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Dr Hans Schauder, (22 November 1911, Vienna – 10 July 2001 in Edinburgh) medical adviser and counsellor, co-founder of Camphill Community, founder of Garvald School & Training Centre
Vienna is the federal capital, largest city and one of nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of Czechia, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore.
Hans Schauder was born in Vienna of assimilated Jewish parents, a Polish father and Austrian mother. He remembered learning the Lord’s Prayer from a housemaid his family employed. School life, which began for him in the Scottish School in the Old City, introduced Schauder to the joys of music, art and literature. He embraced all the joys of the arts, music and literature that Vienna had to offer. The love of the art and nature, and an insatiable desire for knowledge remained throughout his life. He had also a deep concern for human beings, their troubles and difficulties. Already as a boy, people confided in him, or would ask for advice because of his ability to listen with sympathy and understanding. He and his friends spent much time climbing in the mountains, reading plays together, singing and making music.
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
Austrians are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history. The English term Austrians was applied to the population of Habsburg Austria from the 17th or 18th century. Subsequently, during the 19th century, it referred to the citizens of the Empire of Austria (1804–1867), and from 1867 until 1918 to the citizens of Cisleithania. In the closest sense, the term Austria originally referred to the historical March of Austria, corresponding roughly to the Vienna Basin in what is today Lower Austria.
As a child, he had wanted to become a monk. Later, at the Wasa-Gymnasium, he met his friends Rudi Lissau, Edi Weissberg and Bronja Hüttner, through whom he met and fell in love with Lisl Schwalb, a fellow Viennese Jew. Through them came into touch with Anthroposophy, which opened up a path to spiritual knowledge and understanding as a result of which he no longer desired the monastic life but decided to become a doctor. At the age of 20, he enrolled at the University of Vienna’s school of medicine, and at 22 met Dr Karl König in Arlesheim, at a conference for medical students before König moved to Vienna. When he did, Hans joined the youth group around him that included most of his friends and who stayed in contact through most of their lives and between them started many initiatives.
Rudi Lissau, born 26 June 1911 in Vienna and died 30 January 2004 in Brookthorpe, United Kingdom, was a Steiner school teacher, author, lecturer and anthroposophist.
Karl König was an Austrian paediatrician who founded the Camphill Movement, an international movement of therapeutic intentional communities for those with special needs or disabilities.
Arlesheim is a statistic town and a municipality in the district of Arlesheim in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. Its cathedral chapter seat, bishop's residence and cathedral are listed as a heritage site of national significance.
Although he had by this time converted to Christianity, in 1938 Schauder’s Jewish background forced him to flee Austria after its annexation by the Nazis. A few weeks previously, Lisl had also left, finding sanctuary with a Quaker couple near Aberdeen. Schauder struggled to complete his degree, living in poverty and suffering chronic chest problems.
Aberdeen is a city in northeast Scotland. It is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 39th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and 228,800 for the local council area.
Though many of his family and friends died in concentration camps and he himself suffered both physically and psychologically, struggling with his health for the rest of his life, he never became embittered or lost his trusting and open nature, which always looked for and fostered the best in people. He was convinced that in order to be a positive influence in the world one must not only do good, but also be active on a spiritual dimension. Those who strengthen their inner being through prayer and meditation do not wage war or hate other nations.
In Vienna when Schauder and his fiancé had joined the group of young, idealistic people led by Dr Karl Koenig, their dream was to found a community in which they could live on an equal footing with people in need of special care. This became a reality in Scotland. Here, after completing his medical studies in Basle, Schauder and his young wife joined the group of founders of the Camphill Community near Aberdeen that was to become the nucleus of a worldwide organisation and was a model of community living.While at Camphill, their twin girls were born and not long afterwards another daughter.
In 1944, Schauder left Camphill to start a new anthroposophical community, Garvald School and Training Centre, near West Linton together with others from the Camphill group, turning an empty mansion house into the centre of a vibrant community. Though he was the medical doctor at Garvald, Schauder did everything from cleaning and cooking to singing lessons and Bible study. Then in 1949, after five years, Schauder and his family left to settle in nearby Edinburgh. He had been diagnosed with Tuberculosis and for some time Lisl had to support the family while he was recovering. Thereafter, he became the medical adviser at another anthroposophical organisation, the Rudolf Steiner School, Edinburgh. It was a welcome breathing space within the peaceful environment of his own home as opposed to the bustle of community living and there Schauder developed faculties that focused on the individual and his or her deeper problems.
The Garvald Centres are a group of six affiliated but independent Scottish charities offering creative opportunities and support for people with Special Needs and learning disabilities and who base their work on the ideas of the educator and philosopher, Rudolf Steiner. They operate in the Midlothian, Scottish Borders and Edinburgh area of Scotland.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those affected. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It was historically called "consumption" due to the weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms.
Already in Garvald, people had recognised and valued Schauder’s diagnostic abilities and assessment of young people with neurotic or psychotic traits or those in crisis situations. Both colleagues and others in the medical profession admired his creative and unusual way of working, inspired by the image of the illness and the challenges that it presented.
In the late fifties, Schauder expanded his work to wider social problems, volunteering to counsel prisoners at Edinburgh’s Saughton Prison, advising Samaritans staff on problem case, counselling parents on their children’s problems and progressing to doing adult counselling. In doing so he developed his own unique approach to counselling – an attempt to build up as complete a picture as possible of the client so as to fully identify with them and together work towards a solution. After years of experience, he met a Dominican friar, Marcus Lefébure who also worked as a counsellor at the University. The two men analysed the structure of Schauder’s therapeutic approach, gradually pinpointing the archetypal elements in the interview process. These are described in their book, Conversation and Counselling, published in 1982. The book won high praise in the United Kingdom, was later translated into German. “These dialogues present counselling as a form of contemporary spirituality, arguing that counselling facilitates spiritual experience and that psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic concepts can be understood in spiritual terms. However, the dialogues also present a critique of the authorisation of subjectivity within both counselling and spirituality; in so doing, they anticipate and elaborate later criticisms of Paul Heelas and Linda Woodhead's spiritual revolution thesis.”After the appearance of the book, people would visit Schauder from as far as the United States to discuss aspects of counselling. The Hans Schauder Institute was founded in Germany in the late Eighties.
There followed a steady stream of visitors from Europe: people who wished to discuss their problems with Schauder or seek advice on spiritual and moral questions, or who simply valued the opportunity to have contact with a very cultured and wise human being. Schauder would repeatedly warn people to foster their inner being through prayer and meditation and develop their inner life to meet the dangers of involvement in our modern hectic lifestyle.
Hans Schauder was a pioneer of the therapy that comes about through a pure meeting of human beings, a completely upright, authentic meeting both in his private life and in his profession. For him the word Empathy was a reality that he lived to the full extent. The growing interest in biography work in Germany and elsewhere that led to the founding of the Hans Schauder Institute in Karlsruhe has also led to a number of anthroposophically-oriented institutions and practitioners orienting their biography work b on his insights.
Two books of his poems in the German language were published, the final one post-humously and dealing with old age, parting, illness, trials of life and death. Much that is difficult requires form and conquest and in meeting such challenges the strength to overcome adversity is born. Schauder’s work in accompanying people through their crises awakened him to the potential that lies in each one of us and he helped each one of his patients to unfold it.
Anthroposophy is a philosophy founded by the 19th-century esotericist Rudolf Steiner that postulates the existence of an objective, intellectually comprehensible spiritual world, accessible to human experience. Followers of anthroposophy aim to develop mental faculties of spiritual discovery through a mode of thought independent of sensory experience. They also aim to present their ideas in a manner verifiable by rational discourse and specifically seek a precision and clarity in studying the spiritual world mirroring that obtained by natural historians in investigations of the physical world.
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect, economist and esotericist. Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a literary critic and published philosophical works including The Philosophy of Freedom. At the beginning of the twentieth century he founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism.
The General Anthroposophical Society is an "association of people whose will it is to nurture the life of the soul, both in the individual and in human society, on the basis of a true knowledge of the spiritual world." As an organization, it is dedicated to supporting the community of those interested in the inner path of schooling known as anthroposophy, developed by Rudolf Steiner.
Egil Kristian Tynæs, was a Norwegian anthroposophical doctor, senior physician at the Municipal Clinic in Bergen and a humanitarian aid worker. On June 2, 2004 in Badghis, Afghanistan Tynæs and four others were killed in an ambush whilst working for the humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières.
Anthroposophic medicine is a form of alternative medicine. Devised in the 1920s by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) in conjunction with Ita Wegman (1876–1943), anthroposophical medicine is based on occult notions and draws on Steiner's spiritual philosophy, which he called anthroposophy. Practitioners employ a variety of treatment techniques based upon anthroposophic precepts, including massage, exercise, counselling, and substances.
Sergei Olegovich Prokofieff was a Russian anthroposophist. He was the grandson of the composer Sergei Prokofiev and his first wife Lina Prokofiev, and the son of Oleg Prokofiev and his first wife Sofia Korovina. Born in Moscow, he studied fine arts and painting at the Moscow School of Art. He encountered anthroposophy in his youth, and soon made the decision to devote his life to it.
Alfons Rosenberg (1902–1985) was a German-Jewish author from Munich who wrote Die Welt im Feuer. An expert on symbolism, he was the author of over forty works. He made important contributions to the understanding of Mozart's operas.
Wilhelm Pelikan was a chemist, anthroposophist, pharmacist, gardener and anthroposophical medicine practitioner.
Oskar Schmiedel was a pharmacist, anthroposophist, therapist, Goethean scientist and theosophist.
Ignatian spirituality, also known as Jesuit spirituality, is a Catholic spirituality founded on the experiences of the sixteenth-century theologian Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Jesuit order. The main idea of this form of spirituality comes from Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises, the aim of which is to help one "conquer oneself and to regulate one's life in such a way that no decision is made under the influence of any inordinate attachment." The Exercises are intended to give the person undertaking them a greater degree of freedom from his or her own likes and dislikes, that they may choose based solely on what they discern God's will is for them. Even in the composition of the exercises by Ignatius early in his career, one might find the apostolic thrust of his spirituality in his contemplation on "The Call of the Earthly King" and in his final contemplation with its focus on finding God in all things.
Blackthorn Trust is a UK charity in Maidstone, Kent which offers specialist therapies and rehabilitation through work placements in the Blackthorn Garden. They offer help to people with mental health difficulties, chronic pain and type 2 diabetes. The charity's work is based on the work of Rudolf Steiner, and the charity aims to assist individuals to progress towards their full potential.
Peter Selg is a German psychiatrist. He was born in Stuttgart and studied medicine in Witten-Herdecke, Zurich, and Berlin. Until 2000, he worked as the head physician of the juvenile psychiatry department of Herdecke hospital in Germany. Selg is director of the Ita Wegman Institute for Basic Research into Anthroposophy and professor of medicine at the Alanus University of Arts and Social Sciences (Germany). He lectures extensively and is the author of numerous books.
Thomas Weihs was a doctor, farmer and special needs educator, one of the founders and leading co-workers of the Camphill Movement and a pioneer of Anthroposophical curative education.
Wilhelm Ernst Barkhoff was a German solicitor, founder of anthroposophically oriented alternative banking, the GLS Bank, reformer of the German welfare system and inspirer of the movement for Ethical banking.
Carlo Pietzner, born in Vienna, Austria, 26 January 1915 and died in Copake, New York, 17 April 1986, was a co-founder of Camphill, artist, anthroposophist, and a Special Needs and adult educator.
Julian Sleigh, was a Christian Community priest, councillor, founding member of Camphill in South Africa and author.
Frederick William Zeylmans van Emmichoven, was a Dutch psychiatrist and anthroposophist. From 1923 until his death in 1961 he was chairman of the Dutch Anthroposophical Society. He was a familiar figure in public life and had a considerable influence on the anthroposophic movement, particularly through his numerous lectures and his work as an author, which included the first biography of Rudolf Steiner.