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Hakor or Hagar, [3] also known by the hellenized forms Achoris or Hakoris, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 29th Dynasty. His reign marks the apex of this feeble and short-lived dynasty, having ruled for 13 years – more than half of its entire duration. [4]

Hellenization historical spread of ancient Greek culture

Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC. The result of Hellenization was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements; these Greek influences spread from the Mediterranean basin as far east as modern-day Pakistan. In modern times, Hellenization has been associated with the adoption of modern Greek culture and the ethnic and cultural homogenization of Greece.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.



Struggle for the accession

Hakor's accession and relationships with his predecessor Nepherites I were long debated. After Nepherites' death a dynastic struggle did seem to have occurred, [5] and the throne was claimed by two or maybe three pretenders: Hakor, Psammuthes, and possibly a phantom figure called Muthis who was only mentioned in Eusebius' epithome of Manetho's Aegyptiaca. As a result, Hakor was alternately considered Nepherites' legitimate successor or an unrelated usurper.

Nepherites I Egyptian pharaoh

Nefaarud I or Nayfaurud I, better known with his hellenised name Nepherites I, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the founder of the 29th Dynasty in 399 BC.

Psammuthes was a pharaoh of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt during 392/1 BC.

Muthis may have been an ephemeral ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Twenty-ninth dynasty.

In 1986 John D. Ray suggested that Hakor was Nepherites' heir, who ruled undisturbed until his Year 2 when he was deposed by Psammuthes. After another year, Hakor managed to retake his legitimate throne by overthrowing the usurper, and continued to date his reign since his first coronation date, simply pretending that this gap never occurred. The third pretender, Muthis, could be inserted within this struggle, but his role – assuming that he really did exist – is unknown. [6] Ray's hypothesis is accepted by other Egyptologists such as Alan B. Lloyd [7] and Toby Wilkinson. [3]

John David Ray is a British Egyptologist and academic. He is the current Sir Herbert Thompson Professor of Egyptology at the University of Cambridge. His principal field of interest covers the Late and Hellenistic periods of Egypt, with special reference to documents in the demotic script, and he is also known for deciphering the Carian script, a writing system used by Anatolian mercenaries who fought for the late-period Egyptians.

Toby Wilkinson English egyptologist

Toby A. H. Wilkinson is an English Egyptologist and academic. He is the Head of the International Strategy Office at the University of Cambridge, a fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and was previously a research fellow at Christ's College, Cambridge and Durham University. He was awarded the 2011 Hessell-Tiltman Prize.

Shortly after his death, Hakor was called an usurper by the founder of the subsequent dynasty, Nectanebo I. However, it has been suggested that Hakor and Nectanebo might have been relatives in some way, possibly both related to Nepherites I but rivals to each other. [5]

Nectanebo I Egyptian pharaoh

Kheperkare Nakhtnebef, better known by his hellenized name Nectanebo I, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, founder of the last native dynasty of Egypt, the thirtieth.

Activities in Egypt

Hakor's chapel in Karnak Parvis Karnak d.jpg
Hakor's chapel in Karnak

Once re-established, Hakor made considerable exertions to affirm his legitimacy, [4] putting emphasis on his – real or fictional – descent from Nepherites. [5] [8] His building activity was remarkable and he also extensively restored many monuments of his royal predecessors. [8]

In Karnak, Hakor finished the chapel for the sacred barque of Amun-Ra near the first pylon which was started by Psammuthes or possibly by Nepherites I; [9] he also possibly began a temple complex in northern Saqqara which was later further developed under Nectanebo II. [10] His building activity is well attested in various places in Upper Egypt (Luxor, Medinet Habu, El-Kab, El-Tod, Medamud, Elephantine), in the Temple of Hibis of Kharga Oasis, as well as other locations in Middle Egypt. [11]

Karnak Ancient Egyptian temple complex

The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak, comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings near Luxor, in Egypt. Construction at the complex began during the reign of Senusret I in the Middle Kingdom and continued into the Ptolemaic period, although most of the extant buildings date from the New Kingdom. The area around Karnak was the ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut and the main place of worship of the eighteenth dynasty Theban Triad with the god Amun as its head. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes. The Karnak complex gives its name to the nearby, and partly surrounded, modern village of El-Karnak, 2.5 kilometres north of Luxor.

Saqqara village in Giza Governorate, Egypt

Saqqara, also spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English, is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world-famous Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of mastabas. Located some 30 km (19 mi) south of modern-day Cairo, Saqqara covers an area of around 7 by 1.5 km.

Nectanebo II Egyptian pharaoh

Nectanebo II, ruled in 360—342 BC was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt as well as the last native ruler of ancient Egypt.

Foreign relations

Hakor apparently reprised Nepherites' foreign policy. In Aristophanes' comedy Plutus , which was performed in 388 BCE, an alliance between the Athenians and the Egyptians is mentioned, though it was more likely intended to refer to the Athenian support for the rebellion of Evagoras I of Cyprus – himself allied with Hakor – against the Achaemenids. Theopompus also reported an alliance between Hakor and the Pisidians. The peace of Antalcidas between the Persians and Greeks (387 BCE) was a turning point: after that, Egypt and Cyprus remained the only opponents of Artaxerxes II as reported by Theopompus and Orosius. The following years are quite obscure, but it seems that the Persians first attacked Egypt in 385 BCE and, after three years of war, the Egyptians managed to defeat the invaders. [12] [13] [14]

In 381 BCE Hakor sent aid, money and 50 triremes (apparently without crew, though) to Evagoras in order to contribute to his resistance against the Great King who, after the unsuccessful campaign in Egypt, was now focusing on Cyprus. However, when, in 380 BCE, Evagoras travelled to Egypt to beg for further aid, Hakor saw no need to continue supporting him and sent him back to Cyprus with merely some more money. [15] [16] Evagoras surrendered to Artaxerxes soon after, but Hakor promptly joined a short-lived alliance with Sparta and with Glos, son of the Egyptian admiral, Tamos, who was a supporter of the pretender Cyrus the Younger against Artaxerxes II. Hakor managed to get the Athenian general Chabrias into his service, but the Persian general Pharnabazus II lobbied Athens seeking for them to repatriate him. [15]

Death and succession

Hakor died in 379/8 BCE, [2] leaving his throne to his son Nepherites II. However, the latter was able to keep it for just four months before being overthrown and replaced by an army general from Sebennytos, Nectanebo I. [3]

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  1. Lloyd 1994, p. 358.
  2. 1 2 Depuydt 2006, p. 280.
  3. 1 2 3 Wilkinson 2010, p. 456.
  4. 1 2 Lloyd 1994, p. 340.
  5. 1 2 3 Grimal 1992, p. 373.
  6. Ray 1986, pp. 149-158.
  7. Lloyd 1994, p. 357.
  8. 1 2 Clayton 1994, p. 203.
  9. Lloyd 1994, p. 353.
  10. Lloyd 1994, p. 354.
  11. Grimal 1992, p. 374.
  12. Lloyd 1994, p. 347.
  13. Grimal 1992, pp. 374-375.
  14. Fine 1993, p. 358.
  15. 1 2 Lloyd 1994, p. 348.
  16. Grimal 1992, p. 375.


Clayton, Peter (1994). Chronicle of the Pharaohs. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd. 
Depuydt, Leo (2006). "Saite and Persian Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC". In Hornung, Erik; Krauss, Rolf; Warburton, David A. Ancient Egyptian Chronology. Brill, Leiden/Boston. pp. 265–283. ISBN   978 90 04 11385 5. 
Fine, John V. A. (1983). The Ancient Greeks: A critical history. Harvard University Press. 
Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Blackwell Books. p. 512. ISBN   9780631174721. 
Lloyd, Alan B. (1994). "Egypt, 404–322 B.C.". In Lewis, D.M.; Boardman, John; Hornblower, Simon; et al. The Cambridge Ancient History (2nd ed.), vol. VI – The Fourth Century B.C. Cambridge University Press. pp. 337–360. ISBN   0 521 23348 8. 
Ray, John D. (1986). "Psammuthis and Hakoris". The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 72: 149–158. 
Wilkinson, Toby (2010). The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. London: Bloomsbury. p. 672. ISBN   978 1 4088 10026. 

Born: ? Died: 379/8 BCE
Preceded by
Nepherites I
Pharaoh of Egypt
392/1391/0 BCE
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Pharaoh of Egypt
390/89379/8 BCE
Succeeded by
Nepherites II