Harald V of Norway

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Harald V
Harald V en 2018.jpg
King of Norway
Reign17 January 1991 – present
Benediction23 June 1991 [1]
Predecessor Olav V
Heir apparent Haakon
Prime Ministers Gro Harlem Brundtland
Thorbjørn Jagland
Kjell Magne Bondevik
Jens Stoltenberg
Erna Solberg
Born (1937-02-21) 21 February 1937 (age 82)
Skaugum, Akershus, Norway
Sonja Haraldsen (m. 1968)
House Glücksburg [2]
Father Olav V of Norway
Mother Princess Märtha of Sweden
Signature Harald V of Norway Signature.svg

Harald V (Norwegian:  [ˈhɑrɑl] ; born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway, having ascended to the throne upon the death of his father King Olav V on 17 January 1991.

Olav V of Norway King of Norway

Olav V was King of Norway from 1957 until his death.


Harald was the third child and only son of King Olav V and Princess Märtha of Sweden. He was second in the line of succession at the time of his birth, behind his father. In 1940, as a result of the German occupation during World War II, the royal family went into exile. Harald spent part of his childhood in Sweden and the United States. He returned to Norway in 1945, and subsequently studied for periods at the University of Oslo, the Norwegian Military Academy and Balliol College, Oxford.

Princess Märtha of Sweden Crown princess of Norway

Princess Märtha of Sweden was Crown Princess of Norway as the spouse of the future King Olav V from 1929 until her death in 1954. The presently reigning King Harald V is her only son. Märtha was also a maternal aunt of Baudouin of Belgium and Albert II of Belgium.

German occupation of Norway Nazi occupation of Norway during World War II

The German occupation of Norway during World War II began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway. Conventional armed resistance to the German invasion ended on 10 June 1940 and the Germans controlled Norway until the capitulation of German forces in Europe on 8/9 May 1945. Throughout this period, Norway was continuously occupied by the Wehrmacht. Civil rule was effectively assumed by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen, which acted in collaboration with a pro-German puppet government, the Quisling regime, while the Norwegian King Haakon VII and the prewar government escaped to London, where they acted as a government in exile. This period of military occupation is in Norway referred to as the "war years" or "occupation period".

University of Oslo Norwegian public research university

The University of Oslo, until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University, is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. Until 1 January 2016 it was the largest Norwegian institution of higher education in terms of size, now surpassed only by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The Academic Ranking of World Universities has ranked it the 58th best university in the world and the third best in the Nordic countries. In 2015, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked it the 135th best university in the world and the seventh best in the Nordics. While in its 2016, Top 200 Rankings of European universities, the Times Higher Education listed the University of Oslo at 63rd, making it the highest ranked Norwegian university.

In 1957, following the death of his grandfather, Haakon VII, Harald became crown prince. A keen sportsman, he represented Norway in sailing at the 1964, 1968, and 1972 Olympic Games, and later became patron of World Sailing. Harald married Sonja Haraldsen in 1968, their relationship having initially being controversial due to her status as a commoner. The couple had two children, Märtha Louise and Haakon. Harald succeeded his father as king in 1991, with Haakon becoming his heir apparent.

Haakon VII of Norway King of Norway

Haakon VII, known as Prince Carl of Denmark until 1905, was a Danish prince who became the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the union with Sweden. He reigned from November 1905 until his death in September 1957.

Sailing at the 1964 Summer Olympics Place

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens Greece. With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule. The Sailing program of 1964 consisted of a total of five sailing classes. For each class, seven races were scheduled; these took place from 12 October to 23 October 1964 off the coast of Enoshima in Sagami Bay.

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad in Athens, Greece. With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

Early life and education


Prince Harald with his mother Crown Princess Martha. 92. Kronprinsesse Martha med prins Harald - no-nb digifoto 20160108 00289 bldsa pk kgl0027.jpg
Prince Harald with his mother Crown Princess Märtha.

Prince Harald was born at the Skaugum estate and was baptized in the Royal Chapel of the Royal Palace in Oslo on 31 March 1937 by Bishop Johan Lunde. His godparents were: his paternal grandparents King Haakon VII and Queen Maud of Norway; his maternal grandparents Prince Carl and Princess Ingeborg of Sweden; King Leopold III of Belgium; Queen Mary and King George VI of the United Kingdom; and Crown Princess Ingrid of Denmark. His parents already had two daughters, Princess Ragnhild and Princess Astrid.

Skaugum area and farm in Asker, Norway

Skaugum is an estate, manor house and the official residence of Crown Prince Haakon of Norway and his wife Crown Princess Mette-Marit. The estate is located in Asker municipality, 19 km (12 mi) southwest of Oslo, by the foot of the mountain Skaugumsåsen. The estate consists of 48 ha of agricultural lands and 50 ha of woodlands.

Slottskapellet (Oslo) Church in Oslo, Norway

Slottskapellet is a chapel in the Royal Palace in Oslo, Norway. It is the scene of many events of the Norwegian Royal Family like the royal baptisms and confirmations, in addition to church concerts and chamber music concerts. Slottskapellet is used for worships for students as well, a tradition of more than a hundred years of history.

Royal Palace, Oslo building in Oslo, Norway

The Royal Palace in Oslo was built in the first half of the 19th century as the Norwegian residence of the French-born King Charles III of Norway, who reigned as king of Norway and Sweden. The palace is the official residence of the current Norwegian monarch while the Crown Prince resides at Skaugum in Asker west of Oslo.

Second World War

Prince Harald as a child 139. Prins Harald - no-nb digifoto 20160108 00334 bldsa pk kgl0090.jpg
Prince Harald as a child

In 1940 the entire royal family had to flee Oslo because of the German invasion. It was deemed safer for the family to split up. The King and Crown Prince Olav would remain in Norway and the Crown Princess was to make her way to Sweden with the three children. The latter party reached Sweden on the night of 10 April, but although Crown Princess Märtha was Swedish-born, they encountered problems at the border station. According to Princess Astrid and others who were present, they were admitted only after the driver threatened to ram the border gate. Another account does not describe the escape so dramatically. [3] However, when the King and Crown Prince inquired of Swedish foreign minister Christian Günther whether they could sleep one night in Sweden without being interned, they were denied. [3]

Operation Weserübung code name for Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War

Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. The name comes from the German for "Operation Weser-Exercise", the Weser being a German river.

Christian Günther Swedish politician

Christian Ernst Günther was Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Hansson III Cabinet. This unity government was formed after the Soviet attack on Finland in November 1939 and was dissolved 31 July 1945.

Harald spent the following days in Sälen before moving to Prince Carl Bernadotte's home in Frötuna on 16 April. On 26 April the group moved to Drottningholm in Stockholm. King Gustaf V has been accounted to have had an amicable relationship with his Norwegian guests, but the topic of the war in Norway was not to be raised. However, influential Swedish politicians, including Minister of Justice Westman, wanted the Crown Princess and Prince Harald to be sent back to Norway so he could be proclaimed King by the Germans. [3] [4] After the King and Crown Prince had to leave Norway on 7 June they felt Sweden might not be the best place for the rest of the family, and started planning for them to go to the United States. On 17 August the Crown Princess and her children left for the United States from Petsamo, Finland, aboard the United States Army transport ship American Legion. [3]

Sälen Place in Dalarna, Sweden

Sälen [sæːlen] is a locality situated in Malung-Sälen Municipality, Dalarna County, Sweden with 652 inhabitants in 2010.

Drottningholm Place in Uppland, Sweden

Drottningholm, literally "Queen's Islet", is a locality situated in Ekerö Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden, with 398 inhabitants in 2010.

Stockholm Capital city in Södermanland and Uppland, Sweden

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries; 965,232 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.6 million in the urban area, and 2.4 million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Outside the city to the east, and along the coast, is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm County.

Harald and his mother and sisters lived in Washington, D.C. during the war, [5] while his father, Crown Prince Olav, and his grandfather, King Haakon, stayed in London with the Norwegian government-in-exile. One of the notable events he remembers from that time is standing behind Franklin D. Roosevelt when he was sworn in for his fourth term on the South Portico of the White House in 1945. Such childhood experiences are reflected in a trace of an American accent when he speaks English. [6] The Doris Kearns Goodwin book No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt and the Home Front in World War II contains a picture of the King (then Prince) playing with FDR's dog, Fala, on the North Lawn of the White House in 1944.

Harald visited Norwegian servicemen training in the United States. The prince also made visits outside America, travelling north to visit Norwegian personnel at the training base "Little Norway" in Ontario, Canada. He attended The White Hall Country School from 1943. Prince Harald returned to Norway with his family at the war's end in 1945.


In the autumn of 1945 he was enrolled in third grade of Smestad skole as the first member of the royal family to attend public school. Amidst this, in 1954 tragedy struck as he lost his mother to cancer. The Crown Princess's death was a tremendous loss for him and his family as well as for Norway, [7] and he named his daughter Märtha in honour her memory. Four years later in 1958 he would lose his maternal grandmother Princess Ingeborg of Denmark.

Crown prince

In 1955 he graduated from Oslo katedralskole and in the autumn of that year, Harald began studies at the University of Oslo. He later attended the Cavalry Officers' Candidate School at Trandum, followed by enrollment at the Norwegian Military Academy, from which he graduated in 1959. Harald attended the Council of State for the first time on 27 September 1957 and took the oath to the Constitution of Norway on 21 February 1958. In the same year, he also served as regent in the King's absence for the first time.

In 1960, Harald entered Balliol College, Oxford where he studied history, economics and politics. [6] He was a keen rower during his student days at Oxford and was taught to row by fellow student and friend Nick Bevan, later a leading British school rowing coach. In 1960, he also made his first official journey abroad, visiting the United States in connection with the fiftieth anniversary of the American Scandinavian Foundation. An avid sailor, [8] Harald represented Norway in the yachting events of the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964, [9] Mexico City in 1968, [6] and Munich in 1972. The Crown Prince carried the Norwegian flag at the opening parade of the 1964 Summer Olympics.


Royal wedding photograph, 1968 Kronprinsbryllup 1968.jpg
Royal wedding photograph, 1968

Harald married a commoner, Sonja Haraldsen, at Oslo Domkirke in Oslo on 29 August 1968. The pair had dated for nine years and were only allowed to marry when Harald gave his father the ultimatum that if he was not allowed to marry Sonja he would not marry at all, which would have ended the reign of his family and the Norwegian monarchy, as Harald was the sole heir to the throne. The couple have two children, Princess Märtha Louise and Crown Prince Haakon, heir apparent to the Norwegian throne.


On the death of his father on 17 January 1991, Harald succeeded automatically to the Norwegian throne. He became the first Norwegian-born monarch since Magnus VII abdicated in 1343, a gap of 648 years. Harald is the sixth King of Norway to bear that name, and the first in 855 years. The five other kings who have borne the name are Harald Fairhair, Harald Greycloak, Harald Bluetooth, Harald Hardrada, and Harald Gille. Harald Bluetooth is usually not given a number in the Norwegian list of kings, therefore Harald is 'only' numbered as Harald V. King Harald made the decision to use his grandfather's royal motto, "Alt for Norge". The King also chose to continue the tradition of royal benediction, a tradition that had been introduced with his father, and was consecrated together with Queen Sonja in the Nidaros Cathedral on 23 June 1991. [10]

The reign of King Harald has been marked by modernization and reform for the Norwegian Royal family. The King has cooperated closely with Queen Sonja and the Crown Prince in making the royal household more open to the Norwegian public and the Norwegian media. King Harald's decision to accept two more commoners into the royal family, Crown Princess Mette-Marit and Ari Behn, has been interpreted as a sign of modernization and adjustment. [11] [12] Under King Harald and Queen Sonja's leadership, comprehensive renovation projects on the Bygdøy Royal Estate, the Royal Palace, the royal stables and Oscarshall have also taken place. The latter three have also been opened to the public and tourists. [13] Together with Queen Sonja, the king has also for decades attempted to establish a palace museum in Oslo. [14] [15]

Official and unofficial duties

King Juan Carlos I of Spain on visit in Norway (2006) 2-Kings.jpg
King Juan Carlos I of Spain on visit in Norway (2006)
King Harald V at the opening of the Sami parliament in 2013 H.M. Kong Harald taler (10308347696)- edit.jpg
King Harald V at the opening of the Sami parliament in 2013

The King heads the Council of State at the Royal Palace every Friday. He also has weekly meetings with the Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs. He receives foreign envoys, and opens parliament every October. According to the Norwegian constitution, he appoints his government. Since 1884 parliamentarism has been in place in Norway, meaning that the government has to have support from Parliament. The King appoints the leader of the parliamentary bloc with the majority as prime minister. When the parliamentary situation is unclear, the king relies on the advice of the President of Parliament and the sitting prime minister. As the Norwegian head of state, the King formally opens the parliamentary session every autumn, delivering a speech from the throne during each opening. He travels extensively throughout Norway and makes official state visits to other countries, as well as receiving and hosting guests.

In 1994, both the King and Crown Prince Haakon played roles during the opening ceremony of the Lillehammer Olympics. The King opened the games, while the Crown Prince lit the cauldron, paying tribute to both the King and his grandfather as Olympians. The King has also represented Norway at opening ceremonies of Olympic Games, among them Torino and Beijing. However, he wasn't present in Vancouver; the Crown Prince attended instead, with the King and Queen attending later in the games.

With his sailing crew he won World Championship bronze, silver and gold medals, in 1988, 1982 and 1987, respectively. In July 2005, the King and his crew aboard the royal sailboat Fram XV won the gold medal at the European Championships in Sweden. In the 2007 World Championship the King came in sixth place. [16]

Twice since the start of the twenty-first century King Harald was unable to perform his monarchical duties due to ill-health: from December 2003 to mid-April 2004 due to urinary bladder cancer, and from April to early June 2005 due to aortic stenosis. Crown Prince Haakon served as the country's regent on both occasions.

King Harald V with Mauricio Macri, President of Argentina in Buenos Aires, 2018. Harald V of Norway and Mauricio Macri March 2018.jpg
King Harald V with Mauricio Macri, President of Argentina in Buenos Aires, 2018.

Until 2012, the King of Norway was, according to the constitution, the formal head of the Church of Norway. The constitutional amendment of 21 May 2012 made the King no longer the formal head, but he is still required to be of the Evangelical Lutheran religion.

On 8 May 2018, the King's constitutional status as holy was dissolved, while leaving his sovereign immunity intact. [17]

Recent years

King Harald's leadership during Norwegian national crises, such as New Year's Day Storm and particularly the 2011 attacks, has been met with both national and international acclaim. [18] [19] [20] [21]

In 2015, he became the world's first reigning monarch to visit Antarctica, specifically the Norwegian dependency Queen Maud Land. [22] In 2016, King Harald V competed with a team for the sailing World Championships on Lake Ontario, Toronto. [23] The king came second in the classic fleet category. [24] He was dubbed "Sailor-King" by Canada's National Post as he slept onboard his yacht "Sira". [25]

When the King and Queen turned 80 years in 2017, the King decided to open the former royal stables to the public as a gift to his wife, the Queen. The new venue was named The Queen Sonja Art Stable and is the first institution owned by the royal family which is permanently open to the public. [26] King Harald was made Name of the Year by the newspaper VG in 2017. [27]

Titles, styles, arms



Honours and medals

The King is a four-star general, an admiral, and formally the Supreme Commander of the Norwegian Armed Forces. The infantry battalion His Majesty the King's Guard are considered the King's and the Royal Family's bodyguards. They guard the Royal residences, including the Royal Palace, the Crown Prince Residence at Skaugum, and the Royal Mausoleum at Akershus Castle.

National honours and medals

The King is Grand Master of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav and the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit.

Medal record
World Championships
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg1987 World ChampionshipSailing
Silver medal icon (S initial).svg1982 World ChampionshipSailing
Bronze medal icon (B initial).svg1988 World Championship Sailing
European Championships
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg2005 European ChampionshipSailing

St Olavs Orden storkors stripe.svg Den kongelige norske fortjenstorden storkors stripe.svg St. Olavs Orden stripe.svg

Forsvarsmedaljen med laurbaergren stripe.svg Kongehusets 100-arsmedalje stripe.svg Haakon VIIs minnemedalje stripe.svg Haakon VIIs jubileumsmedalje 1905-1955 stripe.svg

Haakon VIIs 100-arsmedalje stripe.svg Olav Vs minnemedalje stripe.svg Olav Vs jubileumsmedalje 1957-1982 stripe.svg Olav Vs 100-arsmedalje stripe.svg

Forsvarsmedaljen med 3 stjerner stripe.svg Vernedyktighetsmedaljen Haeren med 3 stjerner.svg Krigsdeltagerforbundets hederstegn stripe.svg Norges Rode Kors hederstegn stripe.svg

Norske reserveoffiserers forbunds hederstegn stripe.svg Sjomilitaere Samfunds fortjenstmedalje stripe.svg Norges skytterforbunds hederstegn stripe.svg Oslo militaere samfunds hederstegn stripe.svg

Foreign honours

In the British Army, Harald V was the final Colonel-in-Chief of the Green Howards. [28] He is also an honorary Colonel in the British Royal Marines. [29] He is patron of the Anglo-Norse Society in London, together with Queen Elizabeth II, his second cousin. Harald is the first foreign monarch in the line of succession to the British throne, because of his descent from King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. He is a Stranger Knight of the Garter, an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, and a Recipient of the Royal Victorian Chain, as well as numerous other orders of chivalry.

Northern European countries

Other countries

The mark ° shows honours mention on his official website page about decorations

Miscellaneous honours

Harald V received an honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law from Oxford University in 2006 (as did his father, King Olav, in 1937, and his grandfather, King Haakon, in 1943). [44] The King also received honorary doctorates from Heriot-Watt University in Scotland in 1994, [45] the University of Strathclyde in Scotland in 1985, Waseda University in Japan in 2001, and Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Washington, in 2015. He is also an honorary fellow at Balliol College, Oxford.


King Harald is closely related to other European monarchs. He is the first cousin once removed of King Philippe of Belgium and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg, the second cousin of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, and the second cousin once removed of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.

Patrilineal descent


Princess Märtha Louise September 22, 1971May 24, 2002 Ari Behn
    • Maud Angelica Behn, born 29 April 2003
    • Leah Isadora Behn, born 8 April 2005
    • Emma Tallulah Behn, born 29 September 2008
Crown Prince Haakon Magnus July 20, 1973August 25, 2001 Mette-Marit Tjessem Høiby

Related Research Articles

Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway Norwegian prince

Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway is the only son and younger child of King Harald V and Queen Sonja and heir apparent to the throne of Norway.

Queen Sonja of Norway Queen consort of Norway

Queen Sonja of Norway is the wife of King Harald V.

Princess Märtha Louise of Norway Norwegian princess

Princess Märtha Louise of Norway is the only daughter and elder child of King Harald V and Queen Sonja. She is fourth in the line of succession to the Norwegian throne, after her brother Haakon, and his children.

Mette-Marit, Crown Princess of Norway Crown Princess of Norway

Mette-Marit, Crown Princess of Norway is the wife of Crown Prince Haakon, heir apparent to the throne of Norway.

Princess Astrid, Mrs. Ferner Norwegian princess

Princess Astrid, Mrs. Ferner is the second daughter of King Olav V of Norway and his wife, Princess Märtha of Sweden. She is the older sister of King Harald V of Norway and younger sister of the late Princess Ragnhild.

Erling Lorentzen Norwegian businessman

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Princess Ragnhild, Mrs. Lorentzen Norwegian princess

Princess Ragnhild, Mrs Lorentzen, was the eldest child of King Olav V of Norway and Princess Märtha of Sweden. She was the older sister of King Harald V and Princess Astrid. She was the first royal to have been born in Norway since the middle ages. Although she was the King's eldest child, she was never in the line of succession to the Norwegian throne, owing to Norway's law of agnatic succession. She was, however, in the line of succession to the British throne for her entire life, and occupied the 18th place in that line at the time of her birth. In 1953 she married the industrialist Erling Lorentzen, a member of the Lorentzen family of shipping magnates.

The Norwegian order of precedence is the hierarchy of officials in the Government of Norway used to direct seating and ranking on formal occasions, decided by the King, which came into effect from 1 July 1993.

Coronations in Norway

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  1. Coronation requirement discarded by constitutional amendment in 1908. Harald V swore the Royal Oath in the Storting on 21 January 1991 and received the benediction in the Nidaros Cathedral on 23 June 1991.
  2. "The Royal Family" . Retrieved 25 October 2014.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Hegge, Per Egil; Harald V, En biografi; N.W. Damm & Søn AS; 2006.
  4. "Kidnapper Foiled?". Time. 2 September 1940. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
  5. "Non-Political Campaign". Time Magazine. 9 September 1940. p. 2. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
  6. 1 2 3 "Those Apprentice Kings and Queens Who May – One Day – Ascend a Throne," New York Times. 14 November 1971.
  7. "Crown Princess Märtha (1901-1954)". Norwegian Royal House.
  8. "Victory by Design". Time Magazine. 27 September 1963. p. 1. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
  9. "HP-Time.com". Time Magazine. 26 June 1964. p. 2. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
  10. "The Consecration of King Harald and Queen Sonja". www.kongehuset.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  11. NRK. "– Å si at vi ikke er åpne, er rett og slett feil". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  12. "Stanghelle: "Kong Harald står frem som mannen som forstår sin egen tid"". Aftenposten. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  13. "The Royal Palace is open to the public". www.royalcourt.no. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  14. Totl, Kjell Arne. "Kongehusekspert Kjell Arne Totland skriver: Gi kongeparet et permanent slottsmuseum". Aftenposten (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  15. Moxnes, Agnes (27 December 2018). "På tide med et slottsmuseum". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  16. Sandefjords Blad on the King's performance in the World Championship (in Norwegian) Retrieved 10 September 2007. [ dead link ]
  17. NTB 2018. 'Fra tirsdag er ikke kongen lenger hellig'. NRK, 7 May. Retrieved on 8 May. https://www.nrk.no/norge/fra-tirsdag-er-ikke-kongen-lenger-hellig-1.14039929
  18. Erlanger, Steven (15 October 2011). "King Harald of Norway Proves Mettle With Response to July 22 Deaths". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  19. "Norway remembers 77 killed in massacre". msnbc.com. 21 August 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  20. "Kongen om terrorangrepet: - Våre tanker går til ofrene". VG (in Norwegian). Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  21. "- Hans aller beste tale". Dagbladet.no (in Norwegian). 21 August 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  22. "King Harald visits Antarctic namesake". The Local . 11 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
    "Sun shines for king in Antarctica". newsinenglish.no. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
    "King Harald begins Antarctic visit". The Norway Post. NRK/Aftenposten. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  23. "King Harald of Norway in Canada to participate in sailing World Championships – Royal Central". royalcentral.co.uk. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  24. "North American Eight Metre Association" (PDF).
  25. "Norway's sailor king: Why Harald V has been sleeping on a yacht moored on Toronto's waterfront". National Post. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
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  27. "Kongebiograf: Kong Harald blir mer populær jo eldre han blir" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  28. "No. 52834". The London Gazette (Supplement). 14 February 1992. p. 2582.
  29. "No. 48634". The London Gazette (Supplement). 9 June 1981. p. 7795.
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  37. Italian Presidency website, decorations – Harald V : Grand CrossCollar
  38. 1 2 3 Portuguese presidential website, Orders search form
  39. Slovak republic website, State honours Archived 13 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine  : 1st Class received in 2010 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table)
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Harald V
Born: 21 February 1937
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Olav V
King of Norway
Heir apparent:
Crown Prince Haakon
Norwegian royalty
Preceded by
Crown Prince of Norway
Succeeded by
Lines of succession
Preceded by
Amelia Etherington
Line of succession to the British throne
descended from Maud, daughter of Edward VII
Succeeded by
Crown Prince of Norway