Hantsavichy Radar Station

Last updated

Hantsavichy Radar Station
Ганцавічы РЛС
Belarus
Hantsavichy radar.jpg
Volga radar at Hantsavichy
Belarus adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Hantsavichy Radar Station
Coordinates 52°51′27″N26°28′55″E / 52.85750°N 26.48194°E / 52.85750; 26.48194 Coordinates: 52°51′27″N26°28′55″E / 52.85750°N 26.48194°E / 52.85750; 26.48194
TypeRadar station
Site information
Controlled by Russian Space Forces
Open to
the public
No
ConditionOperational
Site history
Built1982 (1982)
Built by Soviet Union / Russia
In useSince 2003
Garrison information
Garrison474th independent Radio-Technical Unit [1]

Hantsavichy Radar Station (Russian : РЛС Ганцевичи, Belarusian : РЛС Ганцавічы) (also described as Gantsevichi [note 1] ) is a 70M6 Volga-type [2] radar near Hantsavichy (48 km from Baranavichy in Belarus). It is an early warning radar, which is run by the Russian Space Forces. [3] It is designed to identify launches of ballistic missiles from western Europe and can also track some artificial satellites, partly replacing the demolished radar station at Skrunda in Latvia.

Contents

History

The Volga was developed by NIIDAR from the Dunay-3U radar. [4] Construction started in 1982 to counter the installation of Pershing II missiles in West Germany which were only 6 to 8 minutes away in flight time. [5] [6] These intermediate missiles were eliminated by the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, which was signed in December 1987. [5]

Work still continued on the radar even though the Pershing missiles had been removed. The radar was not compliant with the 1972 ABM treaty as this forbade multifunction radars. The Volga was in breach of this as it was designed to guide anti-ballistic missiles (an 'ABM radar') as well as acting as an early warning radar. [5] [6] As the United States had managed to get the Daryal radar at Yeniseysk demolished for being in breach of the treaty the Soviet Union removed ABM radar abilities from the Volga as it was being built. [5] [6]

Work on the radar stopped in 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed. It restarted in 1993 once it became apparent that Russia would lose the early warning station in Skrunda and with it coverage of missiles from the north west. [6] Some testing took place in 1994 and in 1995 a 25-year agreement was signed between Russia and Belarus giving Russia a 25-year lease on the ground and all buildings with no taxes and with no charge made for communication channels. [6] When the Dnestr-M radars in Skrunda were shut down in 1998 Russia restarted the construction of the Volga. [6] Test operations started in 1999 and pilot operations in 2002. It was finally commissioned on 1 October 2003. [7] [8] The radar was upgraded in 2016. [9]

One of the manufacturers was quoted as saying that two other Volga installations were once planned - one at Komsomolsk-na-Amur and one at Sevastopol. [10] [11] Another source says that a Volga was originally planned in Biysk in Altai Krai to provide coverage of China. [11]

Volga radar

The station, classed as a 'Volga' type, is similar to a Daryal radar but operates on the UHF band rather than the VHF of the Daryal. Like the Daryal it has a separate transmitter and receiver stations which in the case of the Volga are 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) apart. [12] :86

The radar has an Active Electronically Scanned Array, a type of phased array. It continuously radiates such that it is receiving and transmitting at the same time. The array consists of spiral radiators which rotate in different directions in the receiver and transmitter. The transmitter array is 36 by 20 metres (118 ft × 66 ft) and the receiver array is 36 by 36 metres (118 ft × 118 ft). Both arrays are surrounded by a ferrite frame which absorbs radio waves. [13] [12] :86

The Volga has a range of around 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) and an azimuth of 120°, with elevation of 4° to 70°. [14] [12] :86 [13] Its GRAU index is 70M6 .[ citation needed ]

The site

The radar is 8 km north east of Hantavichy and 48 kilometres (30 mi) from Baranavichy. It is in the Hantsavichy Raion of the Brest Region of Belarus. The military town for the radar is called Kletsk-2 (Russian:Клецк-2).

CoordinatesAzimuth [7] TypeBuilt
52°49′59.95″N26°28′31.83″E / 52.8333194°N 26.4755083°E / 52.8333194; 26.4755083 (Volga radar transmitter) receiver
52°51′41.98″N26°28′2.88″E / 52.8616611°N 26.4674667°E / 52.8616611; 26.4674667 (Volga radar receiver) transmitter
262.5°Volga1985–2002

When the station opened it was stated that up to 200 local Belarusians could be employed there. [10] In 2007 Kommersant estimated that 600 people worked at the station. [15]

Notes

  1. The names vary as the station is named after the nearby town of Hantsavichy but with different transliterations depending on whether we consider the name to be Russian or Belarusian. The character Г is a G in Russian and an H in Belarusian. Using the BGN/PCGN Romanisation standard the Belarusian name Га́нцавічы would be written as Hantsavichy and using Wikipedia's Russian Romanisation standard the Russian name Ганцевичи would be written as Gantsevichi

Related Research Articles

Russian Space Forces Sub-branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces

The Russian Space Forces are a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, that provides aerospace warning, air and space sovereignty, and other related protection for Russia. Having been reestablished following August 1, 2015 merger between the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces after the independent arm of service was dissolved in 2011. The Russian Space Forces were originally formed on August 10, 1992, and the creation of the Russian Armed Forces. The organization shared control of the Baikonur Cosmodrome with the Russian Federal Space Agency. It also operated the Plesetsk and the Svobodny Cosmodromes. However the Russian Space Forces were dissolved in July 1997 and incorporated into the Strategic Missile Forces.

A-135 anti-ballistic missile system Anti-ballistic missile

The A-135 is a Russian anti-ballistic missile system deployed around Moscow to intercept incoming warheads targeting the city or its surrounding areas. The system was designed in the Soviet Union and entered service in 1995. It is a successor to the previous A-35, and complies with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

Dunay radar

Dunay radar was a system of two Soviet radars used to detect American ballistic missiles fired at Moscow. They were part of the A-35 anti-ballistic missile system. One sector of one of the radars, the Dunay-3U is still operational and is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces as part of the Main Control Centre of Outer Space.

Gabala Radar Station Former radar station in Azerbaijan

Gabala Radar Station was a Daryal-type bistatic Passive electronically scanned array early warning radar, built by the Soviet Union in the Qabala district of the Azerbaijan SSR in 1985. It was operated by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces and closed at the end of 2012. The radar station had a range of up to 6,000 kilometres (3,728 mi), and was designed to detect missile launches as far as the Indian Ocean. The radar's surveillance covered Iran, Turkey, India, Iraq and the entire Middle East. It could detect the launch of missiles and track the whole trajectory to enable a ballistic missile defense system to intercept an offensive strike. The Radar Station hosted about 1,000 Russian servicemen with about 500 Azerbaijanis.

Skrunda-1

Skrunda-1, also known as Skrunda-2, is a ghost town and former Soviet and Russian radar station located 5 km to the north of Skrunda, in Raņķi Parish, Latvia. It was the site of two Dnepr radar radar installations constructed in the 1960s. A Daryal radar was being built there before the collapse of the Soviet Union. Skrunda was strategically important to the Soviet Union as its radars covered Western Europe. The two barn-like radars were one of the most important Soviet early warning radar stations for listening to objects in space and for tracking possible incoming ICBMs.

Daryal radar Soviet and Russian early warning radar

The Daryal-type radar is a Soviet bistatic early-warning radar. It consists of two separate large active phased-array antennas separated by around 500 metres (1,640 ft) to 1.5 kilometres (4,921 ft). The transmitter array is 30 m × 40 m and the receiver is 80 m × 80 m in size. The system is a VHF system operating at a wavelength of 1.5 to 2 meters. Its initial transmit capacity was 50 MW with a target capacity of 350 MW.

Voronezh radar

Voronezh radars are the current generation of Russian early-warning radar, providing long distance monitoring of airspace against ballistic missile attack and aircraft monitoring. The first radar, in Lekhtusi near St Petersburg, became operational in 2009. There is a plan to replace older radars with the Voronezh by 2020.

Dnestr radar Soviet and Russian early warning radars

Dnestr radar and Dnepr radar, both known by the NATO reporting name Hen House are the first generation of Soviet space surveillance and early warning radars. Six radars of this type were built around the periphery of the Soviet Union starting in the 1960s to provide ballistic missile warnings for attacks from different directions. They were the primary Soviet early warning radars for much of the later Cold War. In common with other Soviet and Russian early warning radars they are named after rivers, the Dnestr and the Dnepr.

Oko, is a Russian missile defence early warning programme consisting of satellites in Molniya and geosynchronous orbits. Oko satellites are used to identify launches of ballistic missiles by detection of their engines' exhaust plume in infrared light, and complement other early warning facilities such as Voronezh, Daryal and Dnepr radars. The information provided by these sensors can be used for the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system which defends Moscow. The satellites are run by the Russian Aerospace Forces, and previously the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces and Russian Space Forces. As of December 2015, it is being replaced by the new EKS system.

Pechora Radar Station Radar station in the Komi Republic

Pechora Radar Station is an early warning radar near Pechora in the Komi Republic, northern Russia. It is a key part of the Russian early warning system against missile attack and was built by the Soviet Union, becoming operational in 1984. It is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

Mishelevka Radar Station Soviet radar station in Irkutsk, Siberia

Mishelevka Radar Station is the site of three generations of Soviet and Russian early warning radars. It is located in Irkutsk in Siberia and provides coverage of China and missile launches from submarines in the Pacific Ocean. There have been seven radars at this site and it is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. In 2012 a new Voronezh-M radar is being built at the site.

Balkhash Radar Station Radar station in Kazakhstan

Balkhash Radar Station is the site of two generations of Soviet and Russian early warning radars. It is located on the west coast of Lake Balkhash near Sary Shagan test site in Kazakhstan. Although it was used for monitoring satellites in low Earth orbit it was mainly a key part of the Russian system of warning against missile attack. It provided coverage of western and central China, India, Pakistan and submarine missile launches in the Bay of Bengal. There have been six radars at this site, the last one was removed from service on 1 June 2020, and it was run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

Olenegorsk Radar Station Soviet radar station in Murmansk

Olenegorsk Radar Station is the site of a Soviet and Russian early warning radar. It is located near Olenegorsk on the Kola Peninsula, north of the Arctic Circle in north west Russia. It is considered to be a key part of the Russian early warning system against ballistic missile attack, and provides coverage of ballistic missile launches in the Norwegian Sea and North Sea. The station is operated by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

Lekhtusi Radar Station

Lekhtusi Radar Station is an early warning radar near Lekhtusi in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is a key part of the Russian early warning system against missile attack, going on combat duty on 11 February 2012. It is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

Armavir Radar Station Russian radar station in Armavir

Armavir Radar Station is an early warning radar station near Armavir in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. It is a key part of the Russian early warning system against missile attack and is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. There are two radars here - one faces south west and one south east. They provide radar coverage of the Middle East.

Pionersky Radar Station Russian radar station near Kaliningrad

Pionersky Radar Station is an early warning radar station near Pionersky in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. It is a key part of the Russian early warning system against missile attacks and is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

Yeniseysk-15

Yeniseysk-15 was the site of a disputed Soviet phased array radar near Yeniseysk in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Siberia. The never operational Daryal radar installation was demolished in 1989 after the United States claimed it was in breach of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning

The 820th Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning is the Russian early warning network against ballistic missile attack. It has headquarters in the village of Timonovo near Solnechnogorsk outside Moscow and is part of the Russian Space Forces. The centre consists of a network of early warning radar stations which transmit their data to the control centre near Solnechnogorsk. Other information comes from the early warning Oko and EKS satellites as well as the Don-2N missile defence radar. Information from the centre could be used for a launch on warning nuclear missile attack or to engage the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system.

Sevastopol Radar Station Soviet radar station in Crimea

Sevastopol radar station was a Soviet radar station providing early warning of ballistic missile attack. It is located between the Cape of Chersones and the auxiliary airfield "Chersones" in Sevastopol and was part of the Soviet missile attack warning system. Information from this station could be used for a launch on warning nuclear missile attack or to engage the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system.

Mukachevo Radar Station Former Soviet radar station in Ukraine

Mukachevo radar station is a Ukrainian radar station, originally built during the Soviet period for providing early warning of ballistic missile attack. Currently it is the property of the State Space Agency of Ukraine. It is located in Shipka in the far south west of Ukraine and was part of the Soviet, and then Russian missile attack warning system. Information from this station could be used for a launch on warning nuclear missile attack or to engage the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system.

References

  1. Holm, Michael (2011). "474th independent Radio-Technical Unit". Soviet Armed Forces 1945-1991. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  2. "70M6 Volga LPAR - Soviet BMD". Archived from the original on 30 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  3. "RF electricity cessation to Belarus not hamper Volga radar functioning" (PDF) (Press release). Itar-Tass. 29 June 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2012.[ permanent dead link ]
  4. Bukharin, Oleg; Kadyshev, Timur; Miasnikov, Eugene; Podvig, Pavel; Sutyagin, Igor; Tarashenko, Maxim; Zhelezov, Boris (2001). Podvig, Pavel (ed.). Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN   978-0-262-16202-9.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Davidenko, V. (July 2003). Белорусская российская "Волга" [Belarusian Russian Volga] (in Russian). Novosti Kosmonavtiki. Archived from the original on 12 August 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Safronov, Ivan (December 2002). "CIS DEFENSE. VOLGA TO SHIELD RUSSIA FROM THE WEST: NEW RUSSIAN RADAR INSTALLATION PUT INTO OPERATION IN BELARUS" . Defence & Security. Eastview. 148. Archived from the original on 12 July 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  7. 1 2 Podvig, Pavel (2002). "History and the Current Status of the Russian Early-Warning System" (PDF). Science and Global Security. 10: 21–60. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.692.6127 . doi:10.1080/08929880212328. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2012.
  8. "New radar station gives Russia "tight ring of all-round defence" – commander" (Press release). Itar-Tass. 4 October 2003. Retrieved 8 January 2012.[ dead link ]
  9. Podvig, Pavel (23 December 2016). "No gaps in early-warning coverage as three radars to begin combat duty in 2017". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. russianforces.org. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  10. 1 2 Plugatarev, Igor (20 October 2003). Минск латает дыры в системе российской ПВО [Minsk patches holes in the Russian air defence system] (in Russian). ng.ru. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  11. 1 2 Система предупреждения о ракетном нападении: "Волга" - РЛС [Warning system for missile attack: "Volga" - Radar Station] (in Russian). Army.lv. 2008. Archived from the original on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  12. 1 2 3 Spassky, Nikolai, ed. (2002). Encyclopedia "Russia's Arms and Technologies. The XXI Century Encyclopedia": Volume 5 — "Space weapons" (in English and Russian). Moscow: Publishing House 'Arms and Technologies'. ISBN   978-5-93799-010-5.
  13. 1 2 Evstropov, G. A.; Rogulyev, V. A.; Saprykin, S. D.; Sosulnikov, V. P.; Starostenkov, E. A. (September 2003). Experience of antenna complexes creation for the radars of distant detecting and space area monitoring. Fourth International Conference on Antenna Theory and Techniques. 1. Sevastopol, Ukraine: IEEE. pp. 47–51. doi:10.1109/ICATT.2003.1239148. ISBN   0-7803-7881-4.
  14. Радиолокационная станция 'Волга' [Radar Station 'Volga'] (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  15. Lukin, Mikhail (21 May 2007). Все Российские базы [All Russian Bases] (in Russian). Kommersant. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2012.