Hankou

Last updated
Hankou
汉口市
City of China
1921–1949
Hankow 1915.jpg
The map of Hankou (top left, with the five foreign concessions), Hanyang, and Wuchang, as of 1915
Area
  Coordinates CN-HB-01 30°34′52″N114°16′21″E / 30.581179°N 114.272597°E / 30.581179; 114.272597 Coordinates: CN-HB-01 30°34′52″N114°16′21″E / 30.581179°N 114.272597°E / 30.581179; 114.272597
History 
 Established
3 July 1921
 Disestablished
16 May 1949
Succeeded by
Jiang'an District Blank.png
Jianghan District Blank.png
Qiaokou District Blank.png
Today part ofPart of Wuhan (Jiang'an, Jianghan, & Qiaokou)

Hankou, alternately romanized as Hankow (simplified Chinese : 汉口 ; traditional Chinese : 漢口 ; pinyin :Hànkǒu), was one of the three towns (the other two were Wuchang and Hanyang) merged to become modern-day Wuhan city, the capital of the Hubei province, China. It stands north of the Han and Yangtze Rivers where the Han flows into the Yangtze. Hankou is connected by bridges to its triplet sister towns Hanyang (between Han and Yangtze) and Wuchang (on the south side of the Yangtze).

Contents

Hankou is the main port of Hubei province and the single largest port in the middle reaches of Yangtze.[ citation needed ]

History

Map of Hankou (labeled as HAN-K'OU (HANKOW) Han Kou 
) Txu-oclc-10552568-nh50-5-back.jpg
Map of Hankou (labeled as HAN-K'OU (HANKOW) 漢口)

The city's name literally means "Mouth of the Han", from its position at the confluence of the Han with the Yangtze River. The name appears in a Tang Dynasty poem by Liu Changqing. Other historical names for the city include Xiakou ( 夏口 ), Miankou ( 沔口 ), and Lukou ( 魯口 ). [1]

Hankou, from the Ming to late Qing, was under the administration of the local government in Hanyang, although it was already one of the four major national markets (zh:四大名镇) in Ming dynasty. It was not until 1899 that Zhang Zhidong decided to separate Hankou from Hanyang. Hankou was then divided into four districts, which are Juren, Youyi, Xunli, and Dazhi. Some of the names can still be found in modern-day Wuhan, where there are geographical names such as Xunlimen, Jurenmen, and Dazhimen. [2] [3]

In 1926, Hankou was officially established as a city, where its municipal government was built in Jianghan district. In the same year, the Northern Expedition reached Hankou, and merged Hankou with adjacent Wuchang and Hanyang to make it the seat of the national capital, Wuhan. [2] [3] [4] But in 1927, when Nanjing succeeded in the fight to be the national capital, Wuhan was returned to its original form, with Hankou being again a city by itself. This time Hankou was established as a "Special Municipality," which resembles a direct-controlled municipality in present day. Before 1949, Hankou has shifted between being a special municipality and a provincial city. In 1949, Hankou was finally merged with Hanyang and Wuchang to become Wuhan, when the communists arrived in Hankou on May 16. [5]

Revolutionary periods

Hankou was the destination on the escape route of groups of missionaries fleeing the Boxers in the Northern provinces around 1900. The flight of some missionaries from the T'ai-yüan massacre in Shan-si is recorded in the work A Thousand Miles of Miracle in China, [6] by Reverend A E Glover, one of the fleeing missionaries.

Troops sent to recapture Hankou Hankou Chinese Revolution 1911.jpg
Troops sent to recapture Hankou
Bombardment of Hankow (1911) Bomardment of Hankow.jpg
Bombardment of Hankow (1911)

On 10 October 1911, a revolution to establish the Republic of China and replace the Qing dynasty led to the involvement of Hankou in the struggle between Hubei revolutionary forces and the Qing army, led by Yuan Shikai. Although the revolution began in Wuchang with a revolt started by members of the New Army, revolutionaries quickly captured major strategic cities and towns throughout the province, including Hankou on October 12. The Qing Dynasty Army recaptured Hankou later, but as the revolution spread throughout China, eventually the town and the province came under control of the Republic of China.

Foreign concessions period

Foreign concessions along the Bund, circa 1900 Hankow Bund c. 1900.jpg
Foreign concessions along the Bund, circa 1900

Hankou used to have five foreign concessions belonging to the United Kingdom (115 acres (47 ha), est. 1862), France (60 acres (24 ha), est. 1886), Russia (60 acres (24 ha), est. 1886), Germany (100 acres (40 ha), est. 1895) and Japan (32 acres (13 ha), est. 1898). The German and Russian concessions ended in 1917 and 1920 respectively and those areas were administered by the Chinese government as the First and the Second Special Area.

Bastille Day celebrations, 1932 Hankou. Bastille Day ceremonies in the French Concession, 1932.jpg
Bastille Day celebrations, 1932

Early in 1927, the British concession was occupied in the course of the revolutionary troubles that accompanied the Northern Expedition when the Chinese Kuomintang forces occupied the concession and showed no intention of withdrawing. The Chen-O'Malley Agreement of February 1927 provided for a combined British-Chinese administration of the concession and in 1929 the British concession formally came to an end. From then on it was administered by the Chinese authorities as the Third Special Area.

Chinese Kuomintang soldiers marching into the British concession during the Northern Expedition Countermand concession.jpg
Chinese Kuomintang soldiers marching into the British concession during the Northern Expedition

In the 1920s and 30s, Hankou was one of the Yangtze River ports patrolled by the US Navy to maintain US interests in the area (Yangtze Patrol.)

1926, Hankow, American sailors from the USS Palos (docked behind) 1926 Hankow USS Palos.jpg
1926, Hankow, American sailors from the USS Palos (docked behind)

Hankou was flooded in the 1931 China floods.

Hankou was captured by the Japanese invaders in 1938 (Battle of Wuhan). The Chinese-born writer Han Suyin's novel Destination Chungking (1942) has a significant chapter at its beginning which describes the retreat from Hankou of China's Nationalist Government forces in front of Japan's army and air force invasion in 1938, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War. It is partly autobiographical, as Han Suyin's first husband was an officer with China Nationalist army.

An important logistical center, the city was heavily bombed in December 1944 by the US aircraft based in the Chengdu area (part of Operation Matterhorn).

The government of Vichy France relinquished the French concession in 1943, and the restored French Republic relinquished it formally in 1946.

The Japanese concession came to an end with the surrender of Japan in 1945.

Before the Communist Revolution, Hankou was the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hankou, covering the province of Hubei. The dioceses in Wuchang, Hanyang and elsewhere in the province were subordinated to it.

Former Hankou Orthodox Church Hankou-Orthodox-Church-0259.jpg
Former Hankou Orthodox Church

Modern status

Jianghan Road in central Hankou Hankou-Hanjiang-Lu-0247.jpg
Jianghan Road in central Hankou
Modern Jiang'an District, Jianghan District, and Qiaokou District are in brown, dark green, and orange Administrative Division Wuhan.png
Modern Jiang'an District, Jianghan District, and Qiaokou District are in brown, dark green, and orange

"Hankou" remains a commonly used name for the part of Wuhan urban area north of the Yangtze and Han Rivers. The name was long preserved in the name of the old Hankou Railway Station (also known as Dazhimen Station), the original terminal of the Jinghan Railway. After the old Dazhimen station closed in 1991, the Hankou name was transferred to the new Hankou Railway Station, which opened in 1991 at a new location, farther away from central city. Railway passengers traveling to Wuhan need to purchase tickets to a particular station: the Hankou Railway Station, the Wuchang Railway Station (near central Wuchang, on the right bank of the Yangtze), or the new Wuhan Railway Station (which opened in 2009, also on the right bank, but a long distance from the historical Wuchang).

Nonetheless, Hankou is no longer the name of an administrative unit (e.g., a district), because its area now falls mostly within Jiang'an District, Jianghan District, and Qiaokou District. That contrasts with Wuchang and Hanyang, the names of which have been retained in the eponymous administrative districts within the City of Wuhan.

Media

Hankou once had an English-language newspaper, The Hankow Daily News , which was published by a German individual. [7]

Related Research Articles

Wuhan Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Hubei, China

Wuhan is the capital of Hubei Province in the People's Republic of China. It is the largest city in Hubei and the most populous city in Central China, with a population of over eleven million, the ninth-most populous Chinese city and one of the nine National Central Cities of China.

Hubei Province of China

Hubei is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital, Wuhan, serves as a major transportation hub and the political, cultural, and economic hub of central China.

Wuchang District District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Wuchang forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. It is the oldest of the three cities that merged into modern-day Wuhan, and stood on the right (southeastern) bank of the Yangtze River, opposite the mouth of the Han River. The two other cities, Hanyang and Hankou, were on the left (northwestern) bank, separated from each other by the Han River.

Wuchang Uprising Armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty

The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang, Hubei, China on 10 October 1911, beginning the Xinhai Revolution that successfully overthrew China's last imperial dynasty. It was led by elements of the New Army, influenced by revolutionary ideas from Tongmenghui. The uprising and the eventual revolution directly led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty with almost three centuries of imperial rule, and the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC), which commemorates the anniversary of the uprising's starting date of 10 October as the National Day of the Republic of China.

Hanyang District District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Hanyang District forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. Currently, it is a district and stands between the Han River and the Yangtze River, where the former drains into the latter. It is connected by bridges with its former sister cities, Hankou and Wuchang. Presently, on the left bank of the Yangtze, it borders the districts of Qiaokou to the north across the Han River, Jianghan to the northeast, Caidian to the southwest, and Dongxihu to the northwest; on the opposite bank it borders Wuchang and Hongshan. Guiyuan Temple is located in Hanyang.

Han River (Hubei) Longest tributary of the Yangtze River, China

The Han River, also known by its Chinese names Hanshui and Han Jiang, is a left tributary of the Yangtze in central China. It has a length of 1,532 kilometers (952 mi) and is the longest tributary of the Yangtze system.

Wuhan Metro

Wuhan Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China. Owned and operated by Wuhan Metro Group Co., Ltd., the network now includes 9 lines, 240 stations, and 360 km (220 mi) of route length. With 1.22 billion annual passengers in 2019, Wuhan Metro is the sixth-busiest rapid transit system in mainland China. There are a number of lines or sections under construction. The government of Wuhan City promised the citizens that at least two lines or sections open every year.

Battle of Wuhan Battle in the Second Sino-Japanese War

The Battle of Wuhan (武漢之戰), popularly known to the Chinese as the Defense of Wuhan, and to the Japanese as the Capture of Wuhan, was a large-scale battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Engagements took place across vast areas of Anhui, Henan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, and Hubei provinces over a period of four and a half months. It was the longest, the largest, and arguably the most significant battle in the early stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War. More than one million National Revolutionary Army troops from the Fifth and Ninth War Zone were put under the direct command of Chiang Kai-shek, defending Wuhan from the Central China Area Army of the Imperial Japanese Army led by Shunroku Hata. Chinese forces were also supported by the Soviet Volunteer Group, a group of volunteer pilots from Soviet Air Forces.

Ezhou Prefecture-level city in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Ezhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Hubei Province, China. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 1,048,668, of which 668,727 lived in the core Echeng District. The Ezhou - Huanggang built-up area was home to 1,035,496 inhabitants from the Echeng and Huangzhou, Huanggang Districts.

Beijing–Guangzhou railway

The Beijing–Guangzhou railway or Jingguang railway is a major trunk railway that connects Beijing in the north with Guangzhou in the south. This double-track electrified line has a total length of 2,324 kilometres and spans five provinces through north, central and south China. The line passes through the capitals of each of them: Shijiazhuang (Hebei), Zhengzhou (Henan), Wuhan (Hubei), Changsha (Hunan) and Guangzhou (Guangdong). The line's two terminals are the Beijing West railway station and the Guangzhou railway station.

Beijing–Hankou railway

The Beijing–Hankou or Jinghan railway, also Peking–Hankow railway, was the former name of the railway in China from Beijing to Hankou, on the northern bank of the Yangtze River. The railway was built between 1897 and 1906 by a Belgian company backed by French financing. At Hankou, railway carriages were ferried across the Yangtze River to Wuchang on the southern bank, where they would connect to the Guangdong–Hankou railway. The completion of the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge in 1957 linked the two railways into a single contiguous railway known as the Beijing–Guangzhou railway.

Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge

The Wuhan Yangtze Great Bridge, commonly known as Wuhan First Yangtze Bridge, is a double-deck road and rail bridge across the Yangtze River in Wuhan, in Central China. At its completion in 1957, the bridge was the easternmost crossing of the Yangtze, and was often referred to as the "First Bridge of the Yangtze".

Yangxin County, Hubei County in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Yangxin County is a county within the prefecture-level city of Huangshi in southeastern Hubei province, People's Republic of China. The county is mostly rural but is more prosperous than its neighbor, Tongshan County. According to the Fifth Population Census of China (2000), the county's population was 949,102 giving it a population density of 341 people per square kilometer.

Jianghan District District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Jianghan District forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. The district is part of the historical Hankou.

Hankou railway station Railway station in Wuhan, China

Hankou railway station is one of the three main railway stations in the city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province of the People's Republic of China. It is located within the section of the city commonly known as Hankou, several kilometers north of Hankou's historical center. Hankou Station is served by a station of the same name on Line 2 of Wuhan Metro.

Wuhan–Yichang railway

Hankou–Yichang railway, or Hanyi railway, is a 291-kilometre (181 mi) long high-speed railway between Hankou and Yichang in Hubei province, China. The railway forms a section of the Huhanrong passenger-dedicated line from Shanghai to Wuhan to Chengdu. The Hanyi Railway was completed in spring 2012 and started commercial operations on July 1, 2012. Adjacent high-speed rail sections, the Hefei–Wuhan high-speed railway to the east and the Yichang−Wanzhou railway to the west, opened respectively in April 2009 and December 2010.

Battle of Yangxia Largest military engagement of the Xinhai Revolution

The Battle of Yangxia, also known as the Defense of Yangxia, was the largest military engagement of the Xinhai Revolution and was fought from October 18 to December 1, 1911, between the revolutionaries of the Wuchang Uprising and the loyalist armies of the Qing Dynasty. The battle was waged in Hankou and Hanyang, which along with Wuchang collectively form the tri-cities of Wuhan in central China. Though outnumbered by the Qing armies and possessing inferior arms, the revolutionaries fought valiantly in defense of Hankou and Hanyang. After heavy and bloody fighting, the stronger loyalist forces eventually prevailed by taking over both cities, but 41 days of determined resistance by the Revolutionary Army allowed the revolution to strengthen elsewhere as other provinces defied the Qing Dynasty. The fighting ended after the commander-in-chief of the Qing forces, Gen. Yuan Shikai, agreed to a cease-fire and sent envoys to peace talks with the revolutionaries. Political negotiations eventually led to the abdication of the Last Emperor, the end of the Qing Dynasty and the formation of a unity government for the newly established Republic of China.

Dazhi Road station Wuhan Metro station

Dazhi Road Station serves as an interchange station of Line 1 and Line 6 of Wuhan Metro. It entered revenue service along with the completion of Line 1, Phase 1 on July 28, 2004. The station situates at the intersection of Jinghan Avenue and Dazhi Road, immediately above the historic site of the Dazhimen Station of the depleted Jianghan Railway, which exited revenue service in 1991. The station is also adjacent to Wuhan Yangtze River Tunnel connecting Dazhi Road in Hankou to Youyi Avenue and Shahu Bridge in Wuchang.

The prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province, China, has a long and rich history that dates back over 3,500 years. Starting out from the Shang Dynasty-era archaeological site at Panlongcheng associated with Erligang culture, the region would become part of the E state and Chu state during the Zhou dynasty. The region evolved into an important port on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the cities of Hanyang, Hankou and Wuchang were united into the city of Wuhan in 1926. Wuhan briefly serving as the capital city of China in 1927 and in 1937. Modern-day Wuhan is known as 'China's Thoroughfare' (九省通衢) due to its status as a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city and connecting to other major cities.

The French concession of Hankou was one of four French concessions in the late Qing Dynasty, under administration from 1896 to 1943. It was one of five concession districts within Hankou, present day Wuhan, Hubei.

References

Citations

  1. Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian 中国古今地名大词典, 964.
  2. 1 2 "历史沿革". Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved March 21, 2012.
  3. 1 2 "江汉综述" . Retrieved March 21, 2012.
  4. ""武汉"的由来". Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  5. "武汉近代建市及其历史意义". Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  6. Glover, Archibald E. (1919). A Thousand Miles of Miracle in China: A personal record of God's delivering power from the hands of the Imperial Boxers of Shan-si (Eleventh ed.). London: Pickering & Inglis.
  7. Walravens, p. 91.

Sources