Hamdanid dynasty

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Hamdanid Dynasty

الحمدانيون
Hamdaniyun
890–1004
Hamdanids 955 AD.jpg
Hamdanids in 955 during the rule of Sayf ad-Dawla.
Capital Aleppo (944–1002)
Common languages
Religion
Shia Islam
(including Alawiism )
Government Hereditary monarchy
Emir  
Historical era Middle Ages
 Established
890
  Husayn ibn Hamdan establishes himself as leader of Al-Jazira for the Abbasids.
895
  Sayf al-Dawla establishes himself in Aleppo after successfully countering the Ikhshidids of Egypt.
944
 Disestablished
1004
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Abbasid Caliphate
Uqaylid dynasty Blank.png
Fatimid Caliphate Blank.png
Today part of
Family tree of the Hamdanid dynasty Hamdanid family tree.svg
Family tree of the Hamdanid dynasty

The Hamdanid dynasty (Arabic : حمدانيون, romanized: Ḥamdānyūn) was a Shia Muslim Arab [1] [2] dynasty of northern Mesopotamia and Syria (890–1004). They descended from the ancient Banu Taghlib Christian tribe of Mesopotamia and Eastern Arabia.

Contents

History

The Hamdanid dynasty was founded by Hamdan ibn Hamdun. By 892–893, he was in possession of Mardin, after fighting the Kharijites of the Jazira. [3] In 895 Caliph al-Mutadid invaded, and Hamdan fled Mardin. [3]

Hamdan's son Husayn, who was at Ardumusht, joined the caliph's forces. [3] Hamdan later surrendered to the caliph and was imprisoned. [3] In December 908, Husayn conspired to establish Ibn al-Mu'tazz as Caliph. Having failed, Husayn fled until he asked for mediation through his brother Ibrahim. Upon his return he was made governor of Diyar Rabi'a. [3] In 916, Husayn, due to a disagreement with vizier Ali b. Isa, revolted, was captured, imprisoned, and executed in 918. [3]

Hamdan's other son, Abdallah, was made governor of Mosul in 905–906. [4] He conducted campaigns against the Kurds in that region and in 913-914 was dismissed from his post and subsequently revolted. [3] Abdallah submitted himself to Mu'nis, and with his pardon was made governor of Mosul in 914-915. [3] During his brother Husayn's revolt, both he and his brother Ibrahim were temporarily imprisoned. [3] By 919, Abdallah was commanding an army against Yusuf b. Abi l'Sadj, governor of Adharbaydjan and Armenia. [3]

The rule of Hassan Nasir al-Dawla (929–968), governor of Mosul and Diyar Bakr, was sufficiently tyrannical to cause him to be deposed by his own family.

His lineage still ruled in Mosul, a heavy defeat by the Buyids in 979 notwithstanding, until 990. After this, their area of control in northern Iraq was divided between the Uqaylids and the Marwanids.

Ali Sayf al-Dawla 'Sword of the State' ruled (945–967) northern Syria from Aleppo, and became the most important opponent of the Christian Byzantine Empire's re-expansion. His court was a centre of culture, thanks to its nurturing of Arabic literature, but it lost this status after the Byzantine conquest of Aleppo.

To stop the Byzantine advance, Aleppo was put under the suzerainty of the Fatimids in Egypt, but in 1003 the Fatimids deposed the Hamdanids.

Hamdanid rulers

Hamdanids in Al-Jazira

  1. Hamdan ibn Hamdun
  2. al-Husayn ibn Hamdan (895–916)
  3. Abdallah ibn Hamdan (906–929)
  4. Nasir al-Dawla (929–967)
  5. Abu Taghlib (967–978)
  6. Directly administered as part of the Buyid-controlled Abbasid Caliphate, 979–981
  7. Abu Tahir Ibrahim ibn al-Hasan (989–997)
  8. Abu Abdallah al-Husayn ibn al-Hasan (989–997)

Hamdanids in Aleppo

  1. Sayf al-Dawla (945–967)
  2. Sa'd al-Dawla (967–991)
  3. Sa'id al-Dawla (991–1002)

See also

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Abu'l-Qasim al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Maghribi, also called al-wazir al-Maghribi and by the surname al-Kamil Dhu'l-Wizaratayn, was the last member of the Banu'l-Maghribi, a family of statesmen who served in several Muslim courts of the Middle East in the 10th and early 11th centuries. Abu'l-Qasim himself was born in Hamdanid Aleppo before fleeing with his father to Fatimid Egypt, where he entered the bureaucracy. After his father's execution, he fled to Palestine, where he raised the local Bedouin leader Mufarrij ibn Daghfal to rebellion against the Fatimids (1011–13). As the rebellion began to falter, he fled to Iraq, where he entered the service of the Buyid emirs of Baghdad. Soon after he moved to the Jazira, where he entered the service of the Uqaylids of Mosul and finally the Marwanids of Mayyafariqin. He was also a poet and author of a number of treatises, including a "mirror for princes".

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Said ibn Hamdan

Sa'id ibn Hamdan was an early member of the Hamdanid dynasty who served as provincial governor and military leader under the Abbasid Caliphate. He was the father of the celebrated poet Abu Firas al-Hamdani.

Battle of al-Madain

The Battle of al-Mada'in was fought near al-Mada'in in central Iraq between the armies of the Hamdanids and the Baridis, for control over Baghdad, the capital and seat of the Abbasid Caliphate, that was around 22 kilometres (14 mi) away and then under control of the Hamdanids. In a fiercely contested battle over four days that cost both sides many casualties, the Hamdanid army prevailed. They were too exhausted to pursue, however, which allowed the Baridis to withdraw to Wasit and then Basra.

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