Hampton Hawes

Last updated
Hampton Hawes
Hampton Hawes in Japan 1953.jpg
Hawes in Japan in 1953
Background information
Birth nameHampton Barnett Hawes, Jr.
Born(1928-11-13)November 13, 1928
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
DiedMay 22, 1977(1977-05-22) (aged 48)
Los Angeles
Genres Jazz, jazz fusion, soul jazz, jazz-funk
Occupation(s)Musician
InstrumentsPiano
Labels Contemporary, Discovery, Fantasy
Associated acts Dexter Gordon, Wardell Gray, Jim Hall, Barney Kessell, Charles Mingus, Art Pepper, Shorty Rogers

Hampton Barnett Hawes, Jr. (November 13, 1928 – May 22, 1977) [1] was an American jazz pianist. He was the author of the memoir Raise Up Off Me, [2] which won the Deems-Taylor Award for music writing in 1975.

Contents

Early life

Hampton Hawes was born on November 13, 1928, in Los Angeles, California. [3] His father, Hampton Hawes, Sr., was minister of Westminster Presbyterian Church in Los Angeles. [1] His mother, the former Gertrude Holman, was Westminster's church pianist. [1] Hawes' first experience with the piano was as a toddler sitting on his mother's lap while she practiced. He was reportedly able to pick out fairly complex tunes by the age of three.[ citation needed ]

Later life and career

Hawes was self-taught; [4] by his teens he was playing with the leading jazz musicians on the West Coast, including Dexter Gordon, Wardell Gray, Art Pepper, Shorty Rogers, and Teddy Edwards. His second professional job, at 18, was playing for eight months with the Howard McGhee Quintet at the Hi De Ho Club, in a group that included Charlie Parker. [1] By late 1947, Hawes' reputation was leading to studio recording work. [1] Early studio dates included work for George L. "Happy" Johnson, Teddy Edwards, Sonny Criss, and Shorty Rogers. From 1948 to 1952, he was recorded live on several occasions at Los Angeles-area jazz clubs including The Haig, The Lighthouse, and The Surf Club. [1] By December 1952, he had recorded eight songs under his own name for Prestige Records with a quartet featuring Larry Bunker on vibraphone.

After serving in the U.S. Army in Japan from 1952 to 1954, Hawes formed his own trio, with bassist Red Mitchell and drummer Chuck Thompson. [1] The three-record Trio sessions made by this group in 1955 on Contemporary Records were considered some of the finest records to come out of the West Coast at the time. [1] The next year, Hawes added guitarist Jim Hall for the All Night Sessions. [1] These were three records made during a non-stop overnight recording session. [5]

After a six-month national tour in 1956, Hawes won the "New Star of the Year" award in Down Beat magazine, and "Arrival of the Year" in Metronome . The following year, he recorded in New York City with Charles Mingus on the album Mingus Three (Jubilee, 1957). [1]

Struggling for many years with a heroin addiction, in 1958 Hawes became the target of a federal undercover operation in Los Angeles. [1] Investigators believed that he would inform on suppliers rather than risk ruining a successful music career. Hawes was arrested on heroin charges on his 30th birthday [5] and was sentenced to ten years imprisonment. [5] In the intervening weeks between his trial and sentencing, Hawes recorded an album of spirituals and gospel songs, The Sermon.

In 1961, while at a federal prison hospital in Fort Worth, Texas, Hawes was watching President Kennedy's inaugural speech on television, and became convinced that Kennedy would pardon him. [5] With help from inside and outside the prison, Hawes submitted an official request for a presidential pardon. [5] In an almost miraculous turn, in August 1963, Kennedy granted Hawes Executive Clemency, the 42nd of only 43 such pardons given in the final year of Kennedy's presidency. [5]

After being released from prison, Hawes resumed playing and recording. During a ten-month tour of Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, Hawes recorded nine albums, played sold out shows and concert halls in ten countries, and was covered widely in the press, including appearances on European television and radio.

Raise Up Off Me, Hawes' autobiography, written with Don Asher and published in 1974, shed light on his heroin addiction, the bebop movement, and his friendships with some of the leading jazz musicians of his time. [1] It was the first book about the bebop era written by a musician[ citation needed ], and won the ASCAP Deems Taylor Award for music writing in 1975.[ citation needed ] Critic Gary Giddins, who wrote the book's introduction, called Raise Up Off Me "a major contribution to the literature of jazz." The Penguin Guide to Jazz cites it as "one of the most moving memoirs ever written by a musician, and a classic of jazz writing."

In the 1970s, Hawes experimented with electronic music (Fender-Rhodes made a special instrument for him), although eventually he returned to playing the acoustic piano. [1]

Hampton Hawes died unexpectedly of a brain hemorrhage in 1977, at the age of 48. He was buried next to his father, Hampton Hawes, Sr., who had died five months earlier. [6]

Style and influence

Hawes' playing style developed in the early 1950s. [4] He included "figures used by Parker and [Bud] Powell (but he played with a cleaner articulation than Powell), some Oscar Peterson phrases, and later, some Bill Evans phrases[...], and an impressive locked-hands style in which the top notes always sang out clearly." [4] He also helped develop "the double-note blues figures and rhythmically compelling comping style that Horace Silver and others were to use in the mid-1950s." [4] His technique featured "great facility with rapid runs and a versatile control of touch." [4]

Hawes influenced a great number of prominent pianists,[ citation needed ] including André Previn, Peterson, Horace Silver, Claude Williamson, Pete Jolly, and Toshiko Akiyoshi. Hawes' own influences came from a number of sources, including the gospel music and spirituals he heard in his father's church as a child, and the boogie-woogie piano of Earl Hines. Hawes also learned much from pianists Powell and Nat King Cole, among others. By Hawes' own account,[ citation needed ] however, his principal source of influence was his friend Charlie Parker.

Discography

As leader/co-leader

Year recordedTitleLabelPersonnel/Notes
1952–56The Hampton Hawes Memorial Album Xanadu Trio; some tracks with Joe Mondragon (bass), Larry Bunker (drums); some with Mondragon (bass), Shelly Manne (drums); some with Red Mitchell (bass), Chuck Thompson (drums)
1955 Hampton Hawes Trio Contemporary One track solo piano; most tracks trio, with Red Mitchell (bass), Chuck Thompson (drums)
1951–56Hampton Hawes Early Years Trio and Quartet Sessions 1951–56 Fresh Sound
1955–56 This Is Hampton Hawes Contemporary Trio, with Red Mitchell (bass), Chuck Thompson (drums)
1956 Everybody Likes Hampton Hawes Contemporary Trio, with Red Mitchell (bass), Chuck Thompson (drums)
1956 All Night Session! Vol. 1 Contemporary Quartet, with Jim Hall (guitar), Red Mitchell (bass), Eldridge Freeman (drums)
1956 All Night Session! Vol. 2 Contemporary Quartet, with Jim Hall (guitar), Red Mitchell (bass), Eldridge Freeman (drums)
1956 All Night Session! Vol. 3 Contemporary Quartet, with Jim Hall (guitar), Red Mitchell (bass), Eldridge Freeman (drums)
1957 Baritones and French Horns Prestige Septet, with Curtis Fuller (trombone), Sahib Shihab (alto sax), David Amram and Julius Watkins (French horn), Addison Farmer (bass), Jerry Segal (drums); originally issued with other recordings; reissued as Curtis Fuller and Hampton Hawes with French Horns by Status
1956–58 Bird Song Contemporary Most tracks trio with Paul Chambers (bass), Larance Marable (drums); two tracks trio with Scott LaFaro (bass), Frank Butler (drums); released 1999
1958 Four! Contemporary Quartet, with Barney Kessel (guitar), Red Mitchell (bass), Shelly Manne (drums)
1958 For Real! Contemporary Quartet, with Harold Land (tenor sax), Scott LaFaro (bass), Frank Butler (drums)
1958 The Sermon Contemporary Trio, with Leroy Vinnegar (bass), Stan Levey (drums); released 1987
1964 The Green Leaves of Summer Contemporary Trio, with Monk Montgomery (bass), Steve Ellington (drums)
1965 Here and Now Contemporary Trio, with Chuck Israels (bass), Donald Bailey (drums)
1966 The Seance Contemporary Trio, with Red Mitchell (bass), Donald Bailey (drums)
1966 I'm All Smiles Contemporary Trio, with Red Mitchell (bass), Donald Bailey (drums); released 1973
1967?Hamp's Piano SABA also released as Hampton Hawes in Europe (Prestige)
1968?Key for Two BYG Actuel released 1979?, with Martial Solal
1968Blues for Bud Black Lion Trio, with Jimmy Woode (bass), Art Taylor (drums)
1968Spanish Steps Black Lion Trio, with Jimmy Woode (bass), Art Taylor (drums)
1968 The Challenge Victor Solo piano
1968?Jam Session Columbia
1970High in the SkyVaultTrio, with Leroy Vinnegar (bass), Donald Bailey (drums)
1971?This Guy's in Love with You Freedom also released as Live at the Montmartre (Freedom)
1971?A Little Copenhagen Night MusicFreedomreleased 1977?
1972 Universe Prestige With Oscar Brashear (trumpet), Harold Land tenor sax), Arthur Adams (guitar), Chuck Rainey (electric bass), Ndugu (drums)
1973 Blues for Walls Prestige Two tracks quartet, with George Walker (guitar), Henry Franklin (bass, electric bass), Ndugu (drums); most tracks sextet, with Oscar Brashear (trumpet), Hadley Caliman (soprano sax, tenor sax) added
1973Live at the Jazz Showcase in Chicago Volume One Enja Trio, with Cecil McBee (bass), Roy Haynes (drums); in concert
1973Live at the Jazz Showcase in Chicago Volume Two Enja Trio, with Cecil McBee (bass), Roy Haynes (drums); in concert
1973 Playin' in the Yard Prestige Trio, with Bob Cranshaw (electric bass), Kenny Clarke (drums); in concert
1974 Northern Windows Prestige With Allen DeRienzo and Snooky Young (trumpet), George Bohanon (trombone), Bill Green, Jackie Kelso and Jay Migliori (saxes, flute), Carol Kaye (electric bass), Spider Webb (drums)
1975?Recorded Live at the Great American Music Hall Concord Jazz released 1983?
1976 As Long as There's Music Artists House Duo, with Charlie Haden (bass)
1976 Something Special Contemporary Quartet, with Denny Diaz (guitar), Leroy Vinnegar (bass), Al Williams (drums); in concert; released 1994
1976 Hampton Hawes at the Piano Contemporary Trio, with Ray Brown (bass), Shelly Manne (drums)
1977?Memory Lane LiveJas

As sideman

With Gene Ammons

With Sonny Criss

With Art Farmer

With Dexter Gordon

With Barney Kessel

With Warne Marsh

With Charles Mingus

With Blue Mitchell

With Red Mitchell

With Art Pepper

With Shorty Rogers

With Sonny Rollins

With Bud Shank

With Sonny Stitt

Bibliography

See also

Related Research Articles

Dexter Gordon American jazz tenor saxophonist

Dexter Gordon was an American jazz tenor saxophonist. He was among the most influential early bebop musicians, which included other greats such as Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, and Bud Powell. Gordon's height was 6 feet 6 inches (198 cm), so he was also known as "Long Tall Dexter" and "Sophisticated Giant". His studio and performance career spanned over 40 years.

John Lewis (pianist) Musical artist

John Aaron Lewis was an American jazz pianist, composer and arranger, best known as the founder and musical director of the Modern Jazz Quartet.

Kenny Dorham American jazz trumpeter, singer, and composer

McKinley Howard "Kenny" Dorham was an American jazz trumpeter, singer, and composer. Dorham's talent is frequently lauded by critics and other musicians, but he never received the kind of attention or public recognition from the jazz establishment that many of his peers did. For this reason, writer Gary Giddins said that Dorham's name has become "virtually synonymous with underrated." Dorham composed the jazz standard "Blue Bossa", which first appeared on Joe Henderson's album Page One.

Walter Bishop Jr. American jazz pianist, recording artist

Walter Bishop Jr. was an American jazz pianist.

Jaki Byard American musician

John Arthur "Jaki" Byard was an American jazz multi-instrumentalist, composer and arranger. Mainly a pianist, he also played tenor and alto saxophones, among several other instruments. He was known for his eclectic style, incorporating everything from ragtime and stride to free jazz.

Leroy Vinnegar was an American jazz bassist. Born in Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, the self-taught Vinnegar established his reputation in Los Angeles, California, during the 1950s and 1960s. His trademark was the rhythmic "walking" bass line, a steady series of ascending or descending notes, and it brought him the nickname "The Walker". Besides his jazz work, he also appeared on a number of soundtracks and pop albums, notably Van Morrison's 1972 album, Saint Dominic's Preview.

Sonny Criss American jazz musician

William "Sonny" Criss was an American jazz musician.

Alan Dawson was an American jazz drummer and percussion teacher based in Boston.

West Coast jazz refers to styles of jazz that developed in Los Angeles and San Francisco during the 1950s. West Coast jazz is often seen as a subgenre of cool jazz, which consisted of a calmer style than bebop or hard bop. The music relied relatively more on composition and arrangement than on the individually improvised playing of other jazz styles. Although this style dominated, it was not the only form of jazz heard on the American West Coast.

Barry Harris American jazz pianist and educator

Barry Doyle Harris is an American jazz pianist, bandleader, composer, arranger, and educator. He is an exponent of the bebop style.

Red Mitchell Musical artist

Keith Moore "Red" Mitchell, was an American jazz double-bassist, composer, lyricist, and poet.

Monte Rex Budwig was a West Coast jazz double bassist, professionally known as Monty Budwig.

Stan Levey was an American jazz drummer. He was known for working with Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie in the early development of bebop during the 1940s, and in the next decade had stint with bandleader Stan Kenton. Levey retired from music in the 1970s to work as a photographer.

George Cables American jazz pianist and composer

George Andrew Cables is an American jazz pianist and composer.

Jack Montrose was a jazz tenor saxophonist and arranger. After attending college in Los Angeles, he worked with Jerry Gray and then Art Pepper. Montrose also did arrangements for Clifford Brown. He became known for cool jazz and/or West coast jazz.

Frank Morgan (musician) Musical artist

Frank Morgan was a jazz saxophonist with a career spanning more than 50 years. He mainly played alto saxophone but also played soprano saxophone. He was known as a Charlie Parker successor who primarily played bebop and ballads.

<i>Popo</i> (album) 1980 studio album by Shorty Rogers and Art Pepper

Popo is a West Coast jazz album with a previously unreleased 1951 recording session by trumpeter Shorty Rogers and his quintet. It was first released on LP in 1980 by Don Schlitten on his Xanadu label. Due to his prominence, the album cover gives credit to alto saxophonist Art Pepper as co-leader alongside Rogers who actually led the studio session on December 27 that also featured pianist Frank Patchen, Howard Rumsey on bass, and Shelly Manne on drums. At the time the musicians also played together at the Lighthouse club in Hermosa Beach as Howard Rumsey's Lighthouse All-Stars. Shortly after Art Pepper would lead his first quartet.

Charles McPherson (musician) American jazz alto saxophonist (born 1939)

Charles McPherson is an American jazz alto saxophonist born in Joplin, Missouri, and raised in Detroit, Michigan, who worked intermittently with Charles Mingus from 1960 to 1974, and as a performer leading his own groups.

Frank Butler was an American jazz drummer.

This is the discography for American jazz drummer Shelly Manne.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Colin Larkin, ed. (1992). The Guinness Who's Who of Jazz (First ed.). Guinness Publishing. p. 192/3. ISBN   0-85112-580-8.
  2. Yanow, Scott. "Hampton Hawes | Biography & History | AllMusic". AllMusic . Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  3. "California Birth Index, 1905-1995 [database on-line]". United States: The Generations Network. 2005. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Owens, Thomas (1996). Bebop . Oxford University Press. p.  152.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Gioia, Ted (16 August 2013). "The Jazz Pianist That John F. Kennedy Saved". Daily Beast. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  6. "Hampton Hawes (1928-1977) - Find A Grave Memorial". Findagrave.com. Retrieved 1 July 2021.