Hamid Mirza

Last updated
Prince Sultan Hamid Mirza Qajar
Hamid Mirza.jpg
Heir Presumptive Qajar dynasty
Reign1975–1988
PredecessorPrince Fereydoun Mirza
SuccessorPrince Mohammad Hassan Mirza
Head of the Qajar dynasty
Reign1975–1988
PredecessorPrince Fereydoun Mirza
SuccessorPrince Mahmoud Mirza
Born23 April 1918
Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Persia
Died5 May 1988(1988-05-05) (aged 70)
London, United Kingdom
Burial
SpouseMahin Dokht Malek-Mansur
Soudabeh Afshar
IssuePrince Mohammad Hassan Mirza
Princess Nasrine Dokht Khanum
Dynasty Qajar
FatherPrince Mohammad Hassan Mirza
MotherMohtaram-os-Saltaneh Razzaghi
Religion Islam

Prince Sultan Hamid Mirza Qajar (23 April 1918 – 5 May 1988) was the head and heir presumptive of the Qajar dynasty, the former ruling dynasty of Iran, and the son of the last Qajar Crown Prince of Iran.

An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question. The position is however subject to law and/or conventions that may alter who is entitled to be heir presumptive.

Qajar dynasty Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin

The Qajar Empire, also referred to as Qajar Iran, officially the Sublime State of Persia, was the state ruled by the Qajar dynasty, an Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin, specifically from the Qajar tribe, from 1789 to 1925. The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last Shah of the Zand dynasty, and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease, putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, and Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as Shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects. In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and Armenia.

Iran Islamic Republic in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the capital, largest city, and leading economic and cultural center.

Contents

Biography

Early life

He was born in Tabriz, the son of Crown Prince Mohammad Hassan Mirza and his second wife Mohtaram Razzaghi. [1] His early years were spent at the Golestan Palace until he was sent by his father at the age of 4 to be educated in England. On his way to England he visited his grandfather Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar in Constantinople. His grandfather had abdicated in 1909 after the Iranian Constitutional Revolution. He did not go on England as his grandfather felt he was too young to go. Instead he lived with his grandfather: first in Constantinople, and later in San Remo, Italy, where his grandfather died on 5 April 1924. After the death of his grandfather Hamid Mirza and his older brother Hossein Mirza moved to Paris for a year. When the Qajar dynasty was overthrown in 1925, Hamid Mirza and his brother moved to England with their father. [2] His brother, Hossein, subsequently emigrated to Canada and worked as an architect in Toronto.

Tabriz City in Iran

Tabriz (Persian: تبریز‎; is the most populated city in northwestern Iran, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province. It is the sixth most populous city in Iran. Located in the Quru River valley, in Iran's historic Azerbaijan region, between long ridges of volcanic cones in the Sahand and Eynali mountains, Tabriz's elevation ranges between 1,350 and 1,600 metres above sea level. The valley opens up into a plain that gently slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia, 60 kilometres to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, Tabriz is considered a summer resort. It was named World Carpet Weaving City by the World Crafts Council in October 2015 and Exemplary Tourist City of 2018 by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Mohammad Hassan Mirza Qajar prince

Mohammad Hassan Mirza, was the brother of Ahmad Shah Qajar of Iran, and former Crown Prince of the Qajar dynasty. Soon after Reza Shah deposed the Qajar dynasty and made himself Shah of Iran in 1925, Prince Mohammad Hassan and his family were sent into permanent exile to England. In 1930, he declared himself the rightful heir to the crown as pretender to the throne. He died on 7 January 1943 in Maidenhead, England and was buried in Kerbala, Iraq.

Golestan Palace palace

The Golestan Palace is the former royal Qajar complex in Iran's capital city, Tehran.

In 1934 Hamid Mirza enrolled in the Thames Nautical Training College aboard HMS Worcester in Greenhithe, Kent. He graduated in 1936 with a nautical degree and joined the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company as a cadet. After three years with the Royal Mail, Hamid Mirza left to join Mobil Oil.

Thames Nautical Training College

The Thames Nautical Training College, as it is now called, was, for over a hundred years, situated aboard ships named HMS Worcester.

Greenhithe village in the Borough of Dartford, Kent, England, United Kingdom

Greenhithe is a village in the Dartford Borough of Kent. It is located east of Dartford. At the 2011 Census the village is located in the civil parish of Swanscombe and Greenhithe

Kent County of England

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west. The county also shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, and with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone.

World War II

At the outbreak of World War II, Hamid Mirza tried to join the Royal Navy but was not accepted. He was finally accepted into the Navy in 1942. He served as a sub-lieutenant on HMS Duke of York and HMS Wild Goose. Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden asked him to adopt a British name for his service, due to possible political or diplomatic complications. He used the name "David Drummond" during his naval service. [3] The name was chosen in part after David, the son of his friend Richard Thesiger, and in part after the "Bulldog Drummond" character.[ citation needed ] Hamid Mirza states that the name simply came out of a telephone book. [4]

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Royal Navy Maritime warfare branch of the United Kingdoms military

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

HMS <i>Duke of York</i> (17) battleship

HMS Duke of York was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy. Laid down in May 1937, the ship was constructed by John Brown and Company at Clydebank, Scotland, and commissioned into the Royal Navy on 4 November 1941, subsequently seeing combat service during the Second World War.

During the war there were discussions between the British government and Hamid Mirza and his father about the possible restoration of the Qajar dynasty, since Reza Shah had been deposed. Hamid Mirza and his father were both candidates for the throne. But Hamid Mirza was not seriously considered, as having lived in England since the age of six, he did not speak Persian. [2]

Reza Shah Shah of the Imperial State of Iran

Reza Shah Pahlavi, commonly known as Reza Shah, was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Post war

After the war Hamid Mirza returned to Mobil Oil. In 1957, he returned to Iran for the first time since he had left as a four-year-old, taking up a position in Tehran. During his time in Iran, he was arrested on two occasions by SAVAK. He left Iran in 1971 to return to London. [3]

Tehran Capital city of Iran

Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.

SAVAK

SAVAK was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service in Iran during the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty. It was established by Mohammad Reza Shah with the help of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Israeli MOSSAD. SAVAK operated from 1957 until the Iranian Revolution of 1979, when the prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar ordered its dissolution during the outbreak of Iranian Revolution. SAVAK has been described as Iran's "most hated and feared institution" prior to the revolution of 1979 because of its practice of torturing and executing opponents of the Pahlavi regime. At its peak, the organization had as many as 60,000 agents serving in its ranks according to one source, and another source by Gholam Reza Afkhami estimates SAVAK staffing at between 4,000 and 6,000.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom, as well as the largest city within the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

He became head and the Heir Presumptive of the Qajar dynasty on the death of his cousin Fereydoun Mirza on 24 September 1975. Upon his death on 5 May 1988 in London, his son Mohammad Hassan Mirza II became the Heir Presumptive of the Qajar Dynasty while his uncle, Mahmoud Mirza became the new head of the dynasty. [5]

Family

He was married twice.

In 1946, he married Mahin Dokht Malek-Mansur (born in 1924), in Paris. They had two children: [1]

They were divorced in 1957.

On 25 August 1960, he married Soudabeh Afshar (born in 1924) in Tehran. This marriage was childless. [1]

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 Royal Ark
  2. 1 2 "Interview with Hamid Kadjar (page 1)". 1981. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  3. 1 2 "Interview with Hamid Kadjar (page 2)". 1981. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  4. Ladjevardi, Habib (November 26, 1981). "Hamid Kadjar: Prince and Son of Last Qajar Crown Prince". Iranian Oral History Project | Harvard University Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  5. Qajar Succession
Hamid Mirza
Born: 23 April 1918 Died: 5 May 1988
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Fereydoun Mirza
Head of the Imperial House of QajarSucceeded by
Mahmoud Mirza
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Fereydoun Mirza
 TITULAR 
Shah of Iran
Qajar Dynasty
1975–1988
Reason for succession failure:
Pahlavi dynasty became ruling house prior to the Iranian Revolution
Succeeded by
Mohammad Hassan Mirza II

Related Research Articles

Ahmad Shah Qajar Shah of Iran

Ahmad Shah Qajar, was Shah (King) of Persia from 16 July 1909 to 15 December 1925, and the last ruling member of the Qajar dynasty.

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar Shah of Persia

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar, was the sixth king of the Qajar Dynasty and Shah of Persia (Iran) from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.

Prince Mohammad Hasan Mirza II Qajar is the son of Hamid Mirza and a grandson of Mohammad Hassan Mirza, the last Crown Prince of Iran from the rule of the Qajar dynasty. As heir apparent, he is considered the Qajar pretender to the Sun Throne. He currently lives in Dallas, Texas, in the United States.

Dowlatshah Iranian writer

Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah was a famous Persian Prince of the Qajar Dynasty. He is also the progenitor of the Dowlatshahi Family of Persia. He was born at Nava, in Mazandaran, a Caspian province in the north of Iran. He was the first son of Fath-Ali Shah, the second Qajar king of Persia, and Ziba Chehr Khanoum, a Georgian slave girl of the Tsikarashvili family. He was also the elder brother of Abbas Mirza. Dowlatshah was the governor of Fars at age 9, Qazvin and Gilan at age 11, Khuzestan and Lorestan at age 16, and Kermanshah at age 19.

Abdol-Hossein Farman Farma Qajar prince

PrinceAbdol-Hossein Farman Farma was one of the most prominent Qajar princes, and one of the most influential politicians of his time in Persia. He was born in Tehran to Prince Nosrat Dowleh Firouz in 1857, and died in November 1939 at the age of 82. He was the 16th grandson of the Qajar crown prince Abbas Mirza. He fathered 26 sons and 13 daughters by 8 wives. He lived to see four sons of his first wife die within his lifetime.

Prince Abbas Mirza Farman Farmaian Qajar prince

Prince Abbas Mirza Farman Farmaian Qajar (1890–1935) Iranian royal prince of the Persian Imperial Qajar Dynasty, was the second son of Prince Abdol-Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma of Persia, one of the most preeminent political figures of his time and of the royal Princess Ezzat ed-Dowleh Qajar, the daughter of king Mozaffar-al-Din Shah. He was named after his great-grand father, crown prince Abbas Mirza son of Fath Ali Shah Qajar.

Firouz Nosrat-ed-Dowleh III Qajar prince and Iranian politician

Prince Firouz Nosrat-ed-Dowleh III, GCMG (1919) was the eldest son of Prince Abdol-Hossein Farmanfarma and Princess Ezzat-ed-Dowleh Qajar. He was born around 1889 and died in April 1937. He was the grandson of his namesake, Nosrat Dowleh Firouz Mirza, and of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah Qajar through his mother, Princess Ezzat-Dowleh.

Mohammad Vali Mirza (1891–1983) was the third son of Persian Qajar nobleman Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma and his wife Princess Ezzat-Dowleh.

Abdol-Ali Mirza Farmanfarmaian (1935–1973) was an Iranian businessman and nobleman. He was the son of the Qajar Persian nobleman Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma and his wife Batoul Khanoum.

Prince Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar (Qajar) was an Iranian Prince of Qajar Dynasty and the son of Soltan Majid Mirza Qajar (1907–1975) and Homadokht Kian (1912–1992) and the grandson of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar. He was the Head of the Qajar Imperial Family. Despite Soltan Ali Mirza Qajar being Head of the Qajar Imperial Family, the Qajar claimant to the Sun Throne was the Heir Presumptive Mohammad Hassan Mirza II, son of Soltan Hamid Mirza and grandson of Soltan Ahmad Shah's brother and successor in exile, Mohammad Hassan Mirza Qajar.

Mahmoud Mirza Iranian prince of Qajar Dynasty, was the son of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar.

The Iranian Monarchy was overthrown following the Islamic Revolution in 1979 with the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi going into exile.

Bahman Mirza Qajar Qajar prince

Bahman Mirza was a Persian prince of the Qajar Dynasty, son of Abbas Mirza and grandson of Fath Ali Shah. He was Vicergerent (vali) of Azerbaijan and Governor-General of Tabriz. He later migrated to neighboring Imperial Russia, where he was received with great honor and lived a prestigious life in Shusha. Many of his offsprings either returned to Iran where they had political or military careers, or served in the Russian military, and later played an important role in the military of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Beside political figures, he is also the great grandfather of Afrasiyab Badalbeyli, Azerbaijani composer and author of the first Azeri balet and the first ballet in the Muslim East.

Allah Verdi Mirza Farman Farmaian born 1929 is the son of the deceased Qajar Persian nobleman Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma and his wife Hamdam Khanoum. He studied at Reed College undergraduate and obtained a Doctorate in Biology at Stanford University. A prominent academic in the United States he was a professor and head of the Biology department at Rutgers University in New Jersey.

Mahmoud Afshartous, also written Afshartoos, was an Iranian general and chief of police during the government of Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh. Afshartous was abducted and killed by anti-Mossadegh conspirators, which helped pave the way for the 1953 coup d'état.

Bahmani family

The Bahmani family, also Bahmani-Qajar is an aristocratic Persian family belonging to one of the princely families of the Qajar dynasty, the ruling house that reigned Iran 1785–1925. The founder is Bahman Mirza Qajar (1810–1884), younger brother of Mohammad Shah Qajar and formerly prince regent and governor of Azerbaijan 1841–1848.

Anoushiravan Mirza

Prince Anoushiravan Mirza "Zia' od-Dowleh" "Amir Touman" was a Persian prince of the Qajar dynasty that ruled Iran 1785-1925. He became a well known politician at the imperial court at Tehran and popular governor of the Iranian province of Semnan in the late 19th century.