Cẩm Phả's local economy, with other industries including quarrying, lime production, port, agriculture, forestry and fisheries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vietnam Coast Guard</span> Coastal patrol branch of Vietnams military

Vietnam Coast Guard is the coast guard of Vietnam. Until 2013, it was a branch of Vietnam's military, the Vietnam People's Army, and falls under the management of the Vietnamese Ministry of National Defence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">V.League 1</span> Association football league in Vietnam

The V.League 1, also called Night Wolf V.League 1 due to sponsorship reasons, is the top professional football league in Vietnam, controlled by the Vietnam Professional Football Joint Stock Company. It is contested by 14 clubs who play each other on a home and away basis. The team finishing at the top at the end of the season is crowned the champion and enters the AFC Champions League.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lệ Thủy district</span> District in North Central Coast, Vietnam

Lệ Thủy is a district of Quảng Bình province in the North Central Coast of Vietnam. The district borders Quảng Ninh district on the north, Vĩnh Linh district on the south, Laos on the west. Lệ Thủy central is 40 km south of the provincial capital Đồng Hới. The district government seat is Kiến Giang Township. The district area is 1420.52 km2, population: 140,804 (1998). Lệ Thủy district is home to Võ Nguyên Giáp and the family of Ngô Đình Diệm. Economy bases on agriculture, mainly rice culture. Mỹ Trạch massacre by French army happened here on 29 November 1947.

Hanoi Capital Region or Hanoi Metropolitan Area is a metropolitan area currently planned by the government of Vietnam. This metropolitan area was created by decision 490/QD-TTg dated May 5, 2008 of the Prime Minister of Vietnam. Hanoi will be the core city of this metropolitan area. Other component parts will include provinces: Vĩnh Phúc Province, Hưng Yên Province, Bắc Ninh Province, Hải Dương Province, Hà Nam Province, Hòa Bình, Bắc Giang Province, Phú Thọ Province and Thái Nguyên Province with an area of 24.314,7 km², half of the size of Greater Ho Chi Minh City, the same for population size planning.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hanoi FC</span> Vietnamese football club

Hanoi Football Club is a Vietnamese professional football club based in Hanoi, Vietnam that competes in the V.League 1.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Haiphong FC</span> Football club

Haiphong Football Club, simply known as Haiphong, is a Vietnamese professional football club based in Haiphong. Haiphong is one of the most successful football teams in Vietnam with 13 major titles. They are currently playing in V.League 1 as their home ground is Lạch Tray Stadium.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2016 Vietnamese Cup</span> Football tournament season

The 2016 National Cup was the 24th edition of the Vietnamese Cup. It was sponsored by Kienlongbank, and known as the Kienlongbank National Cup for sponsorship purposes. This year's competition, which features 24 teams including V.League 1's 14 teams and National First Division's 10 teams, ran until September 29.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ninh Binh–Hai Phong–Quang Ninh Expressway</span> Road in Vietnam

Ninh Binh–Hai PhongºQuang Ninh Expressway is a partially completed expressway in Vietnam, running for 160 km connecting Ninh Binh to Quang Ninh. The route connects the northern coastal provinces of Vietnam with the North-South expressway.

The following is a timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam.

Bach Dang Bridge, is a cable-stayed bridge that crosses the Bạch Đằng River in Quảng Ninh Province, Vietnam.


  1. "Phê duyệt và công bố kết quả thống kê diện tích đất đai của cả nước năm 2018" [Announcements of area statistics for the whole country in 2018]. Act No. 2908/QĐ-BTNMT of 13 November 2019 (in Vietnamese). Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (Vietnam). – the data in the report are in hectares, rounded to integers
  2. 1 2 General Statistics Office of Vietnam (2019). "Completed Results of the 2019 Viet Nam Population and Housing Census" (PDF). Statistical Publishing House (Vietnam). ISBN   978-604-75-1532-5.
  3. "Kinh tế - xã hội thành phố Hải Phòng giai đoạn 2016-2020 tạo đà và bứt phá" (in Vietnamese). Con số và sự kiện. 2021-03-22.
  4. "Thu nhập người Hải Phòng: 11.800 USD/năm vào 2025". Tuổi Trẻ. 15 October 2020.
  5. General Statistics Office of Vietnam (2021). Vietnam's Human Development Index (2016–2020) (Report). p. 29. Archived from the original on 18 May 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  6. "DEEP C - Living and Working in Vietnam". Archived from the original on 2020-06-25. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
  7. General Statistics Office of Vietnam (2021). Vietnam's Human Development Index (2016–2020) (Report). p. 29. Archived from the original on 18 May 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  8. 1 2 Haiphong's Culture Archived 2017-06-29 at the Wayback Machine . HaiphongTourism.gov.vn
  9. Vietnam by Spencer C. Tucker, page 47. "On 23 November DebeS delivered an ultimatum to the Vietnamese at Haiphong, ordering them to withdraw from the French section of the city, the Chinese quarter, and the port. He gave them only two hours to reply. When the time was up the French subjected the Vietnamese positions to air, land, and sea bombardment, the bulk of the firepower coming from the three- and eight-inch guns of the French Navy Cruiser Suffren. Only military targets were destroyed and not the Vietnamese quarter as some have claimed. Estimates of the number killed in the shelling and ensuing panic vary widely. Casualties up to 20,000 have been cited. French Admiral Battet later said that no more than 6,000 Vietnamese had died, but in 1981 Vu Quoc Uy, then chairman of the Haiphong municipal committee, told Stanley Karnow that the figure was only 500 to 1,000 dead. Others have put the figure as low as 200".
  10. (in French) Maurice Vaïsse, L'Armée française dans la guerre d'Indochine (1946–1954) : Adaptation ou inadaptation, 2000, p. 276
  11. Plon, Le General de Gaulle et l'Indochine 1940–1946, page 210. "In connection with the naval bombardment, let us note that only the ships of small tonnage could go up the river of Haiphong. On November 23, two colonial sloops supported for the first time the French troops with their artillery to a limited effect: the Chevreuil with its double turret, with its two pairs of 100mm, Savorgnan de Brazza with its four turrets each of one 138mm. No battleship was present. On November 27 on that the evening, the cruiser Suffren was in the Bay d' Along, its tidal water prohibiting it access of the Cua Cam. It transported troops in reinforcement..."
  12. Phillippe Devillers, Histoire du Viêt-Nam de 1940 à 1952. Editions du Seuil, Paris. Third edition,1952, pp. 331–340
  13. "Vietnam: A Television History; Interview with Thomas H. Moorer, 1981". openvault.wgbh.org. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  14. Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David: Vietnam Past and Present: The North (History and culture of Hanoi and Tonkin). Chiang Mai. Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006DCCM9Q.
  15. Murray, N.J.; Clemens, R.S.; Phinn, S.R.; Possingham, H.P.; Fuller, R.A. (2014). "Tracking the rapid loss of tidal wetlands in the Yellow Sea" (PDF). Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 12 (5): 267–272. doi:10.1890/130260.
  16. 1 2 Haiphong Climate Guide, Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  17. "Vietnam Building Code Natural Physical & Climatic Data for Construction" (PDF) (in Vietnamese). Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  18. "Liên kết phát triển giữa Hà Nội và Hải Phòng đóng vai trò quan trọng". Archived from the original on 2011-09-05. Retrieved 2016-03-07.
  19. [ permanent dead link ]
  20. "General Ranking". www.pcivietnam.org. Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. Retrieved 2017-09-14.
  21. "Sở Ngoại vụ". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2016-03-07.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 General Statistics Office (2009): Socio-economic Statistical Data of 63 Provinces and Cities, Vietnam. Statistical Publishing House, Hanoi
  23. "PVTex to operate first polyester fiber project early 2011". The Saigon Times. 2010-05-14. Archived from the original on 2011-10-06. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
  24. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (May 27, 2010). "Background Note: Vietnam". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
  25. 1 2 The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing census: Major findings. General Statistics Office of Vietnam.
  26. Administrator. "Hanoi – Hai Phong Expressway Project". www.vidifi.vn.
  27. "Haiphong Port: Maps". Archived from the original on 2011-08-21. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
  28. "Đà Nẵng và Hải Phòng 60 năm tình nghĩa". haiphong.gov.vn (in Vietnamese). Haiphong. 2020-08-05. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  29. ""Sister Cities & Affiliated Cities"". incheon.go.kr. Incheon Metropolitan City. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  30. "DEEP C shakes hand with City of Kitakyushu to promote investment". deepc.vn. DEEP C Industrial Zones. 2019-05-13. Retrieved 2021-01-07.
  31. "Il canale dei Navicelli, la via d'acqua tra Pisa e Livorno ponte per un gemellaggio?". pressmare.it (in Italian). Press Mare. 2016-02-24. Retrieved 2021-01-07.
  32. "Il 南宁市国际友城名单及分布图". nanning.gov.cn (in Chinese). Naning. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  33. ""Международные и межрегиональные связи"". gov.spb.ru (in Russian). Federal city of Saint Petersburg. Retrieved 2020-11-12.
  34. "Seattle's Sister Cities". City of Seattle. Retrieved 2021-09-16.
  35. "天津友好城市一览表". tj.gov.cn (in Chinese). Tianjin. Retrieved 2021-01-07.


    Coordinates: 20°51′54.5″N106°41′01.8″E / 20.865139°N 106.683833°E / 20.865139; 106.683833