Hallingdal

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Hallingdal
Joachim Frich Fra Hallingdal.jpg
Frå Hallingdal (Joachim Frich)
Hallingdal og Valdres.png
  Hallingdal
Country Norway
County Viken
Region Austlandet
Adm. Center Nesbyen
Area
  Total5,830 km2 (2,250 sq mi)
Population
 (2014)
  Total20,569
  Density3.5/km2 (9.1/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Halling
Hallingdøl is used by many outside the valley. [1]

Hallingdal (English: Halling Valley) [2] [3] [4] is a valley as well as a traditional district located in the traditional and electoral district Buskerud in Viken county in Norway. It consists of six municipalities: Flå, Nes, Gol, Hemsedal, Ål and Hol. [5]

Contents

Hallingdal is one of the major valleys of eastern Norway, on an area of 5,830 square kilometers. Hallingdal lies in the northern part of the county of Buskerud. The valley stretches from Gulsvik by Lake Krøderen to the border with Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane. Central to the geography is relatively flat mountain area which lies 700–1,100 m (2,300–3,600 ft) above sea level. The valley is V-shaped and is drained by the Hallingdal River which originates in the western parts of Hardangervidda and flows eastwards later southwards through Hallingdal. [6] [7]

Etymology

Skogshorn in Hemsedal, one of many high mountains in Hallingdal Skogshorn.jpg
Skogshorn in Hemsedal, one of many high mountains in Hallingdal

The Old Norse form of the name was Haddingjadalr. The first recorded case beginning with Hall- is from 1443. The first element seems to be the genitive case of the name of the people Haddingjar or of the male name Haddingi. In Flateyjarbók, a man named Haddingr is mentioned as the king of Hallingdal. Compare with the first element in Gudbrandsdalen 'Gudbrand Valley'. In both cases the name is probably derived from the word haddr, meaning 'woman's hair' and the name can consequently be interpreted as meaning 'the long haired ones'. The last element is dalr which means 'valley, dale'. [5] [8] [9]

Nesbyen in Nes is one of the largest settlements in Hallingdal Nesbyen, Nes.jpg
Nesbyen in Nes is one of the largest settlements in Hallingdal

History

From early on, Hallingdal prospered from trading with iron, produced from local marshlands, and developed trading routes throughout the Iron Age. In later centuries, Hallingdal farmers traded cattle over the mountains from west to east. As the soil in the valley could be barren, trading was necessary for life support. Ancient routes went to western Norway (Vestlandet) through Valdres and Hallingdal and down Røldal to Odda. Reflecting this route, Hallingdal and its neighboring valley of Valdres were originally populated by migrants from Vestlandet and spoke a western dialect. The actual migration routes are hard to map, and the migrants may have blended with local hunters from the mountains around the valley. In recognition of this, Cardinal Nicholas Breakespear, (later Pope Adrian IV) who was in Scandinavia as papal legate in 1153, included these two valleys in the Diocese of Stavanger. [10]

Administration

The municipalities within Hallingdal include Flå, Nes, Gol, Hemsedal, Ål and Hol which cooperate through the Hallingdal Regional Council (Regionrådet for Hallingdal). The area is within the jurisdiction area of the Hallingdal District Court (Hallingdal tingrett). [11] [12] [13]

Local culture

Girl from Hallingdal - Design for a traditional folk costume Johanessen - Madchen von Hallingdal.jpeg
Girl from Hallingdal - Design for a traditional folk costume

Art

Hallingdal has developed its own brand of the rosemaling, with a distinct symmetric style, different from the style in Telemark and Valdres. The valley also fostered a number of known painters during the 18th and 19th century. The parents of Norwegian romanticist painter Hans Gude lived in Hallingdal until 1852, and Gude painted many of his works there. [14] [15]

Music

The music of Hallingdal is traditionally dominated by the hardanger fiddle, which was taken into use from c. 1750. The dance tunes of the valley have a distinct pattern, following three different lines of tradition, one in the south, at Nes, and two in the area of Ål. The tunes from Ål are recognized by a distinct rolling on the fiddle-bow, and the tunes are fairly old.[ citation needed ]

From early on, Hallingdal also developed a tradition for langeleik, partly replaced by the fiddle. The folk music tradition is held alive even today in the valley. After the opening of the Bergen Line Railway between Oslo and Bergen, the accordion came into more frequent use. Many fiddle tunes were adapted to the new instrument – usually a diatonic button accordion. Hallingdal is the most common area where the old fiddle music were adapted like this in local tradition. [16]

The Halling is the name of an old folk dance that is traditionally used in Norway. Each dancer is alone, in contrast to the more common couple's dances. The climax of the dance is known as thrown Halling, where the goal is to kick down a hat from a stick. The dance is often called Lausdans meaning "loose dance" in Hallingdal and Valdres, but is known as the Halling in most other valleys. [17]

Dialect

The Halling dialect is the distinctive regional dialect of Hallingdal. It has many features in common with Valdresmålet, the regional dialect common to neighboring Valdres. Difference exist within the dialect, generally between the lower and upper parts of the valley. Here as elsewhere regional dialects are under strong pressure to change due to outside forces (mass media, increased mobility in society). [18] [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

Buskerud Former county (fylke) of Norway

Buskerud is a traditional region, a former county and a current electoral district in Norway, bordering Akershus, Oslo, Oppland, Sogn og Fjordane, Hordaland, Telemark and Vestfold. The region extends from the Oslofjord and Drammensfjorden in the southeast to Hardangervidda mountain range in the northwest. The county administration was in modern times located in Drammen. Buskerud was merged with Akershus and Østfold into the newly created Viken County on 1 January 2020.

Nord-Aurdal Municipality in Innlandet, Norway

Nord-Aurdal is a municipality in Innlandet county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Valdres. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Fagernes.

Vang, Innlandet Municipality in Innlandet, Norway

Vang is a municipality in Innlandet county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Valdres. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of "Vang i Valdres". The municipality of Vang was established on 1 January 1838.

Eidfjord Municipality in Vestland, Norway

Eidfjord is a municipality in Vestland county, Norway. The municipality is located in the traditional district of Hardanger. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Eidfjord, where the majority of the municipal population lives. The other major population centre in the municipality is the village of Øvre Eidfjord.

Flå Municipality in Viken, Norway

Flå is a municipality in Viken county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Flå. The municipality of Flå was established when it was separated from the municipality of Nes on 1 January 1905. The municipality lies at the most southeasterly point in the valley and traditional region of Hallingdal.

Nesbyen (municipality) Municipality in Viken, Norway

Nesbyen is a municipality in Viken county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Hallingdal. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Nesbyen.

Hemsedal Municipality in Viken, Norway

Hemsedal is a municipality in Viken county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Hallingdal. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Trøym. Hemsedal lies on the Norwegian National Road 52. Hemsedal is located 220 km (136.70 mi) northwest of Oslo and 273 km (169.63 mi) from Bergen. In 1897, Hemsedal was separated from the municipality of Gol to become a municipality of its own.

Ål Municipality in Viken, Norway

Ål is a municipality in the traditional and electoral district Buskerud in Viken county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Hallingdal. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Ål. The parish of Aal was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The area of Hol was separated from the municipality of Aal in 1877 to become a separate municipality.

Langeleik

The langeleik, also called langleik, is a Norwegian stringed folklore musical instrument, a droned zither.

Norwegian dialects

The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 4 main groups, 'Northern Norwegian' (nordnorsk), 'Central Norwegian' (trøndersk), 'Western Norwegian' (vestlandsk), and 'Eastern Norwegian' (østnorsk). Sometimes 'Midland Norwegian' (midlandsmål) and/or 'South Norwegian' (sørlandsk) are considered fifth or sixth groups.

Valdres District in Innlandet, Norway

Valdres is a traditional district in central, southern Norway, situated between Gudbrandsdalen and Hallingdal. The region around Valdres consists of the six municipalities of Nord-Aurdal, Sør-Aurdal, Øystre Slidre, Vestre Slidre, Vang and Etnedal. Valdres has about 18,000 inhabitants and is known for its excellent trout fishing and "beautiful" dialect. Its main road is E16 and Fylkesveg 51.

Hol Bygdamuseum is an open-air museum located at the village of Hagafoss in Hol in Viken county, Norway.

Gulating place in Norway

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Norwegian National Association for Traditional Music and Dance(Norsk Folkemusikk- og Danselag) is a nationwide organization that aims to support the folk music and rural dance tradition in Norway.

Knut Henriksen Dybsjord was a Norwegian politician, Haugean lay minister and temperance movement activist.

Trøym

Trøym is a village and the site of the administrative center of Hemsedal municipality in Buskerud county, Norway.

Vestlandsk

Vestlandsk or Vestlandske dialekter is a collective term for the dialects that are spoken on the coast of western Norway in the area ranging from Romsdal in the north to Agder in the south. These dialects can furthermore be split into north-western dialects (Nordvestlandske dialekter), south-western dialects and southern dialects.

Hallingmål-Valdris

Hallingmål-Valdris is a group of Norwegian dialects traditionally spoken in the traditional districts Hallingdal, Buskerud and Valdres, Oppland.

Odd Bakkerud (1931–1989) was a Norwegian fiddle player.

Pål Olson Grøt (1813–1906) was a Norwegian rosemaling painter who belonged to the most important group of rosemaling painters in Hol. He was born in Hol in 1813 and lived until he moved to the village of Hovet, Buskerud, in 1852. He died there in 1906.

References

  1. Sylfest Lomheim (5 August 2015). "Dølar på Dalen". Klassekampen. p. 10.
  2. North Dakota, a Guide to the Northern Prairie State. 1938. Fargo, ND: Knight Printing Company, p. 79.
  3. Middleton, William D. 2000. Yet There Isn't a Train I Wouldn't Take. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, p. 114.
  4. Berman, Martha. 1993. Fielding's Scandinavia. New York: Fielding Travel Books, p. 298.
  5. 1 2 Thorsnæs, Geir (April 2019). "Hallingdal". snl.no.
  6. Rosvold, Knut A. (29 December 2013). "Hallingdalsvassdraget". snl.no.
  7. "Om Hallingdal (Regionrådet for Hallingdal)". Archived from the original on 17 February 2015.
  8. Jørn Sandnes og Ola Stemshaug, ed. (1980). Norsk stadnamnleksikon (2. ed.). Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget. p. 139. ISBN   82-521-0999-3.
  9. Leiv Heggstad, Finn Hødnebø og Erik Simensen (1990). Norrøn ordbok (4. ed.). Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget. p. 163. ISBN   82-521-3493-9.
  10. Skjekkeland, Martin (28 April 2014). "årsaker til dialektvariasjon i Noreg". snl.no. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  11. "Hallingtinget". regionraadet.no.
  12. "Om Hallingdal tingrett". domstol.no.
  13. "Regionrådet". regionraadet.no.
  14. Haverkamp, Frode. Hans Fredrik Gude: From National Romanticism to Realism in Landscape (in Norwegian). trans. Joan Fuglesang.
  15. "Hallingdal style of rosemaling". rosemaling.org.
  16. Langeleik (Store norske leksikon. Ola Kai Ledang)
  17. Arent, Hans-Christian (17 April 2018). "lausdans". snl.no.
  18. Venås, Kjell (18 September 2018). "dialekter i Hallingdal". snl.no.
  19. Venås, Kjell (12 November 2017). "dialekter i Valdres". snl.no.

Coordinates: 60°38′N9°3′E / 60.633°N 9.050°E / 60.633; 9.050