Hans-Joachim Marseille

Last updated

Hans-Joachim Marseille
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2006-0122, Hans-Joachim Marseille.jpg
Nickname(s)Stern von Afrika (Star of Africa) to the Germans. [1]
Born(1919-12-13)13 December 1919
Berlin, Germany
Died30 September 1942(1942-09-30) (aged 22)
Sidi Abdel Rahman, Egypt
Heroes Cemetery in Derna
Memorial Gardens at Tobruk (reinterred)
AllegianceFlag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Nazi Germany
Service/branch Balkenkreuz.svg   Luftwaffe
Years of service1938–42
Rank Hauptmann (Captain)
Unit LG 2, JG 52 and JG 27
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds Gold Medal of Military Valor
Signature Marseille Signature.svg

Hans-Joachim Walter Rudolf Siegfried Marseille (13 December 1919 – 30 September 1942) was a German fighter pilot during World War II. A flying ace, he is noted for his aerial battles during the North African Campaign. All but seven of his 158 claimed victories were against the British Desert Air Force over North Africa. No other pilot claimed as many Western Allied aircraft as Marseille. [2]

Fighter pilot Military combat aviator

A fighter pilot is a military aviator trained to engage in air-to-air combat while in the cockpit of a fighter aircraft. Fighter pilots undergo specialized training in aerial warfare and dogfighting. A fighter pilot with at least five air-to-air kills becomes known as an ace.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Flying ace distinction given to fighter pilots

A flying ace, fighter ace or air ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat. The actual number of aerial victories required to officially qualify as an ace has varied, but is usually considered to be five or more.


Marseille joined the Luftwaffe, in 1938. At the age of 20 he participated in the Battle of Britain, without notable success. As a result of poor discipline, he was transferred to another unit Jagdgeschwader 27 (Fighter Wing 27)—JG 27, which relocated to North Africa in April 1941.

<i>Luftwaffe</i> Aerial warfare branch of the German military forces during World War II

The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy, had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force.

Battle of Britain Air campaign between Germany and the United Kingdom during WWII

The Battle of Britain was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe. It has been described as the first major military campaign fought entirely by air forces. The British officially recognise the battle's duration as being from 10 July until 31 October 1940, which overlaps the period of large-scale night attacks known as The Blitz, that lasted from 7 September 1940 to 11 May 1941. German historians do not accept this subdivision and regard the battle as a single campaign lasting from July 1940 to June 1941, including the Blitz.

<i>Jagdgeschwader</i> 27 military unit

Jagdgeschwader 27 "Afrika" was a fighter wing of the air force of Nazi Germany (Luftwaffe) during World War II. It served in the North African Campaign, supporting the Afrika Korps.

Under the guidance of his new commander, Marseille quickly developed his abilities as a fighter pilot. He reached the zenith of his career on 1 September 1942, when during the course of three combat sorties he claimed 17 Allied aircraft. [1] For this he received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds. A month later, Marseille was killed in a flying accident after his aircraft suffered engine failure. Forced to abandon his fighter, Marseille struck its vertical stabiliser and was either killed instantly or incapacitated and unable to open his parachute.

A sortie is a deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops, from a strongpoint. The sortie, whether by one or more aircraft or vessels, usually has a specific mission. The sortie rate is the number of sorties that a given unit can support in a given time. The term is an evolution of the concept of "sortie" in siege warfare.

Vertical stabilizer aircraft component

The vertical stabilizers, vertical stabilisers, or fins, of aircraft, missiles or bombs are typically found on the aft end of the fuselage or body, and are intended to reduce aerodynamic side slip and provide direction stability. It is analogous to a skeg on boats and ships.

Early life

Hans-Joachim "Jochen" [3] Walter Rudolf Siegfried Marseille was born to Charlotte (maiden name: Charlotte Marie Johanna Pauline Gertrud Riemer) and Hauptmann Siegfried Georg Martin Marseille, a family with paternal French ancestry, in Berlin-Charlottenburg on 13 December 1919. [Note 1] As a child, he was physically weak, and he nearly died from a serious case of influenza. [5] His father was an Army officer during World War I, and later left the armed forces to join the Berlin police force. [6] Hans-Joachim also had a younger sister, Ingeborg, commonly called Inge. While on sick leave in Athens at the end of December 1941, he was summoned to Berlin by a telegram from his mother. Upon arriving home, he learned his sister had been killed by a jealous lover while living in Vienna. Reportedly Hans-Joachim never recovered emotionally from this blow. [7]

Hauptmann is a German word usually translated as captain when it is used as an officer's rank in the German, Austrian, and Swiss armies. While Haupt in contemporary German means 'main', it also has and originally had the meaning of 'head', i.e. Hauptmann literally translates to 'head-man', which is also the etymological root of captain . It equates to the rank of captain in the British and US Armies, and is rated OF-2 in NATO. (For the German maritime counterpart to captain, see Kapitän.)

Charlottenburg Quarter of Berlin in Germany

Charlottenburg is an affluent locality of Berlin within the borough of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. Established as a town in 1705 and named after late Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, Queen consort of Prussia, it is best known for Charlottenburg Palace, the largest surviving royal palace in Berlin, and the adjacent museums.

Influenza infectious disease

Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, sneezing, and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. The cough, however, may last for more than two weeks. In children, there may be diarrhea and vomiting, but these are not common in adults. Diarrhea and vomiting occur more commonly in gastroenteritis, which is an unrelated disease and sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or the "24-hour flu". Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure.

When Marseille was still a young child his parents divorced and his mother subsequently married a police official named Reuter. Marseille initially assumed the name of his stepfather at school (a matter he had a difficult time accepting) but he reverted to his father's name of Marseille in adulthood. A lack of discipline gave him a reputation as a rebel, which plagued him early on in his Luftwaffe career. [8] Marseille also had a difficult relationship with his natural father, with whom he refused to visit in Hamburg for some time after the divorce. Eventually he attempted a reconciliation with his father, who subsequently introduced him to the nightlife that initially hampered his military career during his early years in the Luftwaffe. However, the rapprochement with his father did not last and he did not see him again. [9]

Hamburg City in Germany

Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany with a population of over 1.8 million.

Marseille attended the 12th Volksschule Berlin (1926–1930), and from the age of 10, the Prinz Heinrich Gymnasium in Berlin-Schöneberg (1930–1938). He was considered a lazy, troublesome student. Toward the end of his school years he started to take his education more seriously and qualified as one of the youngest (at 17 years, six months) to achieve his Abitur, graduating in early 1938. Marseille then expressed his desire to become a "flying officer." [10]


The German term Volksschule generally refers to compulsory education, denoting an educational institution every person is required to attend.

Gymnasium (school) type of school providing advanced secondary education in Europe

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north, eastern, and south Europe.

Abitur is a qualification granted by university-preparatory schools in Germany, Lithuania, and Estonia. It is conferred on students who pass their final exams at the end of their secondary education, usually after eleven, twelve or thirteen years of schooling. In German, the term Abitur has roots in the archaic word Abiturium, which in turn was derived from the Latin abiturus.

Entry into the Luftwaffe

Although not athletic in physique, Marseille received a good report for a term with the State Labour Service Abtlg. 1/177 in Osterholz-Scharmbeck near Bremen, between 4 April and 24 September 1938. [11]

He joined Luftwaffe on 7 November 1938, as a Fahnenjunker (officer candidate) and received his military basic training in Quedlinburg in the Harz region. On 1 March 1939 Marseille was transferred to the Luftkriegsschule 4 (LKS 4—air war school) near Fürstenfeldbruck. Among his classmates was Werner Schröer. Schröer reports that Marseille was often in breach of military discipline. Consequently, Marseille was ordered to stay on base while his classmates were on weekend leave. Quite frequently Marseille ignored this and left Schröer a note: "Went out! Please take my chores." [12] On one occasion, while performing a slow circuit, Marseille broke away and performed an imaginary weaving dogfight. He was reprimanded by his commanding officer, Hauptmann Mueller-Rohrmoser, and taken off flying duties and his promotion to Gefreiter postponed. Soon after, during a cross-country flight, he landed on a quiet stretch of Autobahn (between Magdeburg and Braunschweig) and ran behind a tree to relieve himself. [13] Some farmers came to enquire if he needed assistance, but by the time they arrived Marseille was on his way, and they were blown back by his slipstream. Infuriated, the farmers reported the matter and Marseille was again suspended from flying. [14]

Marseille completed his training at Fighter Pilot School #5 (Fighter Pilot School #5, then under the command of Eduard Ritter von Schleich [15] ) in Wien-Schwechat to which he was posted on 1 November 1939. One of his instructors' was the Austro-Hungarian World War I ace Julius Arigi. Marseille graduated from Fighter Pilot School #5 with an outstanding evaluation on 18 July 1940 and was assigned to Ergänzungsjagdgruppe Merseburg, stationed at the airport in Merseburg-West. [16] Marseille's unit was assigned to air defence duty over the Leuna plant from the outbreak of war until the fall of France. [17]

On 10 August 1940 he was assigned to I. Jagd/ Instructional Squadron 2, based in Calais-Marck, to begin operations over Britain and again received an outstanding evaluation this time by his Hauptmann and Gruppenkommandeur , Herbert Ihlefeld. [18]

World War II

Battle of Britain

In his first dogfight over England on 24 August 1940, Marseille engaged in a four-minute battle with a skilled opponent while flying Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-3 W.Nr. 3579. [Note 2] He defeated his opponent by pulling up into a tight chandelle, to gain an altitude advantage before diving and firing. The British fighter was struck in the engine, pitched over and dove into the English Channel; this was Marseille's first victory. Marseille was then engaged from above by more Allied fighters. By pushing his aircraft into a steep dive, then pulling up metres above the water, Marseille escaped from the machine gun fire of his opponents: "skipping away over the waves, I made a clean break. No one followed me and I returned to Leeuwarden [sic—Marseille was based near Calais, not Leeuwarden]." The act was not praised by his unit. Marseille was reprimanded when it emerged he had abandoned his wingman, and staffel to engage the opponent alone. In so doing, Marseille had violated a basic rule of air combat. [19] Reportedly, Marseille did not take any pleasure in this victory and found it difficult to accept the realities of aerial combat. [20]

While returning from a bomber-escort mission on 23 September 1940 flying Werk Nummer (W.Nr) 5094, his engine failed 10 miles (16 km) off Cap Gris Nez after combat damage sustained over Dover. Pilot Officer George Bennions from 41 Squadron may have shot Marseille down. [21] According to another source, W.Nr 5094 was destroyed in this engagement by Robert Stanford Tuck, who had pursued a Bf 109 to that location and whose pilot was rescued by a Heinkel He 59 naval aircraft. Marseille is the only German airman known to have been rescued by a He 59 on that day and in that location. [22] Tuck's official claim was for a Bf 109 destroyed off Cap Gris Nez at 09:45—the only pilot to submit a claim in that location. [23] I.(Jagd)/LG 2 claimed three aerial victories for the loss of four Bf 109s that day. [24]

Although Marseille tried to radio his position, he bailed out over the sea. He paddled around in the water for three hours before being rescued by the float plane based at Schellingwoude. Exhausted and suffering from exposure, he was sent to a field hospital. When he returned to duty, he received a sterm rebuke from his commander, Herbert Ihlefeld. In engaging Bennions, or Tuck, Marseille had abandoned his leader Staffelkapitän Adolf Buhl, who was shot down and killed. During his rebuke, his commander tore up Marseille's flight evaluations. Other pilots also voiced their dissatisfaction concerning Marseille. Because of his alienation of other pilots, his arrogant and unapologetic nature, Ihlefeld eventually dismissed Marseille from LG 2. [25]

Marseille claimed his 7th aerial victory on 28 September 1940 but had to crash land near Theville due to engine failure. Bf 109 E-7; W.Nr. 4091 Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-344-0741-30, Frankreich, notgelandete Me 109.jpg
Marseille claimed his 7th aerial victory on 28 September 1940 but had to crash land near Théville due to engine failure. Bf 109 E-7; W.Nr. 4091

A different account recalled how Marseille once ignored an order to turn back from a fight when outnumbered by two to one, but seeing an Allied aircraft closing on his wing leader, Marseille broke formation and shot the attacking aircraft down. Expecting congratulations when he landed, his commander was critical of his actions, and Marseille received three days of confinement for failing to carry out an order. Days later, Marseille was passed over for promotion and was now the sole Fähnrich in the Geschwader. This was a humiliation for him, suspecting that his abilities were being suppressed so the squadron leaders could take all the glory in the air. [26]

Shortly afterwards, in early October 1940, after having claimed seven aerial victories all them flying with I.(Jagd)/LG 2 Marseille was transferred to 4./Jagdgeschwader 52 , [Note 3] flying alongside the likes of Johannes Steinhoff and Gerhard Barkhorn. He wrote off four aircraft as a result of operations during this period. [Note 4] [27] Steinhoff, later recalled:

"Marseille was extremely handsome. He was a very gifted pilot, but he was unreliable. He had girl friends everywhere, and they kept him so busy that he was sometimes so worn out that he had to be grounded. His sometime irresponsible way of conducting his duties was the main reason I fired him. But he had irresistible charm." [28]

As punishment for "insubordination"—rumoured to be his penchant for American jazz music, womanising and an overt "playboy" lifestyle—and inability to fly as a wingman, Steinhoff transferred Marseille to Jagdgeschwader 27 on 24 December 1940. His new Gruppenkommandeur , Eduard Neumann, later recalled, "His hair was too long and he brought with him a list of disciplinary punishments as long as your arm. He was tempestuous, temperamental and unruly. Thirty years later, he would have been called a playboy." [29] Nevertheless, Neumann quickly recognised Marseille's potential as a pilot. He stated in an interview: "Marseille could only be one of two, either a disciplinary problem or a great fighter pilot." [30] Jagdgeschwader 27 was soon relocated to North Africa.

Arrival in North Africa

Marseille's unit briefly saw action during the invasion of Yugoslavia, deployed to Zagreb on 10 April 1941, before transferring to Africa. On 20 April on his flight from Tripoli to his front airstrip Marseille's Bf 109 developed engine trouble and he had to make a forced landing in the desert short of his destination. His squadron departed the scene after they had ensured that he had got down safely. Marseille continued his journey, first hitchhiking on an Italian truck, then, finding this too slow; he tried his luck at an airstrip in vain. Finally he made his way to the General in charge of a supply depot on the main route to the front, and convinced him that he should be available for operations next day. Marseille's character appealed to the General and he put at his disposal his own Opel Admiral, complete with chauffeur. "You can pay me back by getting fifty victories, Marseille!" were his parting words. He caught up with his squadron on 21 April. [31]

Marsaille scored two more victories on 23 and 28 April, his first in the North African Campaign. However, on 23 April, Marseille himself was shot down during his third sortie of that day by Sous-Lieutenant James Denis, a Free French pilot with No. 73 Squadron RAF (8.5 victories), flying a Hawker Hurricane. Marseille's Bf 109 received almost 30 hits in the cockpit area, and three or four shattered the canopy. As Marseille was leaning forward the rounds missed him by inches. Marseille managed to crash-land his fighter. Just a month later, records show that James Denis shot down Marseille again on 21 May 1941. Marseille engaged Denis, but overshot his target. A dogfight ensued, in which Denis once again bested Marseille. [32]

Neumann ( Geschwaderkommodore as of 10 June 1942) encouraged Marseille to self-train to improve his abilities. By this time, he had crashed or damaged another four Bf 109E aircraft, including a tropicalised aircraft he was ferrying on 23 April 1941. [33] Marseille's kill rate was low, and he went from June to August without a victory. He was further frustrated after damage forced him to land on two occasions: once on 14 June 1941 and again after he was hit by ground fire over Tobruk and was forced to land blind. [34]

His tactic of diving into opposing formations often found him under fire from all directions, resulting in his aircraft frequently being damaged beyond repair; consequently, Eduard Neumann was losing his patience. Marseille persisted, and created a unique self-training programme for himself, both physical and tactical, which resulted not only in outstanding situational awareness, marksmanship and confident control of the aircraft, but also in a unique attack tactic that preferred a high angle deflection shooting attack and shooting at the target's front from the side, instead of the common method of chasing an aircraft and shooting at it directly from behind. Marseille often practiced these tactics on the way back from missions with his comrades and became known as a master of deflection shooting. [35] [1]

As Marseille began to claim Allied aircraft regularly, on occasion he organised the welfare of the downed pilot personally, driving out to remote crash sites to rescue downed Allied airmen. On 13 September 1941 Marseille shot down Pat Byers of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) No. 451 Squadron. Marseille flew to Byers' airfield and dropped a note informing the Australians of his condition and treatment. He returned several days later to second the first note with news of Byers' death. Marseille repeated these sorties after being warned by Neumann that Göring had forbade any more flights of this kind. [36] After the war, Marseille's JG 27 comrade Werner Schröer stated that Marseille attempted these gestures as "penance" for a group that "loved shooting down aircraft" but not killing a man; "we tried to separate the two. Marseille allowed us that escape, our penance I suppose." [37] [Note 5]

Finally on 24 September 1941, his practice came to fruition, with his first multiple victory sortie, claiming four Hurricanes of No. 1 Squadron, South African Air Force (SAAF). By mid December, he had reached 25 victories [39] and was awarded the German Cross in Gold. His Staffel was rotated to Germany in November/December 1941 to convert to the Bf 109F-4/trop, the variant that was described as the Experten (experts) "mount." These victories represented his 19–23rd victory. [40] Marseille became known amongst his peers for accounting for multiple enemy aircraft in a sortie. [1]

The "Star of Africa"

"Marseille was the unrivalled virtuoso among the fighter pilots of World War 2. His achievements had previously been regarded as impossible and they were never excelled by anyone after his death." [41]

Adolf Galland, General der Jagdflieger

Marseille always strove to improve his abilities. He worked to strengthen his legs and abdominal muscles, to help him tolerate the extreme g forces of air combat. Marseille also drank an abnormal amount of milk and shunned sunglasses, to improve his eyesight. [3]

To counter German fighter attacks, the Allied pilots flew "Lufbery circles" (in which each aircraft's tail was covered by the friendly aircraft behind). The tactic was effective and dangerous as a pilot attacking this formation could find himself constantly in the sights of the opposing pilots. Marseille often dived at high speed into the middle of these defensive formations from either above or below, executing a tight turn and firing a two-second deflection shot to destroy an enemy aircraft. The successes Marseille had begun to become readily apparent in early 1942. He claimed his 37–40th victories on 8 February 1942 and 41–44th victories four days later which earned him the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross that same month for 46 victories. [42]

Marseille's service men, Hoffmann (left) and Berger, cleaning the bore of one of the cannons of a Bf 109. "Yellow 14" W.Nr. 8673 can be seen in the background. Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-440-1313-37, Flugzeug Messerschmitt Me 109, Waffenreinigen.jpg
Marseille's service men, Hoffmann (left) and Berger, cleaning the bore of one of the cannons of a Bf 109. "Yellow 14" W.Nr. 8673 can be seen in the background.

Marseille attacked under conditions many considered unfavourable, but his marksmanship allowed him to make an approach fast enough to escape the return fire of the two aircraft flying on either flank of the target. Marseille's excellent eyesight made it possible for him to spot the opponent before he was spotted, allowing him to take the appropriate action and manoeuvre into position for an attack. [44]

In combat, Marseille's unorthodox methods led him to operate in a small leader/wingman unit, which he believed to be the safest and most effective way of fighting in the high-visibility conditions of the North African skies. Marseille "worked" alone in combat keeping his wingman at a safe distance so he would not collide or fire on him in error. [3]

Hans-Joachim Marseille standing next to one of his aerial victories, a Hurricane Mk IIB of No. 213 Squadron RAF, February 1942 Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-440-1313-03, H. J. Marseille mit abgeschossener "Hurricane".jpg
Hans-Joachim Marseille standing next to one of his aerial victories, a Hurricane Mk IIB of No. 213 Squadron RAF, February 1942

In a dogfight, particularly when attacking Allied aircraft in a Lufbery circle, Marseille would often favour dramatically reducing the throttle and even lowering the flaps to reduce speed and shorten his turn radius, rather than the standard procedure of using full throttle throughout. [46] Emil Clade said that none of the other pilots could do this effectively, preferring instead to dive on single opponents at speed so as to escape if anything went wrong. Clade said of Marseille's tactics:

Marseille developed his own special tactics, which differed significantly from the methods of most other pilots. (When attacking a Lufbery circle) he had to fly very slowly. He even took it to the point where he had to operate his landing flaps as not to fall down, because, of course he had to fly his curve (turns) more tightly than the upper defensive circle. He and his fighter were one unit, and he was in command of that aircraft like no-one else. [47]

Friedrich Körner (36 victories) also recognised this as unique: "Shooting in a curve (deflection shooting) is the most difficult thing a pilot can do. The enemy flies in a defensive circle, that means they are already lying in a curve and the attacking fighter has to fly into this defensive circle. By pulling his aircraft right around, his curve radius must be smaller, but if he does that, his target disappears in most cases below his wings. So he cannot see it anymore and has to proceed simply by instinct." [47]

His success as a fighter pilot also led to promotions and more responsibility as an officer. 1 May 1942 saw him receive an unusually early promotion to Oberleutnant followed by appointment to Staffelkapitän of 3./JG 27 on 8 June 1942, thus succeeding Oberleutnant Gerhard Homuth who took command of I./JG 27. [48]

In a conversation with his friend Hans-Arnold Stahlschmidt, Marseille commented on his style, and his idea of air-to-air combat:

I often experience combat as it should be. I see myself in the middle of a British [sic] swarm, firing from every position and never getting caught. Our aircraft are basic elements, Stahlschmidt, which have got to be mastered. You've got to be able to shoot from any position. From left or right turns, out of a roll, on your back, whenever. Only this way can you develop your own particular tactics. Attack tactics, that the enemy simply cannot anticipate during the course of the battle – a series of unpredictable movements and actions, never the same, always stemming from the situation at hand. Only then can you plunge into the middle of an enemy swarm and blow it up from the inside. [49]

"Telling Marseille that he was grounded was like telling a small child that it could not go out and play. He sometimes acted like one too." [50]

Werner Schröer

Marseille had a narrow escape on 13 May 1942, when his Bf 109 was damaged during a dogfight with 12 Curtiss Kittyhawks (Mk I) from No. 3 Squadron RAAF, southeast of Gazala and over the Gulf of Bomba ("Gazala Bay"). With a wingman, Marseille bounced the Kittyhawks. After he downed one of the Australian pilots, Flying Officer Graham Pace in AL172, [51] Marseille's Bf 109 took hits in the oil tank and propeller, likely from Flying Officer Geoff Chinchen, who reported damaging one of the Messerschmitts. Marseille nevertheless managed to shoot down another Kittyhawk (Sergeant Colin McDiarmid; AK855), before nursing his overheating aircraft back to base. The repairs to Marseille's Bf 109 took two days. [52] The aerial victories were recorded as numbers 57–58. [53]

Weeks later, on 30 May, Marseille performed another mercy mission after witnessing his 65th victory—Pilot Officer Graham George Buckland of No. 250 Squadron RAF—strike the tail plane of his fighter and fall to his death when the parachute did not open. After landing he drove out to the crash site. The P-40 had landed over Allied lines but they found the dead pilot within German territory. Marseille marked his grave, collected his papers and verified his identity, then flew to Buckland's airfield to deliver a letter of regret. Buckland died two days before his 21st birthday. [54]

His attack method to break up formations, which he perfected, resulted in a high proportion of kills, and in rapid, multiple victories per attack. On 3 June 1942, Marseille attacked alone a formation of 16 Curtiss P-40 fighters and shot down six aircraft of No. 5 Squadron SAAF, five of them in six minutes, including three aces: Robin Pare (six victories), Cecil Golding (6.5 victories) and Andre Botha (five victories). This success inflated his score further, recording his 70–75th victories. Marseille was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves on 6 June 1942. [55] His wingman Rainer Pöttgen, nicknamed Fliegendes Zählwerk the ("Flying Counting Machine"), [56] said of this fight:

All the enemy were shot down by Marseille in a turning dogfight. As soon as he shot, he needed only to glance at the enemy plane. His pattern [of gunfire] began at the front, the engine's nose, and consistently ended in the cockpit. How he was able to do this not even he could explain. With every dogfight he would throttle back as far as possible; this enabled him to fly tighter turns. His expenditure of ammunition in this air battle was 360 rounds (60 per aircraft shot down)

Schröer, did however, place Marseille's methods into context:

He was the most amazing and ingenious combat pilot I ever saw. He was also very lucky on many occasions. He thought nothing of jumping into a fight outnumbered ten to one, often alone, with us trying to catch up to him. He violated every cardinal rule of fighter combat. He abandoned all the rules. [57]

On 17 June 1942, Marseille claimed his 100th aerial victory. He was the 11th Luftwaffe pilot to achieve the century mark. [58] Marseille then returned to Germany for two months leave and the following day was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. On 6 August, he began his journey back to North Africa accompanied by his fiancée Hanne-Lies Küpper. On 13 August, he met Benito Mussolini in Rome and was presented with the highest Italian military award for bravery, the Medaglia d'Oro al Valor Militare. [59] While in Italy Marseille disappeared for some time prompting the German authorities to compile a missing persons report, submitted by the Gestapo head in Rome, Herbert Kappler. He was finally located. According to rumours he had run off with an Italian girl and was eventually persuaded to return to his unit. Unusually, nothing was ever said about the incident and no repercussions were visited upon Marseille for this indiscretion. [60]

Leaving his fiancée in Rome, Marseille returned to combat duties on 23 August. 1 September 1942 was Marseille's most successful day, claiming to destroy 17 Allied aircraft (nos. 105–121), and September would see him claim 54 victories, his most productive month. [61] The 17 aircraft claimed included eight in 10 minutes; as a result of this feat, he was presented with a Volkswagen Kübelwagen by a Regia Aeronautica squadron, on which his Italian comrades had painted "Otto" (Italian language: Otto = eight). [62] This was the most aircraft from Western Allied air forces shot down by a single pilot in one day. Only one pilot, Emil "Bully" Lang, on 4 November 1943, would better this score, against the Soviet Air Force on the Eastern Front. [63] Post-war analysis shows that the actual results of the day were probably eight to nine destroyed by Marseille with three or four more damaged. [64]

On 3 September 1942 Marseille claimed six victories (nos. 127–132) but was hit by fire from the British-Canadian ace James Francis Edwards. [65] Der Adler , a biweekly propaganda magazine published by the Luftwaffe, also reported his actions in volume 14 of 1942. [66] Marseille was made famous through propaganda that treated fighter pilots as superstars. He regularly signed postcards with his image. Aside from Der Adler, his exploits were published in Die Berliner, Illustrierte, Zeitung and Die Wehrmacht. [67]

Three days later Edwards likely killed Günter Steinhausen, a friend of Marseille. The next day, 7 September 1942, another close friend Hans-Arnold Stahlschmidt was posted missing in action. These personal losses weighed heavily on Marseille's mind along with his family tragedy. It was noted he barely spoke and became more morose in the last weeks of his life. The strain of combat also induced consistent sleepwalking at night and other symptoms that could be construed as posttraumatic stress disorder. Marseille never remembered these events. [68]

Marseille continued scoring multiple victories throughout September, including seven on 15 September (nos. 145–151). Between 16 and 25 September, Marseille failed to increase his score due to a fractured arm, sustained in a force landing soon after the 15 September mission. As a result, he had been forbidden to fly by Eduard Neumann. But the same day, Marseille borrowed the Macchi C.202 '96–10' of the Italian ace Tenente Emanuele Annoni, from 96a Squadriglia, 9° Gruppo, 4° Stormo, based at Fuka, for a test flight. But the one-off flight ended in a wheels-up landing, when the German ace accidentally switched the engine off, as the throttle control in Italian aircraft was opposite to that of the German aircraft. [69]

Marseille had nearly surpassed his friend Hans-Arnold Stahlschmidt's score of 59 victories in just five weeks. However, the massive material superiority of the Allies meant the strain placed on the outnumbered German pilots was now severe. At this time, the strength of German fighter units was 112 (65 serviceable) aircraft against the British muster of some 800 machines. [70] Marseille was becoming physically exhausted by the frenetic pace of combat. After his last combat on 26 September, Marseille was reportedly on the verge of collapse after a 15-minute battle with a formation of Spitfires, during which he scored his seventh victory of that day. [71]

Of particular note was Marseille's 158th claim. After landing in the afternoon of the 26 September 1942, he was physically exhausted. Several accounts allude to his Squadron members being visibly shocked at Marseille's physical state. Marseille, according to his own post-battle accounts, had been engaged by a Spitfire pilot in an intense dogfight that began at high altitude and descended to low-level. Marseille recounted how both he and his opponent strove to get onto the tail of the other. Both succeeded and fired but each time the pursued managed to turn the table on his attacker. Finally, with only 15 minutes of fuel remaining, he climbed into the sun. The RAF fighter followed and was caught in the glare. Marseille executed a tight turn and roll, fired from 100 metres range. The Spitfire caught fire and shed a wing. It crashed into the ground with the pilot still inside. Marseille wrote, "That was the toughest adversary I have ever had. His turns were fabulous... I thought it would be my last fight". Unfortunately the pilot and his unit remain unidentified. [72]

Marseille flew Bf 109 E-7 aircraft [73] [74] and Bf 109F-4/Z aircraft. [75]

Messerschmitt Bf 109 F-4/trop, W.Nr. 8673 - 3./JG 27 - Hauptmann Hans-Joachim Marseille in September 1942 Bf109F-4 Gelbe14 Ma JG27 kl96.jpg
Messerschmitt Bf 109 F-4/trop, W.Nr. 8673 – 3./JG 27 – Hauptmann Hans-Joachim Marseille in September 1942


The two missions of 26 September 1942 had been flown in Bf 109 G-2/trop, in one of which Marseille had shot down seven Allied aircraft. The first six of these machines were to replace the Gruppe's Bf 109 Fs. All had been allocated to Marseille's 3 Staffel. Marseille had previously ignored orders to use these new aircraft because of its high engine failure rate, but on the orders of Generalfeldmarschall Albert Kesselring, Marseille reluctantly obeyed. One of these machines, WK-Nr. 14256 (Engine: Daimler-Benz DB 605 A-1, W.Nr. 77 411), was to be the final aircraft Marseille flew. [76]

Over the next three days Marseille's Staffel was rested and taken off flying duties. On 28 September Marseille received a telephone call from Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel asking to return with him to Berlin. Hitler was to make a speech at the Berlin Sportpalast on 30 September and Rommel and Marseille were to attend. Marseille rejected this offer, citing that he was needed at the front and had already taken three months' vacation that year. Marseille also said he wanted to take leave at Christmas, to marry his fiancée Hanne-Lies Küpper. [77]

On 30 September 1942, Hauptmann Marseille was leading his Staffel on a Stuka escort mission covering the withdrawal of the group and relieving the outward escort, III./ Jagdgeschwader 53 (JG 53), which had been deployed to support JG 27 in Africa. Marseille's flight was vectored onto Allied aircraft in the vicinity but the opponent withdrew and did not take up combat. Marseille vectored the heading and height of the formation to Neumann who directed III./JG 27 to engage. Marseille heard 8./JG 27 leader Werner Schröer claim a Spitfire over the radio at 10:30. [78] While returning to base, his new Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-2/trop's cockpit began to fill with smoke; blinded and half asphyxiated, he was guided back to German lines by his wingmen, Jost Schlang and Lt Rainer Pöttgen. Upon reaching friendly lines, "Yellow 14" had lost power and was drifting lower and lower. Pöttgen called out after about 10 minutes that they had reached the White Mosque of Sidi Abdel Rahman, and were thus within friendly lines. At this point, Marseille deemed his aircraft no longer flyable and decided to bail out, his last words to his comrades being "I've got to get out now, I can't stand it any longer". [79] [80]

Eduard Neumann was personally directing the mission from the command post:

I was at the command post and listening to the radio communication between the pilots. I realised immediately something serious had happened; I knew they were still in flight and that they were trying to bring Marseille over the lines into our territory and that his aircraft was emitting a lot of smoke. [47]

Egypt adm location map.svg
Green pog.svg
Crash site
Crash site

His Staffel, which had been flying a tight formation around him, peeled away to give him the necessary room to manoeuvre. Marseille rolled his aircraft onto its back, the standard procedure for bail out, but due to the smoke and slight disorientation, he failed to notice that the aircraft had entered a steep dive at an angle of 70–80 degrees and was now travelling at a considerably faster speed (about 640 km/h (400 mph)). He worked his way out of the cockpit and into the rushing air only to be carried backwards by the slipstream, the left side of his chest striking the vertical stabiliser of his fighter, either killing him instantly or rendering him unconscious to the point that he could not deploy his parachute. He fell almost vertically, hitting the desert floor 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) south of Sidi Abdel Rahman. As it transpired, a gaping 40 cm (16 in) hole had been made in his parachute and the canopy had spilled out, but after recovering the body, the parachute release handle was still on "safe," revealing Marseille had not even attempted to open it. Whilst checking the body, Oberarzt Dr Bick, the regimental doctor for the 115th Panzergrenadier-Regiment, noted Marseille's wristwatch had stopped at exactly 11:42 am. Dr. Bick had been the first to reach the crash site, having been stationed just to the rear of the forward mine defences, he had also witnessed Marseille's fatal fall. [79] In his autopsy report, Dr. Bick stated:

"The pilot lay on his stomach as if asleep. His arms were hidden beneath his body. As I came closer, I saw a pool of blood that had issued from the side of his crushed skull; brain matter was exposed. I turned the dead pilot over onto his back and opened the zipper of his flight jacket, saw the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (Marseille never actually received the Diamonds personally) and I knew immediately who this was. The paybook also told me." [81]

Oberleutnant Ludwig Franzisket collected the body from the desert. Hans-Joachim Marseille lay in state in the Staffel sick bay, his comrades coming to pay their respects throughout the day. As a tribute they put on the record "Rhumba Azul" that he had enjoyed listening to; it played over and over until the close of day. Marseille's funeral took place on 1 October 1942 at the Heroes Cemetery in Derna with Generalfeldmarschall Albert Kesselring and Eduard Neumann delivering a eulogy.

The wreckage of Werknummer 14 256, 30 September 1942; the vehicle in the background marks the spot where Marseille's body landed. MarseilleCrash.JPG
The wreckage of Werknummer 14 256, 30 September 1942; the vehicle in the background marks the spot where Marseille's body landed.

An enquiry into the crash was hastily set up. The commission's report (Aktenzeichen 52, Br.B.Nr. 270/42) [Note 6] concluded that the crash was caused by damage to the differential gear, which caused an oil leak. Then a number of teeth broke off the spur wheel and ignited the oil. Sabotage or human error was ruled out. [47] The aircraft, W. Nr. 14256, was ferried to the unit via Bari, Italy. The mission that ended in its destruction was its first mission. [83]

JG 27 was moved out of Africa for about a month because of the impact Marseille's death had on morale. The deaths of two other German aces, Günter Steinhausen and Marseille's friend Hans-Arnold Stahlschmidt, just three weeks earlier reduced spirits to an all-time low. One biographer suggests these consequences were instigated by a failure in the command style of Marseille, although it was not entirely within his control. The more success Marseille had, the more his staffel relied on him to carry the greater share of aerial victories claimed by the unit. So his death, when it came, was something which JG 27 had seemingly not prepared for. [84]

Historians Hans Ring and Christopher Shores also point to the fact that Marseille's promotions were based on personal success rates more than any other reason, and other pilots did not get to score air victories, let alone become Experten themselves. They flew support as the "maestro showed them how it was done", and often "held back from attacking enemy aircraft to build his score still higher". [85] As a result there was no other Experten to step into Marseille's shoes if he was killed. Eduard Neumann explained:

"This handicap [that very few pilots scored] was partially overcome by the morale effect on the whole Geschwader of the success of pilots like Marseille. In fact most of the pilots in Marseille's staffel acted in secondary role as escort to the "master"." [86]

Marseille's impact on Allied fighter pilots and their morale is unclear. Andrew Thomas quoted Pilot Officer Bert Houle of No. 213 Squadron RAF; "He was an extremely skilled pilot and a deadly shot. It was a helpless feeling to be continually bounced, and to do so little about it." [87] Robert Tate, on the other hand, is skeptical Allied pilots would have been familiar, asking, "How well was Marseille known to DAF personnel in the Desert? Apparently not so well. Although there is little indication that some Allied pilots may have heard of Marseille, this information did not readily make its way down to Allied Squadrons. Fanciful stories abound of how pilots knew of one another and hoped to duel with each other in the skies. This was more than likely not the case." [88]

Marseille appeared four times in the Deutsche Wochenschau . The first time on Wednesday 17 February 1942 when Oberst Galland, the General der Jagdflieger , visited an airport in the desert. The second time on Wednesday 1 July 1942 when Marseille travelled to Rastenburg to receive the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords from Adolf Hitler. The third time on Wednesday 9 September 1942 announcing Marseille's 17 aerial victories from 1 September 1942 and that he had been awarded the Diamonds to his Knight's Cross. His last appearance dates from Wednesday 30 September 1942 showing Hauptmann Marseille visiting Erwin Rommel. [89]

In 1957, a German film, Der Stern von Afrika (The Star of Africa) directed by Alfred Weidenmann, was made starring Joachim Hansen as Hans-Joachim Marseille. The movie was a fictionalised account of Marseille's war time service. [90]


Marseille Pyramid seen from south west, Sidi Abd el-Rahman, Egypt MarseillePyramidSW2.jpg
Marseille Pyramid seen from south west, Sidi Abd el-Rahman, Egypt
Marseille memorial, Schoneberg Hans-Joachim Marseille Memorial 2.jpg
Marseille memorial, Schöneberg
German war memorial, Tobruk German war memorial, Tobruk01.JPG
German war memorial, Tobruk

Summary of career

Victory claims and notable actions

Fähnrich Hans-Joachim Marseille was transferred to his first combat assignment with the I.(Jagd)/Lehrgeschwader 2 at the time stationed at Calais-Marck on Sunday 10 August 1940. Two days later he arrived at this unit on 12 August 1940.

He was assigned to the 1. Staffel of this Gruppe. Staffelkapitän was Oberleutnant Adolf Buhl. One of the Schwarmführer was Oberfeldwebel Helmut Goedert, to whom Marseille was assigned as wingman. Marseille already flew his very first combat mission on the next day, Wednesday 13 August 1940 and claimed his first aerial victory on 24 August 1940. In over little more than two years he would amass another 157 aerial victories. [98] [99] His 158 aerial victories were claimed in 382 combat missions. [100]

The German Federal Archives still hold records for 109 of Marseille aerial victories. [101] A further biographer of Marseille, Walter Wübbe, has made an attempt to link these records to Allied units, squadrons and when possible even to individual pilots, in order to verify the claims as much as possible. [98]

Dispute over claims

Bf 109 G-2 painted with markings of Marseille's aircraft on display at the Museu TAM in Sao Carlos, Brazil Messerschmitt Bf-109G-2, Germany - Air Force AN1195526.jpg
Bf 109 G-2 painted with markings of Marseille's aircraft on display at the Museu TAM in São Carlos, Brazil

Some serious discrepancies between Allied squadron records and German claims have caused some historians and Allied veterans to question the accuracy of Marseille's official victories, in addition to those of JG 27 as a whole. [102] Attention is often focused on the 26 claims made by JG 27 on 1 September 1942, of which 17 were claimed by Marseille alone. A USAF historian, Major Robert Tate states: "[f]or years, many British historians and militarists refused to admit that they had lost any aircraft that day in North Africa. Careful review of records however do show that the British [and South Africans] did lose more than 17 aircraft that day, and in the area that Marseille operated." [147] Tate also reveals 20 RAF single-engined fighters and one twin engined fighter were destroyed and several others severely damaged, as well as a further USAAF P-40 shot down. [32] However, overall Tate reveals that Marseille's kill total comes close to 65–70 percent corroboration, indicating as many as 50 of his claims may not have been actually kills. Tate also compares Marseilles rate of corroboration with the top six P-40 pilots. While only the Canadian James Francis Edwards' records shows a verification of 100 percent other aces like Clive Caldwell (50% to 60% corroboration), Billy Drake (70% to 80% corroboration), John Lloyd Waddy (70% to 80% corroboration) and Andrew Barr (60% to 70% corroboration) are at the same order of magnitude as Marseille's claims. [148] Christopher Shores and Hans Ring also support Tate's conclusions. [149] British historian Stephen Bungay gives a figure of 20 Allied losses that day. [150]

However, the claims for 15 September 1942 are in serious doubt, following the first detailed scrutiny of the records of individual Allied squadrons by Australian historian Russell Brown. Moreover, Brown lists three occasions on which Marseille could not have downed as many aircraft as claimed. [102] [151]

Stephan Bungay has pointed out the low military value of shooting down DAF fighters, rather than the bombers that, by mid-1942, were having a highly damaging effect on Axis ground units and convoy routes. [150] [Note 11] Referring to 1 September 1942, Bungay points out that even if Marseille shot down 15 of the 17 he claimed that day, "the rest of the 100 or so German fighter pilots [Note 12] between them only got five. The British [sic] lost no bombers at all... [150] During this period the DAF lost only a few bombers, but all fell to anti-aircraft defences and evidence shows that Rommel was forced onto the defensive because of the losses inflicted by bombers. [139]


  1 February 1940: Aviator badge [152]
  9 September 1940: Iron Cross Second Class for two air victories. [153]
  17 September 1940:Iron Cross First Class for fourth air victory. [153]
  3 November 1941: Honorary Cup of the Luftwaffe. [152]
  24 November 1941: German Cross in Gold [154] (the first German pilot to receive this award in Africa.) for 25 victories. After returning from a combat mission having just claimed his 35th and 36th victory, the Award was presented to Marseille by Field Marshal Albert Kesselring on 17 December 1941. [39] [155]
  22 February 1942:416th Knight's Cross of the Luftwaffe as Leutnant and pilot in the 3./JG 27 [155] [156] for reaching 46 victories. [157] By the time the award was officially processed and handed out to him his score stood at 50 victories. [27] [158] Kesselring presented the award. [159] Also awarded near this date was the Italian Silver Medal for bravery (Silver Medal of Military Valor). [152]
  6 June 1942:Becomes the 97th recipient of the Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross as Oberleutnant and pilot in the 3./JG 27 [155] [160] for 75 victories. The Oak Leaves were never presented to Marseille because a few days later he had already received the Swords and Oak Leaves. [161]
  18 June 1942:12th recipient of Swords to the Knight's cross with Oak Leaves as Oberleutnant and Staffelkapitän of the 3./JG 27 [155] [162] for 100 aerial victories (presented by Hitler on 28 June 1942 in the Wolfsschanze in Rastenburg).
  August 1942:Awarded Pilot/Observer Badge in Gold with Diamonds (presented by Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring). [163]
  6 August 1942:Awarded highest Italian decoration for bravery, the Gold Medal of Military Valor, (presented by Benito Mussolini in Rome on 13 August).
  3 September 1942:Becomes only the fourth German serviceman to be awarded the Diamonds to the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords as Oberleutnant and Staffelkapitän of the 3./JG 27. [155] [164]
The Diamonds were to be made in a special, by Adolf Hitler defined, fashion. Hitler had decided to present them to Marseille personally some time later in the year. However, Marseille's death prevented this. [165]
  16 September 1942:Early promotion to Hauptmann – Youngest Captain in the Luftwaffe .
  30 November 1962:The Italian Minister of Defence Giulio Andreotti paid the relatives of Marseille an honorary one-time pension of 1,500 DM. [166]
  Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe in Gold with Pennant "300" [163]

Sometime in the early 1990s, one of Marseille's biographers, Robert Tate, visited the former Marseille-Kaserne base and Museum to see and photograph Marseille's medals. When he arrived, Tate was informed the Knights Cross, Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds belonging to Marseille had been stolen. [167]

Marseille and Nazism

The German Military History Research Office (MGFA) published a brief evaluation of Marseille in early 2013, stating that "occasional attempts in the popular literature to suggest Marseille's unsoldierly bravado and honest character points to an ideological distance to National Socialism are misleading". MGFA concluded that, since there is no academic biography of Marseille, "it is not known that Hans-Joachim Marseille has, through his overall actions or through a single outstanding deed, earned praise in the service for freedom and justice [as defined in the current guidelines for military tradition]". [168]

Several biographies of Hans-Joachim Marseille have described his disdain for authority and for the National Socialist movement in general. Some biographers, such as Colin Heaton, describe him as "openly anti-Nazi." [169] When Marseille first met Hitler in 1942, he did not form a positive impression. After returning to Africa, Eduard Neumman recalled, "After his first visit with Hitler, Marseille returned and said that he thought 'the Führer was a rather odd sort'." [170] On the visit, Marseille also said some unflattering things about Hitler and the Nazi Party. Several senior officers, which included Adolf Galland and Nicolaus von Below, overheard his remarks during one of the award ceremonies. Von Below asked Marseille if he would join the Nazi Party and within earshot of others, Marseille responded, "that if he saw a party worth joining, he would consider it, but there would have to be plenty of attractive women in it." The remarks visibly upset Hitler, who was left "puzzled" by Marseille's behaviour. [171]

Marseille also demonstrated his lack of respect for the Nazi elite during his visit to Germany in June–August 1942. Marseille was a gifted pianist and was invited to play a piece at the home of Willy Messerschmitt, an industrialist and designer of the Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter. Guests at the party included Adolf Hitler, party chairman Martin Borman, Hitler's deputy and Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe, Hermann Göring, head of the SS, Heinrich Himmler and Reich Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels. After impressing with a display of Ludwig van Beethoven's Für Elise , Marseille played American Jazz, which Nazi ideology considered degenerate. Hitler stood, raised his hand, and said "I think we've heard enough" before leaving the room. [172] Magda Goebbels found the prank amusing and Artur Axmann recalled how his "blood froze" when he heard this "Ragtime" music being played in front of the Führer. [173]

Later that month Marseille was invited to another party function, despite his earlier stunt. Obergruppenführer Karl Wolff, of Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS, confirmed that during his visit Marseille overheard a conversation which mentioned crimes against the Jews and other people. He stated:

Globocnik and I were talking about Operation Reinhard, which was in full effect following Heydrich's murder, and also the construction of Sobibor and Treblinka. I know I asked him about Höss, who was also standing there and had been summoned by Himmler regarding logistics or something regarding the new camp (Auschwitz). Then Globocnik mentioned to me and Kaltenbrunner that Lidice had been cleared, and all the Jews and Czechs had been dealt with. I noticed that this young pilot, who I later learned was Marseille, must have overheard, and I debated whether I should go over and say something to him. I decided against it. [174]

When Marseille returned to his unit, he reportedly asked his friends Franzisket, Clade and Schröer whether they had heard what was happening to Jews and if perhaps something was underway that they did not know about. Franszisket recalled that he had heard Jews were being relocated to territory gained in the East but no more. Marseille recounted how he had attempted to ask questions about Jews who had vanished from his own neighbourhood, including the family doctor that had delivered him at birth. Regardless of his hero status, when he attempted to bring the subject into any conversation with people who approached him, his enquiries were either met with awkward silences, people changed the subject, or even turned away. Franzisket noticed a change in Marseille's attitude toward his nation's cause. He never spoke of this with his comrades again. [175]

Marseille's friendship with his adopted helper also is used to show his anti-Nazi character. In 1942, Marseille befriended a South African Army prisoner of war, Corporal Mathew Letulu, nicknamed Mathias. Marseille took him as a personal helper rather than allow him to be sent to a prisoner of war camp in Europe. Over time, Marseille and Mathias became inseparable. Marseille was concerned how Mathias would be treated by other units of the Wehrmacht and once remarked "Where I go, Mathias goes." [176] Marseille secured promises from his senior commander, Neumann, that if anything should happen to him [Marseille] Mathias was to be kept with the unit. Mathias duly remained with JG 27 until the end of the war and attended post-war reunions until his death in 1984. [177]

Biographer Robert Tate went further in his examination. During his research, he contacted Professor Rafael Scheck, Head of History at Colby College. Scheck published Hitler's African Victims: The German Army Massacres of Black French Soldiers in 1940 and is an acknowledged expert on racial theory and in Nazi Germany. [178] Without being familiar with Marseille, Scheck identified his friendship with Matthias was in direct contradiction to the Nazi mandate. Sheck doubted that Marseille's "acquisition" of Matthais and his role as Marseille's "batman" was done out of disrespect. Sheck said, "I know of the camp commandant of the concentration camp of Mauthausen, who held a black man as his personal servant. This was done out of disrespect, however. I do not think that aspect was relevant for Marseille." [179] When questioned on Marseille's behaviour, Sheck said, "I do not find it odd because I am accustomed to seeing many nuances among the Germans of the Third Reich. But his behaviour would probably be startling for many other researchers." [179] Tate also noted Marseille's penchant for Cuban rumba by Ernesto Lecuona, jazz and swing, which he believes was another way Marsaille resisted Nazi ideals. [28]


  1. Birth certificate Nr. 696, Charlottenburg, dated 15 December 1919, d.o.b. 13 December at 11:45 pm. Berliner Strasse 164. [4]
  2. Marseille's first combat victory is uncertain. Sources conflict over the aircraft type citing it as a Hawker Hurricane or Supermarine Spitfire.
  3. For an explanation of the meaning of Luftwaffe unit designation see Luftwaffe organisation.
  4. 1 2 One Bf 109E, Werknummer 3579, which it is claimed he crash-landed, has been recovered, restored, and painted in the colours of "White 14", an aircraft with which he was associated.
  5. Marseille's trip to the airfield was witnessed by Byers' squadron-mate Geoffrey Morely-Mower, later an English professor at Madison University. Morley said "his greatest deeds, only revealed by the patient work of scholars and the accident of my own involvement as an eye-witness, were almost private and purely compassionate." Morely died in 2005. [38]
  6. Commission Report by Oberstleutnant Walter Schmidt-Coste [82]
  7. Eyewitness to this aerial battle was Jan Yindrich, author of the book "Fortress Tobruk", Uk, Panther 1956. According to Hans Ring a vivid account is given in this book. [113]
  8. Flight Lieutenant Patrick Joseph Anthony Byers, a 25-year-old RAF officer serving with 451 Sqn RAAF under Article XV of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, died on 20 September 1941 and is buried in Benghazi (Commonwealth War Graves Commission, "Byers, Patrick Joseph Anthony"). He may have been from South Africa, as his parents resided there. Robert Tate, quoting Geoffrey Morley-Mower (a pilot with 451 Sqn at the time), states that Byers was one of Marseille's victims. Walter Wübbe states that Byers was in Hurricane I V7775. However, another source states that V7775 was not among the 10 Mk I Hurricanes assigned to 451 Sqn, although V7772 and V7779 were (ADF Serials).
  9. It is not clear that P-40Fs, assigned to the 57th FG at the time, were involved; the unit was not officially operational until 6 October. However, individual USAAF personnel had been attached to DAF units since July. [138]
  10. Walter Wübbe lists the last three aerial victories at 15.56, 15.59 and 16.10 while authors Robert Tate, Jochen Prien, Peter Rodeike and Gerhard Stemmer state 16.56, 16.59 and 17.10. [145] [140] [146]
  11. One of the reasons Rommel cites for breaking off the Battle of Alam el Halfa on 2 September was the "Allied air superiority" which had played a key role in crippling his supply lines.
  12. The figure of "100 or so German pilots" represents the Geschwader's entire strength.

Related Research Articles

Operation Bodenplatte

Operation Bodenplatte (Baseplate), launched on 1 January 1945, was an attempt by the Luftwaffe to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries during the Second World War. The goal of Bodenplatte was to gain air superiority during the stagnant stage of the Battle of the Bulge so that the German Army and Waffen-SS forces could resume their advance. The operation was planned for 16 December 1944, but was delayed repeatedly due to bad weather until New Year’s Day, the first day that happened to be suitable.

Gerhard Barkhorn German general and fighter pilot during World War II

Gerhard "Gerd" Barkhorn was the second most successful fighter ace of all time after fellow Luftwaffe pilot Erich Hartmann. Other than Hartmann, Barkhorn is the only fighter ace to ever exceed 300 claimed victories.

Hans-Arnold Stahlschmidt German World War II fighter pilot

Hans-Arnold Stahlschmidt was a German fighter pilot during World War II. A flying ace, he was credited with 59 victories against the Western Allies in North Africa. Stahlschmidt was a close friend of the prominent ace Hans-Joachim Marseille.

<i>Jagdgeschwader</i> 5 military unit

Jagdgeschwader 5 was a German Luftwaffe fighter wing during World War II. It was created to operate in the far North of Europe, namely Norway, Scandinavia and northern parts of Finland, all nearest the Arctic Ocean, with Luftflotte 5, created specifically to be based in occupied Norway, and responsible for much of northern Norway.

<i>Jagdgeschwader</i> 1 (World War II) German World War II fighter unit

Jagdgeschwader 1 was a German World War II fighter unit or "wing" which used the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Focke-Wulf Fw 190 aircraft, between 1940 and 1944. The name of the unit derives from Jagd, meaning "hunt" and Geschwader, meaning "wing". First formed in May 1939 in eastern Prussia, I./JG 1 was one of the original groups created by the Luftwaffe as part of its expansion plans.

<i>Jagdgeschwader</i> 26

Jagdgeschwader 26 Schlageter was a German fighter-wing of World War II. It operated mainly in Western Europe against Great Britain, France and the United States, but also saw service against the Soviet Union. It was named after Albert Leo Schlageter, a World War I veteran and Freikorps member arrested and executed by the French for sabotage in 1923.

Walter Schuck German World War II fighter pilot

Walter Schuck was a German military aviator who served in the Luftwaffe from 1937 until the end of World War II. As a fighter ace, he claimed 206 enemy aircraft shot down in over 500 combat missions, eight of which while flying the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter. Schuck was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, the highest award in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.

Friedrich-Karl "Tutti" Müller German World War II fighter pilot

Friedrich-Karl "Tutti" Müller was a German Luftwaffe military aviator and wing commander during World War II. As a fighter ace, he is credited with 140 aerial victories claimed in more than 600 combat missions. He claimed eight aerial victories during the Battle of France, 89 on the Eastern Front, and further 43 victories against the Western Allies in the Mediterranean Theatre and in Defense of the Reich, including 24 four-engined bombers.

Werner Schröer German World War II fighter pilot

Werner Schröer was a German World War II fighter ace credited with shooting down 114 enemy aircraft. He served in the Luftwaffe from 1937, initially as a member of the ground staff, until the end of World War II in Europe on 8 May 1945, by which time he had reached the highest ranks of combat leadership. Schröer was the second most successful claimant of air victories after Hans-Joachim Marseille in the Mediterranean, and was decorated with the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords.

Joachim Müncheberg German officer and fighter pilot during World War II

Joachim Müncheberg was a German Luftwaffe fighter pilot during World War II and an ace credited with 135 air victories.

Ernst-Wilhelm Reinert German Luftwaffe fighter ace

Ernst-Wilhelm Reinert was a German Luftwaffe military aviator during World War II, a fighter ace credited with 174 enemy aircraft shot down in 715 combat missions. The majority of his victories were claimed over the Eastern Front, with 51 in the Mediterranean theatre and 20 over the Western Front.

Siegfried Freytag German flying ace

Siegfried Freytag was a World War II German Luftwaffe pilot and wing commander. As a fighter ace, he was credited with 102 aerial victories of which 49 victories were claimed over the Eastern Front. Among his victories over the Western Front are at least 2 four-engine bombers. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross Freytag had been nominated for the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, but the war ended before the paperwork had been processed.

Günther Steinhausen was a World War II Luftwaffe Flying ace with 40 combat victories to his name. He was also a posthumous recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.

Gustav Rödel German flying ace

Gustav Rödel was a German fighter pilot and fighter ace that served during World War II in the Luftwaffe.

Wilhelm Lemke German flying ace

Wilhelm Lemke was a Luftwaffe flying ace of World War II. Lemke was credited with 131 aerial victories—that is, 131 aerial combat encounters resulting in the destruction of the enemy aircraft. All but six of his victories were claimed over the Soviet Air Forces in 617 combat missions.

<i>Jagdgeschwader</i> 301

Jagdgeschwader 301 was a Luftwaffe fighter-wing of World War II. The order to form JG 301 was issued on 26 September 1943 and formed on 1 October 1943 in Neubiberg with Stab and three Gruppen (groups) as a "Wilde Sau" single-seat night fighter unit.

Ernst Börngen was a Luftwaffe ace and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross during World War II. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. Börngen claimed 41 victories in 450 missions.

Erich "Schmidtchen" Schmidt was a Luftwaffe ace and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross during World War II.

Helmut Mertens was a German fighter ace of World War II. He was born in Essen and served in the Luftwaffe as a career fighter pilot who served in the Battle of France, Battle of Britain, the invasion of Russia Operation Barbarossa and on the Western Front in the Defence of the Reich. His victory tally as a fighter pilot is reported as high as ninety-seven or as few as fifty-four aircraft confirmed shot down.



  1. 1 2 3 4 Zabecki 2014, p. 830.
  2. Feist 1993, p. 2.
  3. 1 2 3 Kaplan 2007, p. 172.
  4. Wübbe 2001, p. 90.
  5. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 1.
  6. Wübbe 2001, p. 89.
  7. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 82.
  8. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 1–3.
  9. Tate 2008, pp. 84–85.
  10. Kurowski 1994, p. 12.
  11. Wübbe 2001, p. 99.
  12. Wübbe 2001, p. 14.
  13. Berger 1999, p. 208.
  14. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 13.
  15. Wübbe 2001, p. 111.
  16. Wübbe 2001, p. 46.
  17. Wübbe 2001, p. 114.
  18. Wübbe 2001, p. 126.
  19. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 15.
  20. Tate 2008, p. 83.
  21. Bergström 2015, p. 227.
  22. Mason 1969, p. 408.
  23. Foreman 2003, p. 244.
  24. 1 2 Wübbe 2001, p. 26.
  25. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 18–20.
  26. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 17.
  27. 1 2 Scutts 1994, p. 28.
  28. 1 2 Tate 2008, p. 94.
  29. Lucas 1983, p. 151.
  30. Sims 1982, p. 159.
  31. Bekker 1994, p. 246.
  32. 1 2 Tate 2008, p. 99.
  33. Wübbe 2001, p. 136.
  34. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 46–47.
  35. Spick 1996, pp. 120–124.
  36. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 6–7, 89.
  37. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 90.
  38. Tate 2008, pp. 109–110.
  39. 1 2 Wübbe 2001, p. 22.
  40. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 192.
  41. Galland 1954, p. 115.
  42. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 28, 48, 51, 193.
  43. Wübbe 2001, p. 185.
  44. Spick 1996, p. 123.
  45. Scutts 1994, p. 17.
  46. Kaplan 2007, p. 173.
  47. 1 2 3 4 5 Hans-Joachim Marseille – The Star of Africa (Archive of War teleproduction). Egypt/Germany: AV-Medienproduktion, 1990. Note: Narrated by Brian Matthews.
  48. Sims 1982, p. 171.
  49. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 55.
  50. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 117.
  51. 1 2 Tate 2008, p. 201.
  52. 1 2 Brown 2000, p. 109.
  53. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 193.
  54. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 106.
  55. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 194, 207.
  56. Sims 1982, p. 156.
  57. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 28.
  58. Obermaier 1989, p. 243.
  59. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 190.
  60. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 135.
  61. Weal 2003, p. 86.
  62. Wübbe 2001, p. 319.
  63. Feist 1993, p. 61.
  64. Shores, Massimello & Guest 2012, p. 326.
  65. Tate 2008, p. 165. [note 20].
  66. Tate 2008, p. 186.
  67. Tate 2008, p. 186–194.
  68. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 155–158.
  69. Massimello & Apostolo 2000, p. 35.
  70. Weal 2003, p. 82.
  71. Weal 2003, pp. 32, 33.
  72. Tate 2008, p. 66.
  73. Wübbe 2001, pp. 25, 26.
  74. Prien, Rodeike & Stemmer 1998, p. 540.
  75. Scutts 1994, p. 90.
  76. Weal 2003, p. 8.
  77. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 174.
  78. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 176–177.
  79. 1 2 Tate 2008, p. 116.
  80. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 176–178.
  81. Kurowski 1994, pp. 212–213.
  82. Wübbe 2001, pp. 351, 352.
  83. Tate 2008, p. 128.
  84. Tate 2008, pp. 29–30.
  85. Tate 2008, pp. 30–31: Citing Shores and Ring..
  86. Tate 2008, p. 31.
  87. Thomas 2003, p. 56.
  88. Tate 2008, p. 100.
  89. Wübbe 2001, p. 51.
  90. Wübbe 2001, pp. 388–389.
  91. "30°53'26.80"N and 28°41'42.87"E." Google Maps. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
  92. Weal 2003, p. 62.
  93. Weal 2003, p. 105.
  94. Wübbe 2001, p. 384.
  95. Tate 2008, p. 126.
  96. Wübbe 2001, p. 391.
  97. Wübbe 2001, p. 396.
  98. 1 2 Wübbe 2001, pp. 25–43.
  99. Prien, Rodeike & Stemmer 1998, pp. 562–571.
  100. Obermaier 1989, p. 20.
  101. 1 2 Wübbe 2001, p. 45.
  102. 1 2 3 4 5 Brown 2000, pp. 281–282.
  103. Prien 1992, p. 359.
  104. Franks 1997, p. 61.
  105. Mason 1969, pp. 341–342.
  106. Foreman 2003, pp. 220–221.
  107. Franks 1997, pp. 80–81.
  108. Mason 1969, pp. 380–381.
  109. Franks 1997, p. 83.
  110. Mason 1969, pp. 416–418.
  111. Mason 1969, p. 420.
  112. 1 2 3 4 5 Tate 2008, p. 164.
  113. Ring & Girbig 1994, p. 84.
  114. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Tate 2008, p. 162.
  115. Tate 2008, p. 105 Citing Geoffrey Morley-Mower.
  116. Tate 2008, p. 108.
  117. Tate 2008, p. 110.
  118. Shores & Ring 1969, p. 55.
  119. Brown 2000, pp. 35–36.
  120. Tate 2008, p. 200.
  121. Shores & Ring 1969, p. 92.
  122. Shores, Massimello & Guest 2012, p. 37.
  123. Tate 2008, p. 165 (note 8).
  124. Brown 2000, p. 88.
  125. Brown 2000, p. 93.
  126. Shores, Massimello & Guest 2012, p. 111.
  127. 1 2 Brown 2000, p. 110.
  128. Shores, Massimello & Guest 2012, p. 116.
  129. Brown 2000, p. 118.
  130. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 207.
  131. Tate 2008, p. 163.
  132. Brown 2000, pp. 124, 299.
  133. Brown 2000, p. 124.
  134. Holmes 1998, p. 46.
  135. Tate 2008, p. 203.
  136. Brown 2000, pp. 129, 301.
  137. "Commonwealth War Graves Commission, "Casualty Details Name: Matthews, Ian Walter.", Matthews, Cwgc.org. Retrieved 30 January 2010.
  138. Craven & Cate 1949, pp. 15, 27, 30, 33, 35.
  139. 1 2 Scutts 1994, p. 29.
  140. 1 2 3 Tate 2008, p. 165.
  141. Tate 2008, pp. 63–64.
  142. Shores, Massimello & Guest 2012, p. 441–443.
  143. Brown 2000, p. 258 citing Christopher Shores and Hans Ring (Fighters over the Desert, 1969).
  144. Brown 2000, pp. 165–166.
  145. Wübbe 2001, p. 43.
  146. Prien, Rodeike & Stemmer 1998, p. 571.
  147. Tate, Major Robert (USAF). "Hans-Joachim Marseille".
  148. Tate 2008, p. 124.
  149. Shores & Ring 1969, p. 170.
  150. 1 2 3 Bungay 2002, pp. 140–141.
  151. Tate 2008, pp. 64–65.
  152. 1 2 3 Wübbe 2001, p. 48.
  153. 1 2 Thomas 1998, p. 61.
  154. Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 295.
  155. 1 2 3 4 5 Scherzer 2007, p. 528.
  156. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 303.
  157. Wübbe 2001, pp. 186, 187.
  158. Weal 2003, p. 76.
  159. Wübbe 2001, p. 186.
  160. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 60.
  161. Wübbe 2001, p. 221.
  162. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 39.
  163. 1 2 Berger 1999, pp. 208–210.
  164. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 36.
  165. Wübbe 2001, p. 18.
  166. Wübbe 2001, p. 66.
  167. Tate 2008, p. 13.
  168. MGFA on Marseiile, 2013, Military History Research Office (Germany)
  169. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 4.
  170. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 136.
  171. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 124.
  172. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 126–127.
  173. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 127–128.
  174. Heaton & Lewis 2012, p. 129.
  175. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 129–130.
  176. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 4–9.
  177. Heaton & Lewis 2012, pp. 4–9, 149, 180.
  178. Tate 2008, p. 90.
  179. 1 2 Tate 2008, p. 91.


  • Bekker, Cajus (1994). The Luftwaffe War Diaries: The German Air Force in World War II. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN   978-0-306-80604-9.
  • Berger, Florian (1999). Mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern. Die höchstdekorierten Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges[With Oak Leaves and Swords. The Highest Decorated Soldiers of the Second World War] (in German). Vienna, Austria: Selbstverlag Florian Berger. ISBN   978-3-9501307-0-6.
  • Bergström, Christer (2015). The Battle of Britain: An Epic Conflict Revisited. Oxford: Casemate. ISBN   978-1612-00347-4.
  • Brown, Russell (2000). Desert Warriors: Australian P-40 Pilots at War in the Middle East and North Africa, 1941–1943. Maryborough, Queensland, Australia: Banner Books. ISBN   978-1-875593-22-4.
  • Bungay, Stephan (2002). Alamein. London, UK: Aurum Press. ISBN   978-1-85410-842-5.
  • Craven, Wesley Frank; Cate, James Lea (1949). The Army Air Forces in World War II. Volume 2, Europe: Torch to Pointblank, August 1942 to December 1943. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ASIN   B000GU31NM . Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  • Dettmann, Fritz; Kurowski, Franz (1964). Mein Freund Marseille[My Friend Marseille] (in German). Berlin, Germany: Verlag 27 Publishing House. ISBN   978-3-86755-204-2.
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) [1986]. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile[The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN   978-3-7909-0284-6.
  • Feist, Uwe (1993). The Fighting Me 109. London: Arms & Armour Press. ISBN   1-85409-209-X.
  • Foreman, John (2003). RAF Fighter Command Victory Claims of World War Two: Part One, 1939–1940. Red Kite. ISBN   978-0-9538061-8-8.
  • Franks, Norman (1997). Royal Air Force Fighter Command Losses of the Second World. Volume 1: Operational losses: Aircraft and crews, 1939–1941. Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing. ISBN   978-1-85780-055-5.
  • Galland, Adolf (1954). The First and The Last. Cutchogue, New York: Buccaneer Books. ISBN   978-0-89966-728-7.
  • Heaton, Colin; Lewis, Anne-Marie (2012). The Star of Africa: The Story of Hans Marseille, the Rogue Luftwaffe Ace. London, UK: Zenith Press. ISBN   978-0-7603-4393-7.
  • Holmes, Tony (1998). Hurricane Aces 1939–1940 (Aircraft of the Aces). Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN   978-1-85532-597-5.
  • Kaplan, Philip (2007). Fighter Aces of the Luftwaffe in World War WWII. Auldgirth, Dumfriesshire, UK: Pen & Sword Aviation. ISBN   978-1-84415-460-9.
  • Kurowski, Franz (1994). German Fighter Ace: Hans-Joachim Marseille: Star of Africa. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military History. ISBN   978-0-88740-517-4.
  • Lucas, Laddie (1983). Wings of War: Airmen of All Nations Tell their Stories 1939–1945. London, UK: Hutchinson. ISBN   978-0-09-154280-1.
  • Massimello, Giovanni; Apostolo, Giorgio (2000). Italian Aces of World War 2. Oxford/New York: Osprey Publishing. ISBN   978-1-84176-078-0.
  • Mason, Francis (1969). Battle Over Britain. London, UK: McWhirter Twins. ISBN   978-0-901928-00-9.
  • Obermaier, Ernst (1989). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe Jagdflieger 1939 – 1945[The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Luftwaffe Fighter Force 1939 – 1945] (in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN   978-3-87341-065-7.
  • Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II[The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN   978-3-931533-45-8.
  • Prien, Jochen (1992). Geschichte des Jagdgeschwaders 77—Teil 1—1934–1941[History of Jagdgeschwader 77—Volume 1—1934–1941] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN   978-3-923457-19-9.
  • Prien, Jochen; Rodeike, Peter; Stemmer, Gerhard (1998). Messerschmidt Bf 109 im Einsatz bei Stab und I./Jagdgeschwader 27 1939 – 1945[Messerschmidt Bf 109 in Action with the Headquarters Unit and I./Jagdgeschwader 27 in 1939 – 1945] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN   978-3-923457-46-5.
  • Ring, Hans; Girbig, Werner (1994). Jagdgeschwader 27 Die Dokumentation über den Einsatz an allen Fronten 1939–1945[Jagdgeschwader 27 The Documentation on the Deployment on all Fronts from 1939 to 1945] (in German). Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN   978-3-87943-215-8.
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives[The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN   978-3-938845-17-2.
  • Scutts, Jerry (1994). Bf 109 Aces of North Africa and the Mediterranean. London, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN   978-1-85532-448-0.
  • Shores, Christopher; Ring, Hans (1969). Fighters over the Desert. London: Neville Spearman Limited. ISBN   978-0-668-02070-1.
  • Shores, Christopher F.; Massimello, Giovanni; Guest, Russell (2012). A History of the Mediterranean Air War, 1940–1945 Volume 2: North African Desert, February 1942 – March 1943. London, UK: Grub Street. ISBN   978-1-909166-12-7.
  • Sims, Edward H. (1982). Jagdflieger Die großen Gegner von einst[Fighter Pilots The great Enemies of the Past] (in German). Stuttgart, UK: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN   978-3-87943-115-1.
  • Spick, Mike (1996). Luftwaffe Fighter Aces. New York: Ivy Books. ISBN   978-0-8041-1696-1.
  • Tate, Robert (2008). Hans-Joachim Marseille: An Illustrated Tribute to the Luftwaffe's "Star of Africa". Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN   978-0-7643-2940-1.
  • Thomas, Franz (1998). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2: L–Z[The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2: L–Z] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN   978-3-7648-2300-9.
  • Thomas, Andrew (2003). Hurricane Aces 1941–45. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN   978-1-84176-610-2.
  • Weal, John (2003). Jagdgeschwader 27 'Afrika'. London, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN   978-1-84176-538-9.
  • Wübbe, Walter (2001). Hauptmann Hans Joachim Marseille— Ein Jagdfliegerschicksal in Daten, Bildern und Dokumenten[Captain Hans Joachim Marseille— A Fighter Pilots Fate in Data, Images and Documents] (in German). Schnellbach, Germany: Verlag Siegfried Bublies. ISBN   978-3-926584-78-6.
  • Zabecki, David T., ed. (2014). Germany at War: 400 Years of Military History. London: ABC-Clio. ISBN   978-1-59884-980-6.