Hamdullahi

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Hamdullahi
Site of town
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Hamdullahi
Location within modern Mali
Coordinates: 14°19′52″N4°05′45″W / 14.33111°N 4.09583°W / 14.33111; -4.09583 Coordinates: 14°19′52″N4°05′45″W / 14.33111°N 4.09583°W / 14.33111; -4.09583
CountryFlag of Mali.svg  Mali

Hamdullahi (also Hamdallahi or Hamdallaye. From the Arabic: praise to God) was a nineteenth-century imamate in what is now the Mopti Region of Mali. Founded around 1820 by Seku Amadu, Hamdullahi served as the capital of the nineteenth-century Fula empire of Massina.

Arabic Central Semitic language


Arabic is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE. It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO assigns language codes to thirty varieties of Arabic, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is modernized Classical Arabic. This distinction exists primarily among Western linguists; Arabic speakers themselves generally do not distinguish between Modern Standard Arabic and Classical Arabic, but rather refer to both as al-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá.

Imam Islamic leadership position

Imam is an Islamic leadership position.

Mopti Region Region in Mali

Mopti is the fifth administrative region of Mali, covering 79,017 km2. Its capital is the city of Mopti. During the 2012 Northern Mali conflict, the frontier between Southern Mali which is controlled by the central government and the rebel-held North ran through Mopti Region.

On March 16, 1862, the town fell to the Toucouleur conqueror El Hadj Umar Tall after three major battles that claimed over 70,000 lives. Umar Tall destroyed the city, marking the effective end of the Massina Empire.

Toucouleur Empire former country

The Toucouleur Empire (1861–1890) was founded in the mid-nineteenth century by El Hadj Umar Tall of the Toucouleur people, in part of present-day Mali.

al-Hajj Umar ibn Sa'id al-Futi Tal, , Umar Saidou Tall, born in Futa Tooro, Senegambia, was a West African political leader, Islamic scholar, Tijani Sufi and Toucouleur military commander who founded a brief empire encompassing much of what is now Guinea, Senegal, and Mali.

The ruins of the abandoned town are located 21 km southeast of Mopti, at a site lying to the east of the Bani River and to the west of the Bandiagara plateau. [1] The town was encircled by sun-dried mudbrick walls and covered an area of 244 hectares (604 acres). The town walls and some of the street layout are clearly visible on satellite images provided by Google. The mosque and Seku Amadu’s palace were located side by side in the centre of the town. They were also constructed of sun-dried bricks, except for the enclosing walls of the palace, which were of stone. The mosque has been rebuilt and reopened in 2004. [2]

Bani River river in Mali

The Bani River is the principal tributary of the Niger River in Mali. The river is formed from the confluence of the Baoulé and Bagoé rivers some 160 km (99 mi) east of Bamako and it merges with the Niger near Mopti. Its length is about 1,100 km (680 mi).

Mudbrick Unbaked earth used as building material blocks

A mudbrick or mud-brick is an air-dried brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw. Though mudbricks are known from 7000 to 6000 BCE, since 4000 BC, bricks have also been fired, to increase their strength and durability.

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Great Mosque of Djenné Mosque in Djenné, Mali

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Djenné Commune and town in Mopti Region, Mali

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Bamana Empire former country

The Bamana Empire was a large West African state based at Ségou, now in Mali. This state was established after the fall of the Mali Empire and the Keita dynasty, as a smaller Bambara Empire founded by other Bambara families related to the Keita clan. It was ruled by the Kulubali or Coulibaly dynasty established c. 1640 by Kaladian Coulibaly also known as Fa Sine or Biton-si-u. The empire existed as a centralized state from 1712 until the 1862 invasion of Toucouleur conqueror, El Hadj Umar Tall.

Inner Niger Delta

The Inner Niger Delta, also known as the Macina or Masina, is the inland delta of the Niger River. It is an area of fluvial wetlands, lakes and floodplains in the semi-arid Sahel area of central Mali, just south of the Sahara desert.

Bandiagara Commune and town in Mopti Region, Mali

Bandiagara is a small town and urban commune in the Mopti Region of Mali. The name translates roughly to "large eating bowl"—referring to the communal bowl meals are served in.

Massina Empire former country

The Massina Empire was an early nineteenth-century Fulbe Jihad state centered in the Inner Niger Delta area of what is now the Mopti and Ségou Regions of Mali. Its capital was at Hamdullahi.

Ahmadu Tall Toucouleur ruler

Ahmadou Sekou Tall was a Toucouleur ruler of the Toucouleur Empire (1864–92) and (Faama) of Ségou from 1864 to 1884. Ahmadu Seku's father, El Hadj Umar Tall, conquered Ségou on March 10, 1861. Not long afterwards, he began his conquest of the Fula empire of Massina, leaving Ahmadu as the Almami of Ségou.

Seku Amadu was the Fulbe founder of the Massina Empire in the Inner Niger Delta, now the Mopti Region of Mali. He ruled as Almami from 1818 until his death in 1845, also taking the title Sise al-Masini.

Amadu II of Massina, also called Amadu Seku, was the second Almami, or ruler, of the theocratic Massina Empire or Diina of Hamdullahi in what is now Mali. He held this position from 1845 until his death in 1853. His rule was a short period of relative peace and prosperity between the violent reigns of his father and his son.

Amadu III of Masina, also known as Amadu Amadu was the third and last ruler of the theocratic Massina Empire in the Inner Niger Delta, now the Mopti Region of Mali. He was elected as successor to his father, Amadu II of Masina, in 1853. Throughout most of his rule he was involved in conflict with the jihadist al-Hajj 'Umar Tall, who defeated and executed him on 16 May 1862.

Ba Lobbo was the nephew of Seku Amadu, the founder of the Massina Empire. He was known as an able general, and was considered as a possible successor to Seku Amadu in 1845, but was passed up in favor of the latter's son, Amadu Seku. He was also considered as possible successor to Amadu Seku in 1853, but threw his support behind Amadu Seku's son, Amadu Amadu, who became the third ruler of Massina.

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Sekou, also spelled Sékou or Seku, is a given name from the Fula language. It is equivalent to the Arabic Sheikh. People with this name include:

Douentza Urban Commune and town in Mopti Region, Mali

Douentza is a town and urban commune in the Mopti Region of central Mali. The town lies 145 km east-northeast of Mopti on the RN16, a paved road that links Mopti and Gao. It is the administrative center of the Douentza Cercle.

Amadu is a given name. Notable people with the name include:

The Torodbe were Muslim clerics who were active in the Western Sudan region of Africa from the 17th century. Their teachings in part inspired the series of jihads that the Fulbe launched at that time.

References

  1. Huysecom, Eric (1991). "Preliminary report on excavations at Hamdallahi, inland Niger Delta of Mali (February/March and October/November 1989)". Nyame Akuma. 35: 24–28. The link is to a pdf containing the whole issue. Need to scroll down to page 24 for article.
  2. "Communiqué issued by Council of Ministers of the Republic of Mali on 25 July 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. In French.

Further reading

Digital object identifier Character string used as a permanent identifier for a digital object, in a format controlled by the International DOI Foundation

In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.