Handroanthus

Last updated

Handroanthus
Ipe detail.jpg
Flowering araguaney or ipê-amarelo ( Handroanthus chrysanthus ) Brazil
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Bignoniaceae
Clade: Crescentiina
Clade: Tabebuia alliance
Genus: Handroanthus
J. R. Mattos
Type species
Handroanthus albus
(Chamisso) J. R. Mattos
Species

30 species, see text

Handroanthus serratifolius - MHNT Tabebuia serratifolia MHNT.BOT.2010.6.46.jpg
Handroanthus serratifolius - MHNT

Handroanthus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae. [1] It consists of 30 species of trees, known in Latin America by the common names poui, pau d'arco, or ipê. The latter sometimes appears as epay or simply ipe[ pronunciation? ] (unaccented) in English. The large timber species are sometimes called lapacho or guayacan, but these names are more properly applied to the species Handroanthus lapacho and Handroanthus guayacan , respectively.

Contents

The name Handroanthus was established in 1970, [2] but was not generally accepted. In 1992, its species were included in Tabebuia in the most recent revision of that genus. [3] Handroanthus was resurrected in 2007 when a comparison of DNA sequences by cladistic methods showed that Tabebuia, as then circumscribed, was not monophyletic. [4] [5]

Handroanthus are indigenous from Central America to northern Argentina, Paraguay and Chile, with one species, Handroanthus billbergii , native to northern South America and the Antilles. Handroanthus are frequently cultivated far from their natural range, as ornamental trees, for their large and showy flowers. They easily become naturalized where introduced because their seeds are prolifically produced and widely scattered by the wind. [6] Several species are important timber trees of the American tropics. [7] Medicinal use has been reported, but its efficacy and side effects have not been well studied.

Species

Species include: [8]

Description

The following description is excerpted from the paper that resurrected Handroanthus in 2007. [5]

Handroanthus is distinguished from Tabebuia by several morphological characters. The wood is among the hardest and heaviest known. The heartwood is distinct from the sapwood and contains large quantities of lapachol. Handroanthus has the same lepidote scales as Tabebuia, but also has various types of hair. The calyx is 5-dentate and campanulate to cupular. The corolla is yellow, except in those four species where it is magenta with a yellow throat. Tabebuia has only two yellow-flowered species, Tabebuia aurea and Tabebuia nodosa . The fruit of Handroanthus is rarely glabrous like that of Tabebuia. It usually ranges from sparsely pubescent to densely tomentose.

Uses

Handroanthus is widely used as an ornamental tree in the tropics in landscaping gardens, public squares, and boulevards due to its impressive and colorful flowering. Many flowers appear on still-leafless stems at the end of the dry season, making the floral display more conspicuous. Handroanthus impetiginosus , Handroanthus chrysotrichus , and Handroanthus ochraceus are well-known throughout the tropics. [6] Handroanthus chrysanthus , Handroanthus guayacan , Handroanthus serratifolius , Handroanthus umbellatus , and Handroanthus vellosoi are also planted in warm climates. [9]

Handroanthus heptaphyllus , Handroanthus serratifolius, Handroanthus guayacan, Handroanthus chrysanthus, and Handroanthus billbergii are important timber trees of the Neotropics. [7] The wood of Handroanthus billbergii is valued for carving. [1] Indigenous peoples of the Amazon made hunting bows from the wood, which is the source of the common name pau d'arco, "bow stick". [10]

Much of the lumber from Handroanthus is exported. The wood is durable outdoors, where it is usually used for furniture and decking. It is increasingly popular as a decking material due to its insect resistance and durability. Handroanthus and the unrelated Guaiacum (Zygophyllaceae) produce the hardest, heaviest, and most durable wood of the American tropics. [7] Dead trees of Handroanthus guayacan remain standing after they were killed by flooding of their habitat during construction of the Panama Canal. [1]

The wood of Handroanthus brings a high price. The wood of other species is sometimes fraudulently sold as Handroanthus. By 2007, FSC-certified ipê wood had become readily available on the market, although certificates are occasionally forged. [11]

Much of the ipê imported into the United States is used for decking. Starting in the late 1960s, importing companies targeted large boardwalk projects to sell ipê, beginning with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, which maintains the city's boardwalks, including along the beach of Coney Island. The city began using ipê around that time and has since converted the entire boardwalk—over 10 mi (16 km) long—to ipê. The ipê lasted about 25 years, at which time (1994) the department began replacing it with new ipê. La Sultana , a yacht refashioned from a Soviet spy vessel, was fitted with an ipê deck during its restoration. [12] In 2008-2009, Wildwood, New Jersey, rebuilt a section of its boardwalk using ipê. The town had pledged to use domestic black locust, but it was not available in time. [13]

Given that ipê trees typically grow in densities of only one or two trees per 1 acre (0.40 ha), large areas of forest must be searched and cut down to create paths to harvest the trees to fill orders for boardwalks and to a lesser extent, homeowner decks.

The bark of several species of Handroanthus is sold in South American markets. Similar-looking bark is often fraudulently passed off as Handroanthus. It is used in various ways to relieve certain symptoms of certain cancers. [7] No evidence shows that it prevents the disease or slows its progression, as is often claimed.

The bark is dried, shredded, and then boiled to make a bitter or sour-tasting brownish-colored tea. Tea from the inner bark of pink ipê ( Handroanthus impetiginosus ) is known as pau d'arco, lapacho, or taheebo. [14]

Handroanthus ochraceus (synonym: Tabebuia heteropoda), Handroanthus incanus , and other species are occasionally used as an additive to the entheogenic drink Ayahuasca. [15]

Ecology

The nectar of Handroanthus flowers is an important food source for several species of bees and hummingbirds. [16]

Mycosphaerella tabebuiae , a plant pathogenic sac fungus was first discovered on a Handroanthus tree, known at that time as Tabebuia.[ citation needed ] The taxonomy of Mycosphaerella is in much confusion and the recognition of this name is questionable.[ citation needed ]

Symbolism

Because of its popularity, Handroanthus has often been adopted as a symbol or emblem for nations or other political divisions.

The distinction between national flower and national tree is sometimes not entirely clear. Gentry (1992) gives the following information without making that distinction. [7]

History

Araguaney (Handroanthus chrysanthus) tree on a Caracas street Araguaney.jpg
Araguaney ( Handroanthus chrysanthus ) tree on a Caracas street
Leaves of pink ipe (Handroanthus impetiginosus) in detail Tabebuia impetiginosa hojas.jpeg
Leaves of pink ipê ( Handroanthus impetiginosus ) in detail

The genus Handroanthus was erected by Joáo Rodrigues de Mattos in 1970. [17] It was named for the Brazilian botanist Oswaldo Handro. "Anthus" is derived from a Greek word for "flower".[ citation needed ]

Most botanists at that time did not agree with the separation of Handroanthus from Tabebuia. Alwyn H. Gentry objected strenuously and warned against "succumbing to further paroxysms of unwarranted splitting". [18]

In 1992, Gentry published a full taxonomic treatment of Tabebuia, in which he described 99 species and one hybrid for the genus. [3] These consist of the 67 species and one hybrid that remain in Tabebuia, the two species transferred to Roseodendron , and the 30 species that are now placed in Handroanthus. Gentry divided Tabebuia into 10 species groups. Handroanthus, as it is currently circumscribed, is composed of Gentry's groups 3, 4, and 5. Gentry believed group 5 to be natural, while groups 3 and 4 were artificial, designated for the sole purpose of easier identification.

In 2007, a molecular phylogenetic study resolved Tabebuia as consisting of three strongly supported clades, none of which was sister to either of the others. [4] Thus Tabebuia was shown to be polyphyletic. One of these clades consisted of the two species that constitute the genus Roseodendron . Another contained the type species for Tabebuia, and consequently retained that name. The name Handroanthus was resurrected for the third clade, which contained its type species, Handroanthus albus . [5]

Handroanthus is sister to a clade consisting of Spirotecoma , Parmentiera , Crescentia , and Amphitecna . It had for a long time been placed in the tribe Tecomeae, but that tribe has been greatly reduced to only 11 or 12 genera and no longer includes Handroanthus. Handroanthus is one of the 12 to 14 genera that make up a group informally known as the Tabebuia alliance. [19] This group has not been assigned to any taxonomic rank, and neither has Crescentiina, the smallest group that it is a member of.

Cladistic analysis of DNA data has strongly supported Handroanthus, but sampling of taxa and DNA has not been sufficient to strongly support any relationships within the genus.

Related Research Articles

<i>Tabebuia</i> Genus of flowering plants

Tabebuia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae. Tabebuia consists almost entirely of trees, but a few are often large shrubs. A few species produce timber, but the genus is mostly known for those that are cultivated as flowering trees.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bignoniaceae</span> Family of flowering plants

Bignoniaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Lamiales commonly known as the bignonias or trumpet vines. It is not known to which of the other families in the order it is most closely related.

<i>Paubrasilia</i> Species of plant in the family Fabaceae

Paubrasilia echinata is a species of flowering plant in the legume family, Fabaceae, that is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. It is a Brazilian timber tree commonly known as Pernambuco wood or brazilwood and is the national tree of Brazil. This plant has a dense, orange-red heartwood that takes a high shine, and it is the premier wood used for making bows for stringed instruments. The wood also yields a historically important red dye called brazilin, which oxidizes to brazilein.

<i>Jacaranda</i> Genus of trees

Jacaranda is a genus of 49 species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas while cultivated around the world. The generic name is also used as the common name.

<i>Hymenaea</i> Genus of legumes

Hymenaea is a genus of plants in the legume family Fabaceae. Of the fourteen living species in the genus, all but one are native to the tropics of the Americas, with one additional species on the east coast of Africa. Some authors place the African species in a separate monotypic genus, Trachylobium. In the Neotropics, Hymenaea is distributed through the Caribbean islands, and from southern Mexico to Brazil. Linnaeus named the genus in 1753 in Species Plantarum for Hymenaios, the Greek god of marriage ceremonies. The name is a reference to the paired leaflets.

<i>Handroanthus serratifolius</i> Species of tree

Handroanthus serratifolius is a species of tree, commonly known as yellow lapacho, pau d'arco, yellow poui, yellow ipe, pau d'arco amarelo, or ipê-amarelo.

<i>Handroanthus impetiginosus</i> Species of tree

Handroanthus impetiginosus, the pink ipê, pink lapacho or pink trumpet tree, is a tree in the family Bignoniaceae, distributed throughout North, Central and South America, from northern Mexico south to northern Argentina. Along with all the other species in the Handroanthus genus, it is the national tree of Paraguay.

<i>Handroanthus chrysanthus</i> Species of tree

Handroanthus chrysanthus, formerly classified as Tabebuia chrysantha, also known as araguaney in Venezuela, as guayacán in Colombia, as chonta quiru in Peru, Panama, and Ecuador, as tajibo in Bolivia, and as ipê-amarelo in Brazil, is a native tree of the intertropical broadleaf deciduous forests of South America above the Tropic of Capricorn. On May 29, 1948, Handroanthus chrysanthus was declared the National Tree of Venezuela due to its status as an emblematic native species of extraordinary beauty. Its deep yellow resembles that of the Venezuelan flag.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lapachol</span> Chemical compound

Lapachol is a natural phenolic compound isolated from the bark of the lapacho tree. This tree is known botanically as Handroanthus impetiginosus, but was formerly known by various other botanical names such as Tabebuia avellanedae. Lapachol is also found in other species of Handroanthus.

<i>Handroanthus chrysotrichus</i> Species of tree

Handroanthus chrysotrichus, synonym Tabebuia chrysotricha, commonly known as the golden trumpet tree, is a semi-evergreen/semi-deciduous tree from Brazil. It is very similar to and often confused with Tabebuia ochracea. In Portuguese it is called ipê amarelo and its flower is considered the national flower of Brazil.

<i>Guaiacum angustifolium</i> Species of tree

Guaiacum angustifolium is a species of flowering plant in the caltrop family, Zygophyllaceae. Common names include Texas guaiacum, Texas lignum-vitae, soapbush and huayacán. It is native to southern and western Texas in the United States and northern Mexico. The specific name is derived from the Latin angustus, meaning "narrow," and -folius, meaning "-leaved".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alwyn Gentry</span> American botanist (1945–1993)

Alwyn Howard Gentry was an American botanist and plant collector, who made major contributions to the understanding of the vegetation of tropical forests.

Quebracho is a common name in Spanish to describe very hard wood tree species. The etymology of the name derived from quiebrahacha, or quebrar hacha, meaning "axe-breaker". The corresponding English-language term for such hardwoods is breakax or breakaxe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kapur (wood)</span>

Kapur is a dipterocarp hardwood from trees of the genus Dryobalanops found in lowland tropical rainforests of Malaysia, Indonesia and South-East Asia. It is a durable construction tropical timber. One variety, D. aromatica, is a source of camphor.

Pau d'Arco or Paudarco may refer to:

<i>Roseodendron</i> Genus of flowering plants

Roseodendron is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae. It consists of two species, Roseodendron donnell-smithii and Roseodendron chryseum. The type species for the genus is R. donnell-smithii. Both species are cultivated as ornamentals for their numerous, large, yellow flowers.

Ekmanianthe is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae. It is most closely related to Tabebuia and has sometimes been included within it. It consists of two species of trees, neither of which is especially common in any part of its range:

<i>Astianthus</i> Genus of trees

Astianthus is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the Bignoniaceae family. The sole species is Astianthus viminalis. It is known by the common names achuchil in Mexico and chilca in Guatemala and Honduras.

<i>Handroanthus heptaphyllus</i> Species of tree

Handroanthus heptaphyllus, commonly referred to as the pink trumpet tree or pink tab, is a Bignoniaceae tree native to tropical and subtropical regions of South America. It grows in the high forest watershed of the Paraná River, Paraguay River and Uruguay River. It has a limited distribution, almost exclusively inhabiting low lands with wet and deep soils, where it forms part of the upper layer of tree cover.

References

  1. 1 2 3 David J. Mabberley. 2008. Mabberley's Plant-Book third edition (2008). Cambridge University Press: UK. ISBN   978-0-521-82071-4
  2. Handroanthus in International Plant Names Index. (see External links below).
  3. 1 2 Alwyn H. Gentry. 1992. "Bignoniaceae: Part II (Tribe Tecomeae)". Flora Neotropica Monograph 25(part 2):1-150.
  4. 1 2 Susan O. Grose and Richard G. Olmstead. 2007. "Evolution of a Charismatic Neotropical Clade: Molecular Phylogeny of Tabebuia s.l., Crescentieae, and Allied Genera (Bignoniaceae)". Systematic Botany32(3):650-659.
  5. 1 2 3 Susan O. Grose and Richard G. Olmstead. 2007. "Taxonomic Revisions in the Polyphyletic Genus Tabebuia s.l. (Bignoniaceae)". Systematic Botany32(3):660-670.
  6. 1 2 George W. Staples and Derral R. Herbst. 2005. "A Tropical Garden Flora" Bishop Museum Press: Honolulu, HI, USA. ISBN   978-1-58178-039-0
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Alwyn H. Gentry. 1992. "A Synopsis of Bignoniaceae Ethnobotany and Economic Botany". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden79(1):53-64.
  8. "The Plant List" . Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  9. Anthony Huxley, Mark Griffiths, and Margot Levy (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press, Limited: London. The Stockton Press: New York. ISBN   978-0-333-47494-5 (set).
  10. M. Costanza von der Pahlen (1986). "Chapter 7. Pau d'arco (Tabebuia spp.)". In Patricia Shanley; Alan R. Pierce; Sarah A. Laird; Abraham Guillan (eds.). Tapping the Green Market: Certification and Management of Non-timber Forest Products. London: Earthscan Publications. p. 85. ISBN   9781853838712 . Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  11. FSC Watch: SmartWood misled US local authority over FSC timber. Posted 2007-AUG-22. Retrieved 2008-JAN-27.
  12. La Sultana Superyacht: The Spy Ship You Can Sunbathe On. Billionaire. 14 September 2015. Tara Loader Wilkinson. 24 December 2015.
  13. "Wildwood Opts for Ipe Wood Over Black Locust in Boardwalk Construction". Cape May County Herald . March 17, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
  14. "Ancient Tea History".
  15. Jonathan Ott. 1995. In: Ayahuasca Analogues: Pangaean Entheogens.
  16. Luciana Baza Mendonça; Luiz dos Anjos (2005). "Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae) e seus recursos florais em uma área urbana do Sul do Brasil" [Hummingbirds (Aves, Trochilidae) and their flowers in an urban area of southern Brazil](PDF). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia (in Portuguese). 22 (1): 51–59. doi: 10.1590/S0101-81752005000100007 .
  17. Joáo Rodrigues de Mattos. 1970. "Handroanthus, Um novo gênero para os "ipês" do Brasil". Loefgrenia50: 1-4.
  18. Alwyn H. Gentry. 1972. "Handroanthus (Bignoniaceae): A critique". Taxon21(1):113-114.
  19. Richard G. Olmstead, Michelle L. Zjhra, Lúcia G. Lohmann, Susan O. Grose, and Andrew J. Eckert. 2009. "A molecular phylogeny and classification of Bignoniaceae". American Journal of Botany96(9): 1731–1743. doi : 10.3732/ajb.0900004