|• Chosŏn'gŭl||함 흥 시|
|• Hancha||咸 興 市|
|• Revised Romanization||Hamheung-si|
A view of Hamhung
Map of South Hamgyong showing the location of Hamhung
|Administrative divisions||7 kuyok|
|• Total||330 km2 (130 sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Pyongyang Time)|
This article contains content that is written like an advertisement .(June 2021)
Hamhŭng (Hamhŭng-si; Korean pronunciation: [ham.ɦɯŋ] ) is North Korea's second largest city, and the capital of South Hamgyŏng Province. With an estimated population of 768,551, Hamhung is the second largest city by population in North Korea. Located in the southern part of the South Hamgyong province, Hamhung is the main and most popular metropolitan area in the province, and is the destination for the vast majority of tourism by foreigners to the province. Hamhung has a thriving local economy compared to other metropolitan areas in North Korea, and it is known by North Koreans as a great area of architectural construction that was centrally planned, and built by the government of North Korea.
Located on the Sea of Japan in the middle east of North Korea, Hamhung is one of the many bigger cities in North Korea to be located on or near water, and the nearby sea has helped the economy grow, ever since the city grew into a well known symbol of the country of North Korea. Hamhung has always been more economically prosperous than many areas in the country, and a thriving middle class of North Korean citizens live in this metropolitan hub.[ citation needed ]
Hamhŭng is divided into 7 kuyŏk (wards):
Hamhŭng is on the left branch of the Sŏngch'ŏn River, on the eastern part of the Hamhŭng plain (함흥평야), in South Hamgyŏng Province, northeast North Korea. The Tonghŭngsan is 319 m (1,047 ft) high.
Hamhung has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dwa), with warm, humid summers, and moderately cold, dry winters.
|Climate data for Hamhung (1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||1.9|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.1|
|Average low °C (°F)||−9.6|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||12.5|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||3.6||3.2||4.7||5.4||7.9||9.2||13.4||10.0||7.2||4.7||5.0||3.3||77.6|
|Average snowy days||5.0||4.2||3.9||0.3||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||1.1||3.4||17.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||62.4||60.9||61.0||60.8||68.3||78.5||84.2||84.2||79.0||70.1||65.6||62.8||69.8|
|Source: Korea Meteorological Administration|
Yi Seong-gye, founder of the Yi Dynasty, retired to the city after a successful palace coup by his son Yi Bang-won in 1400. Though his son sent envoys to reconcile, his father had them killed. A modern Korean expression, 'King's envoy to Hamhŭng' (Hamheungchasa), refers to a person who goes on a journey and is never heard from again. It was known as Kankō during Japanese rule of Korea between 1910 and 1945. It was liberated by the Red Army on 22 August 1945.
The city was 80–90% destroyed by American air raids during the Korean War (1950-1953) and was occupied by ROK troops between 17 October 1950 and 17 December 1950. From 1955 to 1962, Hamhŭng was the object of a large-scale program of reconstruction and development by East Germany including the build-up of construction-related industries and intense training measures for Korean construction workers, engineers, city planners and architects. When the Bauhaus trained architect Konrad Püschel, the first Head of City Planning for the Hamhŭng projectarrived in 1955, he was accompanied by about 175 members of the 'Deutsche Arbeitsgruppe (DAG)' as the project team was called. The project ended two years earlier than scheduled and with a low profile because of the Sino-Soviet conflict and the opposing positions that North Korea and East Germany took on that issue.
From 1960 to 1967, Hamhŭng was administered separately from South Hamgyŏng as a Directly Governed City (Chikhalsi). Before 1960 and since 1967, the city has been part of South Hamgyŏng Province.
In 1995, Hamhŭng witnessed, thus far, one of the only documented challenges to the North Korean government when famine-ravaged soldiers began a march toward Pyongyang. The revolt was quelled and the unit of soldiers was disbanded.
The North Korean famine of the 1990s appears to have had a disproportionate effect on the people of Hamhung. Andrew Natsios, a former aid worker, USAID administrator, and author of The Great North Korean Famine, described Hamhung as "the city most devastated by [the] famine."Contemporary published reports from The Washington Post and Reuters describe numerous fresh graves on the surrounding hillsides and report that many of Hamhung's children were stunted by malnutrition. One survivor claimed that more than 10% of the city's population died, with another 10% fleeing the city in search of food. Despite previously being closed to foreigners, foreign nationals can now travel to Hamhung through the few approved North Korean tour operators.
There is speculation that Hamhung, with its high proportion of chemists and the site of a chemical-industrial complex built by the Japanese during World War II, is the center for North Korea's methamphetamine production.
Hamhung is much more economically diverse than most cities in North Korea, and Hamhung has many unique industries that help the city thrive compared to other cities surrounding it. Hamhung's rural areas are used for farm land and food distribution through the community. These lands mainly consist of rice fields, but other crops are grown in small portion as well. Hamhŭng is an important chemical industry center in the DPRK. It is an industrial city which serves as a major port for North Korean foreign trade. Production includes textiles (particularly vinalon), metalware, machinery, refined oil and processed food.
Two large reeducation camps are located near Hamhung: Kyo-hwa-so No. 9 is in northeastern Hamhung, and Kyo-hwa-so No. 22 is in Yonggwang County north of Hamhung.
The city is a transportation hub, connecting various eastern ports and the northern interior area. Hamhung Station is on the Pyongra Line railway. This city is connected by air too, with Toksan Airport. The city is also served by the narrow gauge, commuter Soho Line linking West Hamhung to Hungnam, via February 28 Vinylon factory.
The city also has a large trolleybus network, which opened in 1973.
Hamhŭng hosts the Hamhŭng Grand Theatre, the largest theatre in North Korea.A national museum is located in Hamhŭng.
Hamhŭng is home to the Hamhŭng University of Education, Hamhŭng University of Pharmacy, Hamhŭng University of Chemistry and Hamhŭng University of Medicine. Professional colleges in Hamhǔng include the Hamhǔng College of Quality Control, the Hamhŭng Hydrographic and Power College, and the Hamhǔng College of Electronics and Automation. There is also a branch academy of science.
In 2018, the South Hamgyong Sci-Tech Library, the largest facility of its kind outside Pyongyang, opened in the city.
Hamhung is twinned with:
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hamhung .|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hamhung .|
Largest cities or towns in North Korea
|Rank||Name||Administrative division||Pop.||Rank||Name||Administrative division||Pop.|
|1||Pyongyang||Pyongyang Capital City||3,255,288||11||Sunchon||South Pyongan||297,317|| |
|2||Hamhung||South Hamgyong||768,551||12||Pyongsong||South Pyongan||284,386|
|3||Chongjin||North Hamgyong||667,929||13||Haeju||South Hwanghae||273,300|
|4||Nampo||South Pyongan Province||366,815||14||Kanggye||Chagang||251,971|
|6||Sinuiju||North Pyongan||359,341||16||Tokchon||South Pyongan||237,133|
|7||Tanchon||South Hamgyong||345,875||17||Kimchaek||North Hamgyong||207,299|
|8||Kaechon||South Pyongan||319,554||18||Rason||Rason Special Economic Zone||196,954|
|9||Kaesong||North Hwanghae||308,440||19||Kusong||North Pyongan||196,515|
Transport in North Korea is constrained by economic problems and government restrictions. Public transport predominates, and most of it is electrified.
South Hamgyong Province is a province of North Korea. The province was formed in 1896 from the southern half of the former Hamgyong Province, remained a province of Korea until 1945, then became a province of North Korea. Its capital is Hamhung.
Chŏngjin is the capital of North Korea's North Hamgyong Province (함경북도) and the country's third largest city. It is sometimes called the City of Iron.
Wŏnsan, previously known as Wŏnsanjin (元山津), Port Lazarev, and Genzan (元山), is a port city and naval base located in Kangwŏn Province, North Korea, along the eastern side of the Korean Peninsula, on Sea of Japan and the provincial capital. The port was opened by occupying Japanese forces in 1880. Before the 1950–1953 Korean War, it fell within the jurisdiction of the then South Hamgyŏng province, and during the war it was the location of the Blockade of Wŏnsan. The population of the city was estimated at 329,207 in 2013. Notable people from Wŏnsan include Kim Ki-nam, a diplomat and former Vice Chairman of the ruling Workers' Party of Korea.
Sinŭiju ; Sinŭiju-si, known before 1925 in English as Yeng Byen City) is a city in North Korea which faces Dandong, China across the international border of the Yalu River. It is the capital of North P'yŏngan province. Part of the city is included in the Sinŭiju Special Administrative Region, which was established in 2002 to experiment with introducing a market economy. In recent years, the city, despite lagging behind the development in the capital Pyongyang, has seen a small construction boom and increasing tourism from China.
Kimch'aek, formerly Sŏngjin, is a city in North Hamgyong Province, North Korea. It was an open port in 1899. It has a population of 207,699.
Kilju, sometimes romanized as Kilchu, is a county in North Hamgyong province, North Korea. The county seat is Kilju Town.
Sinhŭng County is a mountainous county in South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea.
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Germany–North Korea relations are the bilateral relations between Germany and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly known as North Korea. During the Cold War, East Germany maintained diplomatic relations only with North Korea, while West Germany maintained diplomatic relations only with South Korea. East Germany ceased to exist upon German reunification, which meant that diplomatic relations no longer existed between Germany and North Korea. The two countries appointed protecting powers to represent their interests in the other country, Sweden being the protecting power for Germany, and China being the protecting power for North Korea.
Kyo-hwa-so No. 77 Tanchon is a "reeducation camp" with ca. 6,000 prisoners near Tanchon in South Hamgyong province, North Korea.
Hamhung concentration camp is a reeducation camp in North Korea. The official name of the camp is Kyo-hwa-so No. 9. The sub-facility for women is sometimes called Kyo-hwa-so No. 15.
Hŭngnam is a district of Hamhung, the second largest city in North Korea. It is a port city on the eastern coast on the Sea of Japan. It is only eight miles from the slightly inland city of Hamhung. In 2005 it became a ward of Hamhung.
National Route 7 is a national highway in South Korea. It connects Busan with Goseong in Gangwon Province. Before the division of the Korean Peninsula, the highway ran until Onsong, North Hamgyong Province, in present-day North Korea.
Kŭmgol station is a railway station in Kŭmgol 1-dong, greater Tanch'ŏn city, South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea, on the Kŭmgol Line of the Korean State Railway. It was opened in 1961.
Sŏho station is a railway station in Sŏho 2-dong, Hŭngnam-guyŏk, Hamhŭng city, South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea on the P'yŏngra Line of the Korean State Railway; it is also one of the southern termini of the Sŏho Line.
Friedrich Konrad Püschel was a German architect, town planner and university professor who was educated at the Bauhaus design school. He worked in East Germany, the Soviet Union and North Korea.
The Chollima-321 is a North Korean trolleybus with battery power built by the Pyongyang Trolley Bus Factory. The name 'Chollima' refers to a myth about a winged horse that has since been adopted as the name of North Korea's Stakhanovite movement. The production of the Chollima-321 production replaced the Chollima-091 articulated trolleybus, due to the need to replace older Chollima-961, -951, Ikarus and Karosa bus based trolleybuses. The trolleybus features on a 50 won stamp.