|County|| Halland County |
Västra Götaland County
|• Total||4,796 km2 (1,852 sq mi)|
|• Density||68/km2 (180/sq mi)|
|• Dialect|| Halländska |
|• Bird||Peregrine falcon|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area codes||0300 |
Halland (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈhǎlːand] ( listen )) is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap), on the western coast of Sweden. It borders Västergötland, Småland, Scania and the sea of Kattegat. Until 1645 and the Second Treaty of Brömsebro, it was part of the Kingdom of Denmark. Its name means Land of Rocky Slabs (Swedish: hällar) referring to the coastal cliffs of the region.
The provinces of Sweden serve no administrative function. Instead, that function is served by the Counties of Sweden. However, the province of Halland is almost coextensive with the administrative Halland County, though parts of the province belong to Västra Götaland County and Skåne County, while the county also includes parts of Småland and Västergötland.
As of 31 December 2016 Halland had a population of 327,093. Of these, 310,536 lived in Halland County; 14,205 lived in Västra Götaland County; and 2,352 lived in Skåne County.
During the Danish era until 1658, the province had no coat of arms and no seal. In Sweden, however, every province had been represented by heraldic arms since 1560.When Charles X Gustav of Sweden suddenly died in 1660 a coat of arms had to be created for the newly acquired province. Each province was to be represented by its arms at the royal funeral. There are several theories about the choice of a lion. Bengt Algotsson, duke of Halland and Finland in the 14th century, used a lion in his personal arms. Blazon: Azure, a Lion rampant Argent langued, armed and dente Gules.
The same coat of arms was later granted for the administrative Halland County, which has almost the same boundaries.
The rivers of Viskan, Ätran, Nissan and Lagan flow through the province and reach the sea in Kattegat. Halland is well known for its fertile soil and as an agricultural district.
Most of the region is made up of a relief unit known as the Sub-Mesozoic hilly peneplain. Around Morup and Tvååker hilltops are remnants of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain, an ancient erosion surface that covers much of eastern Sweden.Loose flint nodules of Cretaceous age have been found around Halland. The flints are remnants of a former cover of sedimentary rock that has been eroded. At present the sedimentary cover continues to exist in Scania, Denmark and offshore.
The Bronze Age was probably a period of relative prosperity in Halland. This is shown in the number of new settlements and the numerous archaeological remains. Over 1,100 tumuli and grave mounds have been found.
The end of the Bronze Age witnessed an over-consumption of resources. Large areas were deforested. This might have been a result of a high demand for charcoal in smelting gold or bronze among the local elites.
The worsening climate at the beginning of the Iron Age meant that the local elites no longer could obtain bronze to the same extent as before. As a result, the social structures collapsed.
The early Iron Age social structures seem to have been relatively egalitarian, but from around 200 AD there was a trend in which villages formed larger communities and small kingdoms. This is likely to have been a distant influence from the growing Roman Empire. During the 5th and 6th century large free-standing farms were created; they grew larger as time passed. An example of such a farm can be found in Slöinge.
It was not just the social structure that changed, so too did the settlement structure. New villages were formed, while old ones were abandoned. The new centers that were formed became the kernel from which new areas were settled during medieval times.
According to information from a trader travelling from Skiringssal, close to the Oslofjord to Hedeby in the 870s it can be concluded that Halland was a Danish area at that time. It would stay so for most of recorded history.
Iron extraction is known to have taken place in Hishult and Tvååker/Sibbarp during the Iron Age.
As part of the Scanian lands (then part of the Kingdom of Denmark) Halland came under the Scanian Law and participated in the Scanian Thing, one of three Things electing the Danish king. Local assemblies took place in Getinge.
Halland was the scene of considerable military action from the 13th century and on as Sweden, Denmark and to some degree Norway fought for supremacy in Scandinavia. The many wars made the province poor. Not only were material damages caused by military action, but the social impact of the fighting was devastating; people lacked the motivation to invest in their land and properties as it was likely to be destroyed anyway.
The county was the site of combat and plunder three times during the 13th Century: in 1256 Haakon IV of Norway invaded, followed by Magnus III of Sweden in 1277 and Eric VI of Denmark in 1294. The county came to be split in two parts for the next century, with the river Ätran forming a boundary. The lords of the two parts succeeded each other in a high tempo.
As the Kalmar Union was formed, Halland came for a brief period of time to be centrally located. According to the union treaty, the king was to be elected in Halmstad.
During the rebellion of Engelbrekt in 1434 the fortress in Falkenberg was burnt down and two years later Lagaholmwas captured by the Swedes. The Swedo-Danish struggles in the early 16th century came to affect the province as well, as in 1519 when the border regions were sacked by the Swedes as a vengeance for similar Danish action in Västergötland.
The Danish civil war called the Count's Feud in 1534–1536, the Northern Seven Years' War between Denmark and Sweden in 1563–1570 and the Kalmar War between Denmark and Sweden in 1611–1613 all affected Halland. One of the major battles of the Northern Seven Years' War, the battle of Axtorna, took place in Halland.
Halland was temporarily (for a period of 30 years) transferred to Sweden in 1645 under the terms of the Second Treaty of Brömsebro. The conquest was later made permanent by the ceding of the province in the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. The last battle in Halland took place in Fyllebro on 17 August 1676, during the Scanian War.
The more peaceful conditions that followed meant that the province could start to develop again. The 19th century saw the farming develop quickly to become one of the more efficient in the country by the end of the century. Parts of the province did however remain poor and erosion and blown sand remained a problem for much of the century. The county did therefore see a lot of emigration, continuing well into the 20th century.
The 20th century has seen the province becoming one of the fastest growing in Sweden, as it has doubled its population since World War II. This is in part due to the northern parts, such as Kungsbacka and Onsala, more or less becoming suburbs of Gothenburg.
During Danish rule, privileges to towns in Halland were granted to:
Such privileges have no official significance nowadays.
Hundreds of Sweden were provincial divisions until the early 20th century, when they lost importance. Halland's hundreds were: Faurås Hundred, Fjäre Hundred, Halmstad Hundred, Himle Hundred, Höks Hundred, Tönnersjö Hundred, Viske Hundred and Årstad Hundred.
The language varieties spoken in Halland are together called halländska, though they belong to two main dialectal groups. In northern Halland a variation of the Götaland dialect is spoken and in the south the spoken language is a variety of Scanian.
The Varberg Fortress was built in the 13th century and improved with higher walls in the 15th century.
As early as the 13th century, southern Halland was given as duchy to a branch of the Danish royal family. In the 14th century, it was given to various relatives and friends of Danish and Swedish royal families, such as Benedict, Duke of Halland 1353–1357.
Since 1772 Swedish royal princes have been nominated dukes of provinces without political significance. Such a title was held by Prince Bertil, Duke of Halland (1912–1997), who was survived by his wife Princess Lilian, Duchess of Halland (1976–2013), and currently is held by Prince Julian (since 2021).
Football in the province is administered by Hallands Fotbollförbund. Team handball is also popular, with HK Drott and HK Varberg.
Västra Götaland County is a county or län on the western coast of Sweden.
The provinces of Sweden are historical, geographical and cultural regions. Sweden has 25 provinces and they have no administrative function, but remain historical legacies and a means of cultural identification as pertains, for example, to dialects and folklore.
Västergötland, also known as West Gothland or the Latinized version Westrogothia in older literature, is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden, situated in the southwest of Sweden.
Halland County is a county (län) on the western coast of Sweden. It corresponds roughly to the cultural and historical province of Halland. The capital is Halmstad.
Bohuslän is a Swedish province in Götaland, on the northernmost part of the country's west coast. It is bordered by Dalsland to the northeast, Västergötland to the southeast, the Skagerrak arm of the North Sea to the west, and the county of Østfold, in Norway, to the north. In English it literally means Bohus County, although it shared counties with the city of Gothenburg prior to the 1998 county merger and thus was not an administrative unit in its own right.
Skåneland or Skånelandene (Danish) is a region on the southern Scandinavian peninsula. It includes the Swedish provinces of Blekinge, Halland and Scania. The Danish island of Bornholm is sometimes also included. Skåneland has no official recognition or function and the term is not in common usage. Equivalent terms in English and Latin are "the Scanian provinces" and "Terrae Scaniae" respectively. The term is mostly used in historical contexts and not in daily speech. In Danish, Skånelandene is used more often. The terms have no political implications as the region is not a political entity but a cultural region, without officially established administrative borders.
Götaland is one of three lands of Sweden and comprises ten provinces. Geographically it is located in the south of Sweden, bounded to the north by Svealand, with the deep woods of Tiveden, Tylöskog and Kolmården marking the border.
The lands of Sweden are three traditional parts, each consisting of several provinces, in Sweden. The division into lands goes back to the foundation of modern Sweden, when Götaland, the land of the Geats, merged with Svealand, the land of the Swedes, to form the country, while Norrland and Österland were added later. The lands have no administrative function but are still seen by many Swedes as an important part of their identity.
The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden. This generally meant that they were ruled by Governors-General under the Swedish monarch, but within certain limits retained their own established political systems, essentially their diets. Finland was not a dominion, but an integrated part of Sweden. The dominions had no representation in the Swedish Riksdag as stipulated by the 1634 Instrument of Government paragraph 46: "No one, who is not living inside the separate and old borders of Sweden and Finland, have anything to say at Riksdags and other meetings..."
Varberg (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈvɑ̂ːrbærj]; is a locality and the seat of Varberg Municipality, Halland County, Sweden with 35,782 inhabitants in 2019.
Falkenberg is a locality and the seat of Falkenberg Municipality, Halland County, Sweden, with 27,813 inhabitants in 2019. It is located at the mouth of river Ätran. The name consists of the Swedish words for falcon (falk) and mountain (berg). Falkenberg is a popular tourist destination in the summers, and the main beach of the town is Skrea strand.
Ny Varberg was a city founded sometime between 1429 and 1434 about five kilometres north of present-day Varberg, Sweden. It was abandoned around 1612. The city was located at a crossroads where the roads from Småland and Västergötland met the royal road through Halland. To have access to the sea, a canal 700 metres long was built between Kattegat and Himleån. It is unclear who founded the city or why.
West Sweden is a National Area of Sweden. The National Areas are a part of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) of Sweden.
Halmstad Castle is a 17th-century castle situated in Halmstad, in the province of Halland, Sweden.
Scania, also known by its native name of Skåne, is the southernmost of the historical provinces (landskap) of Sweden. The former province is roughly conterminous with Skåne County, created in 1997. Like the other former provinces of Sweden, Scania still features in colloquial speech and in cultural references, and can therefore not be regarded as an archaic concept. Within Scania there are 33 municipalities that are autonomous within the Skåne Regional Council. Scania's largest city, Malmö, is the third-largest city in Sweden, as well as the fifth-largest in Scandinavia.
Blekinge is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden, situated in the south of the country. It borders Småland, Scania and the Baltic Sea. It is the country's second-smallest province by area, and the smallest province located on the mainland.
Småland is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden. Småland borders Blekinge, Scania, Halland, Västergötland, Östergötland and the island Öland in the Baltic Sea. The name Småland literally means Small Lands. The Latinized form Smolandia has been used in other languages. The highest point in Småland is Tomtabacken, at 377 metres (1,237 ft). In terms of total area, Småland is of a similar size as Belgium.
The sub-Cambrian peneplain is an ancient, extremely flat, erosion surface (peneplain) that has been exhumed and exposed by erosion from under Cambrian strata over large swathes of Fennoscandia. Eastward, where this peneplain dips below Cambrian and other Lower Paleozoic cover rocks. The exposed parts of this peneplain are extraordinarily flat with relief of less than 20 m. The overlying cover rocks demonstrate that the peneplain was flooded by shallow seas during the Early Paleozoic. Being the oldest identifiable peneplain in its area the Sub-Cambrian peneplain qualifies as a primary peneplain.
The South Swedish highlands or South Swedish Uplands are a hilly area covering large parts of Götaland in southern Sweden. Except for a lack of deep valleys, the landscape is similar to the Norrland terrain found further north in Sweden. The central-eastern parts of the highlands contain about thirty narrow canyons locally known as skurus.
The Sub-Mesozoic hilly peneplains or Sub-Mesozoic hilly relief is a landscape in Scandinavia made up of undulating hills and joint valleys and occasional kaolinized bedrock in valley bottoms. The landscape formed in the Mesozoic Era and was eventually drowned by the sea during the Campanian transgression and covered by a thick cover of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Later erosion of the cover rocks partly re-exposed this landscape. During the Quaternary epoch the re-exposed Mesozoic hilly relief escaped major glacier erosion being only surficially scoured in parts.
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