Han Yong-un

Last updated

Man-hae
1937 hanyongun.jpg
BornAugust 29, 1879
Hongseong
DiedJune 29, 1944(1944-06-29) (aged 64)
LanguageKorean
NationalitySouth Korean
CitizenshipSouth Korean
Han Yong-un
Hangul
한용운
Hanja
韓龍雲
Revised Romanization Han Yong-un
McCune–Reischauer Han Yongun
Pen name
Hangul
만해
Hanja
萬海, also 卍海
Revised Romanization Manhae
McCune–Reischauer Manhae
Birth name
Hangul
한유천
Hanja
韓裕天
Revised Romanization Han Yu-cheon
McCune–Reischauer Han Yuch'ŏn
Courtesy name
Hangul
정옥
Hanja
貞玉
Revised Romanization Jeongok
McCune–Reischauer Chŏngok
Dharma name
Hangul
한봉완
Hanja
奉玩
Revised Romanization Bongwan
McCune–Reischauer Pongwan

Han Yong-un (Korean : 한용운, August 29, 1879 – June 29, 1944) was a twentieth century Korean Buddhist reformer and poet. [1] This name was his religious name, given by his meditation instructor in 1905, and Manhae (만해) was his pen name; his birth name was Han Yu-cheon.

Contents

Life

Manhae was born in Yucheon in Chungcheongnam-do, Hongseong. During his childhood, he studied Chinese classics in Seodang, a popular elementary school during the Joseon Dynasty. Prior to being ordained, he was involved in resistance to Japanese influence in the country, which culminated in the Japanese occupation from 1905 to 1945. [2] He lived in seclusion at Ose-am in the Baekdam Temple from 1896. During this period, he studied Buddhist sacred texts and several books of modern philosophy. In 1905 he received the robes of the Jogye Order of monks and in 1908 he went to Japan and visited several temples to study Buddhism and Eastern philosophy for six months. [3] In 1919 he was one of the patriot signatories to the Korean Declaration of Independence. [4]

Work

As a social writer, Manhae called for the reform of Korean Buddhism.

Manhae's poetry dealt with both nationalism and sexual love, often mingling the two. One of his more political collections was Nimui Chimmuk (Lover's Silence, 님의 침묵), published in 1926. These works revolve around the ideas of equality and freedom and helped inspire the tendencies toward passive resistance and non-violence in the Korean independence movement.

In 1913, Han Yongun published "The Restoration of Korean Buddhism (Joseonbulgyo-yusimlon), which criticized the anachronistic isolationist policy of Joseon Buddhism and its incongruence with the then contemporary reality. The work sent tremors through the intellectual world. In this work, the author promulgated the principle of equality, self-discovery, the potential for Buddhism for safeguarding the world, and progress. His development as an activist and thinker resulted from his adherence to these very principles. [5]

In 1918, Han published "Whole Mind" (Yusim), a work that aimed to enlighten young people. In the following year, he played an important role in the 3.1 Independence movement with Chae Lin, for which he was later imprisoned and served a three-year sentence. During his imprisonment, Han composed "Reasons for Korean Independence" (Joseondoglib-i-yuseo) as a response to the official investigation into his political engagement. He was later acquitted in 1922, at which time he began a nationwide lecture tour. The purpose of the tour was to engage and inspire youth, an objective first established in Han's "Whole Mind". In 1924, he became the Chair of the Buddhist youth assembly.

The poems published in Han's Nim-ui Chimmuk had been written at Baekdam Temple in the previous year. This book garnered much attention from literary critics and intellectuals at the time. Despite his many other publications, from Chinese poems to sijos and the poems included in Yusim, and novels such as Dark Wind (Heukpung), Regret (Huhoe), Misfortune (Bakmyeong), this collection remains the poet's most significant and enduring literary achievement. [5] In it, love for the motherland plainly appears under the guise of longing for the loved one, as in the poem "I Do Not Know".

Whose footstep is that paulownia leaf that falls silently in the windless air, drawing a perpendicular?
Whose face is that piece of blue sky peeping through the black clouds, chased by the west wind after a dreary rain?
Whose breath is that unnameable fragrance, born amid the green moss in the flowerless deep forest and trailing over the ancient tower?
Whose song is that winding stream gushing from an unknown source and breaking against the rocks?
Whose poem is that twilight that adorns the falling day, treading over the boundless sea with lotus feet and caressing the vast sky with jade hands?
The ember becomes oil again.
Ah, for whose night does this feeble lantern keep vigil, the unquenchable flame in my heart? [6]

Han's model for such rhapsodic, long-lined expressions of devotion was Rabindranath Tagore, whose work he knew, and behind Tagore the long Indian tradition of combining mysticism with eroticism. [7] In 2007, he was listed by the Korean Poets' Association among the ten most important modern Korean poets. [8]

Poetry in translation

Related Research Articles

Kim Soo-young was a Korean poet.

Seo Jeong-ju was a Korean poet and university professor who wrote under the pen name Midang. He is widely considered as one of the best poets in twentieth-century Korean literature and was nominated five times for the Nobel Prize in literature.

Ahn Soo-kil (1911–1977) was a Korean novelist and journalist who devoted much of his life to depicting the lives of the Korean settlers in Jiandao, Manchuria.

Baekdamsa

Baekdamsa (백담사) is a Buddhist temple in Inje County, Gangwon province, South Korea. It was originally built in the 7th century, but because of war and natural disasters has been rebuilt numerous times since then. The present version was completed in 1957. Additionally, the name has also changed over time. Originally called Hangyesa, the new name reflects the "100 pits from Daecheongbong Peak to the temple".

Kim Gu-yong (김구용)', pen name of Kim Kku, was a poet and calligrapher living in what is now South Korea. His poetry showed the spirit of Taoism but also reflected Buddhism. He was a graduate of Seongkyungwan University (1955) and later a professor at the same school.

Jeong Ji-yong Korean poet

Jeong Ji-yong, often romanized in literature as Cheong Chi-yong, was a Korean poet and translator of English poetry who "opened a new horizon of poetic possibilities through chiselled expression, tempered sentiments, and precise visual imagery" according to the scholar of Korean poetry, Brother Anthony.

{{Infobox writer | name = Lee Eun-sang | image = | image_size = | alt = | caption = | pseudonym = | birth_name = | birth_date = October 26, 2002 | birth_place = [[Jeju], Korea | death_date = | | resting_place = | occupation = artist, trainee | language = Korean | education = | alma_mater = | period = | genre = | subject = | movement = | notableworks = | spouse = | partner = | children = | relatives = | awards = | signature = | signature_alt = | website = | portaldisp =

Jo Jung-rae South Korean writer

Jo Jung-Rae is a novelist from South Korea, who is the author of the best selling novels Taebaek Mountain Range, Arirang, and Han River'

Pi Cheon-deuk was a Korean poet and an English literature scholar, but primarily an essayist.

Kim Yong-man is a modern South Korean poet.

Kwak Jae-gu is a South Korean modern poet.

Kim Kyung Ju is a Korean poet and performance artist.

Kim Nam-jo is a Korean poet.


Moon Taejun is a South Korean poet.

Lee Si-Young is a South Korean writer.


Shin Yong-Mok is an award-winning South Korean poet.

Kim Sin Yong is a South Korean writer.

Lee Garim is a South Korean writer.

Lee SungBoo was a South Korean poet and novelist.


Sung Chan-gyeong was a modern South Korean poet.

References

  1. "Han Yong-un " LTI Korea Datasheet available at LTI Korea Library or online at: http://klti.or.kr/ke_04_03_011.do# Archived September 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  2. Lee, Kyung-ho (1996). "Han Yong-un". Who's Who in Korean Literature. Seoul: Hollym. p. 137. ISBN   1-56591-066-4.
  3. "Han Yong-un" LTI Korea Datasheet available at LTI Korea Library or online at: http://klti.or.kr/ke_04_03_011.do# Archived September 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  4. "Han Yong'un". koreanlitinfo.com. Korean Literature. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
  5. 1 2 Source-attribution|"Han Yong-un" LTI Korea Datasheet available at LTI Korea Library or online Archived September 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  6. Peter H. Lee, Poems from Korea, University Press of Hawaii 1974, pp.162–3
  7. Pankaj Mohan, "Revisiting Han Yong-un's Buddhist Texts and their Nationalist Contexts", pp.7–8
  8. Chung, Ah-young (October 15, 2007). "Top Ten Korean Modern Poets Selected". The Korea Times. Retrieved February 16, 2020.