Hanau

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Hanau
Goldschmiedehaus Hanau.jpg
Goldsmiths' House (Hanau old town hall)
Wappen Hanau.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Hanau within Main-Kinzig-Kreis district
Hanau in HU.svg
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Hanau
Hesse location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Hanau
Coordinates: 50°07′58″N08°55′01″E / 50.13278°N 8.91694°E / 50.13278; 8.91694 Coordinates: 50°07′58″N08°55′01″E / 50.13278°N 8.91694°E / 50.13278; 8.91694
Country Germany
State Hesse
Admin. region Darmstadt
District Main-Kinzig-Kreis
Government
   Lord Mayor Claus Kaminsky (SPD)
Area
  Total76.49 km2 (29.53 sq mi)
Elevation
104 m (341 ft)
Population
 (2018-12-31) [1]
  Total96,023
  Density1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
63450, 63452, 63454 63456, 63457
Dialling codes 06181
Vehicle registration HU
Website www.hanau.de

Hanau [ˈhaːnaʊ̯] is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt am Main and is part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Its station is a major railway junction and it has a port on the river Main, making it an important transport centre. The town is known for being the birthplace of Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm and Franciscus Sylvius. Since the 16th century it was a centre of precious metal working with many goldsmiths. It is home to Heraeus, one of the largest family-owned companies in Germany.

Contents

Hanau, once the seat of the Counts of Hanau, lost much of its architectural heritage in World War II. A British air raid in 1945 created a firestorm, killing one sixth of the remaining population and destroying 98 percent of the old city and 80 percent of the city overall.

In 1963, the town hosted the third Hessentag state festival. Until 2005, Hanau was the administrative centre of the Main-Kinzig-Kreis. On 19 February 2020, a gunman attacked two hookah lounges in Hanau, murdering nine people with roots outside Germany, before shooting his mother and himself.

Geography

The historic core of Hanau is situated within a semicircle of the river Kinzig which flows into the river Main just west of the town. Today, after a substantial expansion during the 19th and 20th centuries it also extends to the river Main and after a restructuring of municipal borders within Hesse in the 1970s a couple of nearby villages and towns were incorporated. After this change, Hanau for the first time also extended to the south bank of the Main river.

Climate

On the 0 °C isotherm, Hanau has a humid continental climate as Eastern Germany with warm summer, classified by Köppen as Dfb. In the -3 °C isotherm has oceanic climate (Cfb) with some interior characteristics. Using the first definition used is the city most west of the continent below 200 m at sea level with this category. [2]

Climate data for Hanau
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)13
(55)
18
(64)
26
(79)
30
(86)
33
(91)
35
(95)
36
(97)
36
(97)
31
(88)
27
(81)
20
(68)
16
(61)
36
(97)
Average high °C (°F)3
(37)
5
(41)
10
(50)
14
(57)
19
(66)
22
(72)
24
(75)
24
(75)
19
(66)
14
(57)
8
(46)
4
(39)
14
(57)
Average low °C (°F)−2
(28)
−1
(30)
2
(36)
4
(39)
8
(46)
11
(52)
13
(55)
12
(54)
9
(48)
5
(41)
2
(36)
−2
(28)
5
(41)
Record low °C (°F)−20
(−4)
−12
(10)
−5
(23)
3
(37)
4
(39)
2
(36)
1
(34)
−2
(28)
−9
(16)
−20
(−4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)30
(1.2)
30
(1.2)
30
(1.2)
40
(1.6)
50
(2.0)
70
(2.8)
50
(2.0)
50
(2.0)
50
(2.0)
30
(1.2)
50
(2.0)
50
(2.0)
530
(21.2)
Average snowfall cm (inches)9
(3.5)
10
(3.9)
4
(1.6)
trace0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
6
(2.4)
10
(3.9)
46
(18)
Average rainy days1088910101010881010111
Average snowy days43110000001313
Average relative humidity (%)89848582808081848991899085
Mean daily sunshine hours 1346777653114
Source: WeatherBase and Fremdenverkehrsbuero.info (temperature, rainy and sunny days)

Districts

Name

The name is derived from "Hagenowe", which is a composition of Haag (wood) and Aue (open land by the side of a river).

History

Relic of the first (medieval) town-fortification Stadtmauer Hanau1.jpg
Relic of the first (medieval) town-fortification
Hanau in around 1550. Centre: medieval town; Schloss = castle; A+B: gates within the medieval town wall; C+D: gates of the 16th century fortification Hanau-Karte-Altstadt(um 1550).png
Hanau in around 1550. Centre: medieval town; Schloss = castle; A+B: gates within the medieval town wall; C+D: gates of the 16th century fortification

Old town

As a place of settlement Hanau was first mentioned in 1143. Formerly it was the site of a castle which used the waters of the river Kinzig as a defense. The castle belonged to a noble family, calling themselves "of Hanau" since the 13th century. Starting from this castle a village developed and became a town in 1303. As a result of this history, the main church of Hanau stood outside its walls in the village of Kinzdorf. The villagers moved into the town, Kinzdorf became an abandoned village leaving only the church. Only in the 15th century was the status of the Hanau parish church transferred to the church of Mary Magdalene within the town walls.

Shortly after the first town walls were built at the beginning of the 14th century, the town outgrew this limit. Outside the wall, along the road to Frankfurt am Main a settlement developed (the Vorstadt) which was properly included in the fortifications of Hanau only when Hanau received completely new fortifications in Renaissance-style during the first half of the 16th century. These new fortifications enclosed three elements: The medieval castle, the medieval town of Hanau and the Vorstadt.

New town

At the end of the 16th century, Count Philipp Ludwig II attracted Protestant refugees from the Netherlands and France to found their own settlement south of Hanau. [3] This was of high economic interest for him because these Walloons brought high-class trade, their knowledge of jewellery and other production of luxury items and therefore taxes to his county. Out of this tradition, goldsmiths are still trained in Hanau. Hanau also was the site of the first workshop to produce Faience within Germany. These new citizens were granted privileges and they formed their own community, church and administration for the "new town of Hanau" (Neustadt Hanau) wholly separate from the existing community. It took more than 200 years to amalgamate both. The new town – larger than the old one – was protected by a then very modern fortification in Baroque-style which proved a big asset only a few years later in the Thirty Years' War. The town survived a siege in 1637 with only minor damage.

The new citizens formed the major economic and political power within the County of Hanau and in 1642 played a leading role in the succession of Count Fredrik Casimir of Hanau Lichtenberg into the County of Hanau-Münzenberg of which the town of Hanau was the capital.

In 1736 Johann Reinhard III of Hanau-Lichtenberg, the last of the Counts of Hanau, died. Those parts of his county belonging to the County of Hanau-Münzenberg, which included Hanau, were inherited by the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Due to dynastic troubles within this family the County of Hesse-Hanau was created a separate state from the Landgraviate until 1786. So Hanau stayed capital for another 50 years. Even after that it became – after Kassel – the town second in importance within Hesse-Kassel.

17th century

During the Thirty Years' War Hanau was taken by the Swedes in 1631. [3] In 1636 it was besieged by the imperial troops, but was relieved on the 13th of June by William V, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, on account of which the day is still commemorated by the inhabitants. [3]

19th century

The Battle of Hanau (1813) by Horace Vernet. Vernet-Battle of Hanau.jpg
The Battle of Hanau (1813) by Horace Vernet.

During the Napoleonic Wars the Emperor himself ordered the fortifications of Hanau to be destroyed. This created a chance for both parts of the town to expand across their traditional limits. In 1813, the Battle of Hanau took place near the city between French troops and Austro-Bavarian forces. During the 1820s the administrations of both towns of Hanau were merged. The first common Mayor, who became Lord Mayor (Oberbürgermeister) was Bernhard Eberhard  [ de ], later to become prime minister and minister of the interior of the Electorate of Hesse after the Revolution of 1848.

With its pre-industrial workshops Hanau became a nucleus of a heavy industrialisation during the 19th century: From within the city (e.g.: Heraeus) as well as from outside (e.g. Degussa, Dunlop). This was heavily supported by its development as an important railway interchange of six railway lines, most of them main lines:

In the 19th century, Hanau was a centre of the German democratic movement and contributed significantly both in 1830 and in the Revolution of 1848. As part of this movement the German Gymnastic League (Deutscher Turnerbund) was founded here in 1848. Hanau was finally annexed to Prussia like all of Hesse-Kassel in 1866 after its Prince-elector took the Austrian side in the Austro-Prussian War. It remained part of Prussia until 1945.

In the late 19th century Hanau became a major garrison town. Due to its interchange of railway lines a large detachment of military railway-engineers as well as other military units were stationed here.

20th century

During World War II, the Jewish population were persecuted with the last Jews being deported in May 1942.

Hanau was for the most part destroyed by British airstrikes in March 1945 a few days before it was taken by the U.S. Army. Around 87% of the town was destroyed. [4] :35 Of 15,000 inhabitants who remained in the city at the time, 2,500 died in the attack.

The town housed one of the largest garrisons of the U.S. Army in Europe. Being an important strategic location in the so called Fulda Gap, the military community had a population of 45,000 military members, U.S. civilians and family members at its peak during the Cold War. The extensive U.S. facilities included Hanau Army Airfield, also known as Fliegerhorst Langendiebach. The garrison was closed in April 2018. Most of the former military areas have been converted to civil use in the meantime.

21st century

In 2010, Hanau started a huge building project to completely redesign the inner city.[ citation needed ] These are the largest construction works in the town since the reconstruction after World War II.[ citation needed ]

On 19 February 2020, eleven people—including the perpetrator—were killed in a spree shooting at two shisha bars and a flat in the town. [5] The perpetrator, known as Tobias Rathjen, opened fire at Midnight Bar and Arena Bar in Hanau centre and Mühlheim am Main. Tobias then drove home, where he killed his mother, and shot himself. The shooting was believed to be motivated by xenophobic and neo-Nazi sentiments.

Economy

At present, many inhabitants work in the technological industry (VAC  [ de ], Heraeus) or commute to Frankfurt. Frankfurt International Airport is 30 km away.

Population

Largest groups of foreign residents
NationalityPopulation (2011)
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 8,010
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1,917
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 943
Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (1992-2006).svg  Serbia & Montenegro 647
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia 560
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 560

Jewish community

The earliest documentary evidence for the presence of Jews in Hanau dates from 1313. In the 17th and 18th centuries Hanau developed into an important center of Hebrew printing. The community numbered 540 persons 1805, 80 families in 1830, 447 persons in 1871, and 657 at the turn of the century. In 1925 there were 568 Jews in Hanau. [6]

International relations

Hanau is twinned with: [7]

In addition it is associated with two other towns:

Transport

Rail

Hanau is a transportation hub in Germany, with its main station serving the following lines:

Besides the main station, the town is also served by Hanau West and Hanau-Wilhelmsbad on the Frankfurt-Hanau Railway, Großauheim on the Main-Spessart-Bahn, Wolfgang an der Kinzigtalbahn, the S-Bahn station at Steinheim (Main) on the South-Main S-Bahn, Hanau Nord at the Hanau-Friedberger Bahn and Hanau-Klein Auheim on the Odenwaldbahn.

Sights

Notable people

Sculpture of Brothers Grimm in Hanau, by Syrius Eberle Hanau Bruder Grimm.jpg
Sculpture of Brothers Grimm in Hanau, by Syrius Eberle

Sports

Related Research Articles

Hesse State in Germany

Hesse or Hessia, officially the State of Hesse, is a parliamentary republic in western Europe and, with just over six million inhabitants, a member state of the Federal Republic of Germany as of 1949. Its capital city is Wiesbaden, the largest metropolitan area is Frankfurt am Main.

Großauheim is the largest district of Hanau, Hesse, Germany, on the north bank of the Main. It was first mentioned in 806 under the name "Ewichheim". It was a farming village until the end of the 19th century but during the 20th century, numerous branches of industry settled there. The Hanau Port built in 1924 is mainly in Großauheim. In 1956, Großauheim was made a free town. In 1972, Großauheim included Wolfgang but due to the Hessian regional reform, Großauheim and Wolfgang were incorporated into Hanau in 1974. In the 1970s, the industry began to migrate and it has almost vanished today. It was the site of multiple American military bases until 2008.

Gelnhausen Place in Hesse, Germany

Gelnhausen is a town, and the capital of the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located approximately 40 kilometers east of Frankfurt am Main, between the Vogelsberg mountains and the Spessart range at the river Kinzig. It is one of the eleven towns in the district. Gelnhausen has around 22,000 inhabitants.

Kinzig (Main) Right tributary of the Main in Hesse, Germany

The Kinzig is a river, 87 kilometres long, in southern Hesse, Germany. It is a right tributary of the Main. Its source is in the Spessart hills at Sterbfritz, near Schlüchtern. The Kinzig flows into the Main in Hanau. The Main-Kinzig-Kreis (district) was named after the river. The towns along the Kinzig are Schlüchtern, Steinau an der Straße, Bad Soden-Salmünster, Gelnhausen, and Hanau. The Kinzig is first recorded in 815 A.D. as Chinzicha.

Schlüchtern Place in Hesse, Germany

Schlüchtern is a town in the Main-Kinzig district, in Hesse, Germany. It is located on the river Kinzig, approximately 30 km southwest of Fulda. Schlüchtern has a population close to 16,000.

Steinau an der Straße Place in Hesse, Germany

Steinau an der Straße is a town of around 10,000 in the Main-Kinzig district, in Hesse, Germany. It is situated on the river Kinzig, 32 km southwest of Fulda. Its name, meaning "on the road", refers to the historic trade route Via Regia from Leipzig to Frankfurt on which it was located. Steinau is best known for the Brothers Grimm who spent part of their childhood here.

Biebergemünd Place in Hesse, Germany

Biebergemünd is a municipality in the Main-Kinzig district, in Hesse, Germany. It has a population of over 8,000 and lies in the wooded hills of the Spessart.

Flörsbachtal Place in Hesse, Germany

Flörsbachtal is a municipality in the Main-Kinzig district, in Hesse, Germany. It has a population close to 2,400. Flösbachtal contains both the oldest parish and the youngest settlement established in the Spessart hills. Located within the municipal territory is the Hermannskoppe, the highest elevation in the Hessian part of the Spessart and the Wiesbüttmoor, a rare hanging bog.

Main–Spessart railway German rail line

The Main-Spessart Railway is a 110 kilometre-long railway line in the Bavarian province of Lower Franconia and the neighbouring state of Hesse in south central Germany. It runs from Würzburg via Gemünden (Main) and Aschaffenburg to Hanau. It is particularly important for long-distance and goods traffic because it links the Rhine-Main conurbation immediately northwest of Aschaffenburg with the Lower Franconian city of Würzburg and beyond it to the metropoles of Nuremberg and Munich. Its name derives from the fact that it initially runs parallel to the River Main and then cuts through the Spessart hills. It was opened on 22 June 1854 by the Frankfurt-Hanau Railway Company and is one of the oldest railways in Germany.

The Frankfurt–Bebra railway runs from Bebra to Frankfurt am Main via Fulda, Gelnhausen, Hanau and Offenbach am Main in south central Germany. The southern section between Fulda and Frankfurt is known as the Kinzig Valley railway due to the route it follows through the Kinzig Valley.

The Main–Weser Railway is a railway line in central Germany that runs from Frankfurt am Main via Gießen to Kassel. it is named after the railway company that built the line and also operated it until 1880. It was opened between 1849 and 1852 and was one of the first railways in Germany.

Kassel Hauptbahnhof German railway station

Kassel Hauptbahnhof is a Deutsche Bahn railway station in the city of Kassel, in the German state of Hesse. Situated in the central borough of Mitte, it is the city's second important railway station after the opening of Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe in 1991; and so it is the only Hauptbahnhof that is not the main station of its city.

Hanau Hauptbahnhof railway station in Hanau, Germany

Hanau Hauptbahnhof is a railway station at Hanau in the German state of Hesse, and is a major railway junction east of Frankfurt am Main. It was opened in 1867, but the current building was built in the late 1960s. It is located about 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) south-east of central Hanau. It is classified by Deutsche Bahn (DB) as a category 2 station and has many train services, including Intercity Express, regional and S-Bahn services.

The South Main line connects Frankfurt am Main Hauptbahnhof with Hanau Hauptbahnhof. It consists of a two-track main line that runs via Offenbach Hauptbahnhof and a line of the Rhine-Main S-Bahn that is entirely independent of the main line tracks but is mainly built next to them. The S-Bahn line connects the Frankfurt City Tunnel to Offenbach Ost and Hanau. It is used by S-Bahn lines S8 and S9.

The Frankfurt–Hanau railway was opened in 1848 and was one of the oldest railways in Germany. Today it is a double track electrified main line and part of the North Main Railway from Frankfurt am Main to Hanau.

Johann Reinhard III, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Count of Hanau-Münzenberg

Johann Reinhard III of Hanau-Lichtenberg was the last of the counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg. He reigned from 1680 to 1736. From 1712 to 1736, he also reigned the County of Hanau-Münzenberg.

Hanau West station railway station in Hanau, Germany

Hanau West station is the oldest station in the city of Hanau in the German state of Hesse. It was opened in 1848 and is located on the 17.9 kilometre mark of the Frankfurt-Hanau Railway. Operationally, since the 1970s it has been classified as a Haltepunkt (“halt”). The station is classified by Deutsche Bahn (DB) as a category 5 station.

Frankfurt-Mainkur station railway station in Frankfurt, Germany

Frankfurt-Mainkur station is located on the Frankfurt-Hanau Railway between Frankfurt East station and Hanau Central Station in the Frankfurt district of Fechenheim in the German state of Hesse. The station is classified by Deutsche Bahn (DB) as a category 5 station.

The County of Hanau-Münzenberg was a territory within the Holy Roman Empire. It emerged when the County of Hanau was divided in 1458, the other part being the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg. Due to common heirs both counties were merged from 1642 to 1685 and from 1712 to 1736. In 1736 the last member of the House of Hanau died and the Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel inherited the county.

Hanau-Wilhelmsbad station railway station in Hanau, Germany

Hanau-Wilhelmsbad station is a former Fürstenbahnhof and a current halt ("Haltepunkt") on the Frankfurt–Hanau railway in Hanau in the German state of Hesse.

References

  1. "Bevölkerungsstand am 31.12.2018". Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt (in German). July 2019.
  2. "Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map of the world". people.eng.unimelb.edu.au. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  3. 1 2 3 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hanau"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 908.
  4. Schumacher, Karin; Schumacher, Hans-Jürgen (2003). Zeitreise durch den Spessart (German). Wartberg Verlag. ISBN   3-8313-1075-0.
  5. "Germany: Eleven dead in suspected far-right attack | DW | 20.02.2020". DW.COM. Deutsche Welle.
  6. "Hanau". Museum of The Jewish People - Beit Hatfutsot. Retrieved 2019-07-21.
  7. "Internationale Beziehungen". hanau.de (in German). Hanau. Retrieved 2019-11-29.