|Intercommunality||Le Havre Seine Métropole|
|• Mayor (2020–2026)||Christine Morel|
|4.21 km2 (1.63 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||0–89 m (0–292 ft) |
(avg. 6 m or 20 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Harfleur (pronounced [aʁflœʁ] ) is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France.
It was the principal seaport in north-western France for six centuries, until Le Havre was built about five kilometres (three miles) downstream in the sixteenth century to take advantage of anchorages less prone to siltation. Harfleur is now on the eastern edge of Le Havre's urban area.
A light industrial town situated in the Pays de Caux by the banks of the Seine and Lézarde rivers, some 6 miles (9.7 km) east of Le Havre, at the junction of the N282, D231 and D9015 roads. SNCF railways have a station here.
In Roman times, Harfleur was known as Caracotinum, the principal port of the ancient Calates. A Roman road led from Harfleur to Troyes. Another road that disappeared during the Hundred Years War linked Harfleur to Fécamp.
Several Merovingian sarcophagi have been unearthed at the foot of Mount Cabert.
In the Middle Ages, the town's name, Herosfloth, Harofluet or Hareflot, was still sufficiently uncorrupted to indicate its Norman origins. The suffix fleur comes from Old Norse Flöthe meaning "estuary or arm of the sea". The precise meaning of the prefix "har" is unknown.
For six centuries, Harfleur was the principal seaport of north-western France. In 1415, it was captured by Henry V of England, an event explicitly mentioned in a popular song of the day, the Agincourt Carol. Sir John Fastolf of Caister Castle Norfolk (1380–1459) later claimed to have been 'the first man over the side' of the boat when the English landed outside the town; and he certainly played a part in the siege, being invalided home afterwards. The Siege of Harfleur lasted some weeks longer than Henry V had anticipated; that was not helped by the outbreak of dysentery which afflicted and killed soldiers, knights, and nobles, with many of the sick having to be transported back to England. The town's defences were badly damaged by the siege warfare, as were many of the principal buildings of the town. In order to consolidate his victory, Henry was forced to leave a significant part of his army as a garrison for the newly captured town. Whilst Henry's intentions after the end of the siege are unclear, he had clearly entered France with an army large enough to engage the French in open battle and not merely to lay siege to one town. Henry left Harfleur, but he found his path to Calais blocked by a French army forcing him inland. The French cut off the English route and confronted them on the muddy fields near Azincourt (not the present-day Agincourt) on Saint Crispin's Day, 25 October 1415. The Battle of Agincourt ended in a decisive English victory with minimal losses - only in the hundreds - and a crushing defeat for the French with losses nearing the tens of thousands.
In 1435, the people of the district of Caux, led by Jean de Grouchy, rose against the English. One hundred and four of the inhabitants opened the gates of the town to the insurgents, and forced the English occupiers out. The memory of the deed was long perpetuated by the bells of St. Martin's tolling 104 strokes.
Between 1445 and 1449 the English were again in possession, but the town was recovered for the French by Dunois in 1450. In 1562, the Huguenots pillaged Harfleur and its registers and charters perished in the confusion, but its privileges were restored by Charles IX of France in 1568. It was not until 1710 that it was subjected to the "taille".
In the 16th century, the port began to dwindle in importance owing to the silting up of the Seine estuary and the rise of Le Havre. In 1887, the Tancarville canal restored waterborne access to the town from both the Seine and Le Havre.
After the Armistice following World War I, a huge hutted camp was established at Harfleur as a basis for dealing with the transit of thousands of troops being demobilised. The British soldier Arthur Bullock recorded in his memoir what life was like there, together with a humorous illustration of his Nissen hut, labelled 'Home Sweet Home'.
|the arms of Harfleur are blazoned :|
Azur, on a sea, a ship with three masts argent.
|From the year 1962 on: No double counting—residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel) are counted only once.|
The siege and conquest of Harfleur is described in Act III, Scenes I though III of Shakespeare's Henry V .
The 2009 novel Azincourt (U.S. title Agincourt ) by Bernard Cornwell describes the siege and the conquest of Harfleur by the army of Henry V of England in 1415.
The 2003 novel A Hail of Arrows by Michael Cox describes the siege and conquest of Harfleur by the army of Henry V of England in 1415 as witnessed by a 14-year-old boy-archer. Its describes illness and food shortage inflicted by the English army. It goes on to describe the battle of Agincourt.
The poem Demain, dès l'aube, by Victor Hugo, alludes to the "sails descending towards Harfleur" ("les voiles au loin descendant vers Harfleur").
Azincourt, historically known in English as Agincourt, is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
The Battle of Agincourt was an English victory in the Hundred Years' War. It took place on 25 October 1415 near Azincourt, in northern France. The unexpected English victory against the numerically superior French army boosted English morale and prestige, crippled France and started a new period of English dominance in the war.
Henry V, also called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his death in 1422. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe. Immortalised in Shakespeare's "Henriad" plays, Henry is known and celebrated as one of the greatest warrior kings of medieval England.
The siege of Harfleur was conducted by the English army of King Henry V in Normandy, France, during the Hundred Years' War. The defenders of Harfleur surrendered to the English on terms and were treated as prisoners of war. The English army was considerably reduced by casualties and an outbreak of dysentery during the siege but marched towards Calais, leaving a garrison behind at the port. The English were intercepted en route and fought the Battle of Agincourt, inflicting a huge defeat on the French.
The Pays de Caux is an area in Normandy occupying the greater part of the French département of Seine Maritime in Normandy. It is a chalk plateau to the north of the Seine Estuary and extending to the cliffs on the English Channel coast; its coastline is known as the Côte d'Albâtre. In the east, it borders on the Pays de Bray where the strata below the chalk show through.
Sir John Fastolf was a late medieval English landowner and knight who fought in the Hundred Years' War. He has enjoyed a more lasting reputation as the prototype, in some part, of Shakespeare's character Sir John Falstaff. Many historians argue, however, that he deserves to be famous in his own right, not only as a soldier, but as a patron of literature, a writer on strategy and perhaps as an early industrialist.
The Battle of Patay was the culminating engagement of the Loire Campaign of the Hundred Years' War between the French and English in north-central France. The French cavalry inflicted a severe defeat on the English. Many of the English knights and men-at-arms on horses were able to escape but crippling losses were inflicted on a corps of English longbowmen, which was not reconstituted after the battle. This victory was to the French what Agincourt was to the English. Although credited to Joan of Arc, most of the fighting was done by the vanguard of the French army as English units fled, and the main portions of the French army were unable to catch up to the vanguard as it continued to pursue the English for several miles.
Montivilliers is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.
For the French musical theorist, see Johannes de Grocheio
Robert Willoughby, 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby was an English nobleman and military commander in the Hundred Years' War.
The Lancastrian War was the third and final phase of the Anglo-French Hundred Years' War. It lasted from 1415, when King Henry V of England invaded Normandy, to 1453, when the English lost Bordeaux. It followed a long period of peace from the end of the Caroline War in 1389. The phase was named after the House of Lancaster, the ruling house of the Kingdom of England, to which Henry V belonged.
The Château d'Orcher is a castle in the commune of Gonfreville-l'Orcher in the Seine-Maritime département of France.
Events from the 1410s in England.
Azincourt is an historical novel written by Bernard Cornwell, published in 2008. The book relates the events leading to the Battle of Agincourt through its protagonist Nicholas Hook. In the United States, it was published under the title Agincourt.
Peter Basset, also known as Petrus Bassetus, was an English soldier, historian, biographer of Henry V of England, and co-author of an incomplete account in French of English activities in France between the capture of Harfleur in September 1415, and the raising of the siege of Orléans in May 1429. Several lost historic works and biographies have been attributed to him, but none of his manuscripts appear to have survived into the modern era.
The King is a 2019 epic war film directed by David Michôd, based on several plays from William Shakespeare's "Henriad". The screenplay was written by Michôd and Joel Edgerton, who both produced the film with Brad Pitt, Dede Gardner, Jeremy Kleiner, and Liz Watts.
The siege of Saint-Denis was the last instance of cooperation between the English and their Burgundian allies in the Hundred Years' War. Saint-Denis, the traditional burial place of the kings of France, was located in the outskirts of English-held Paris, and had been captured by the French a couple of months earlier. The enemy presence there critically endangered the English position in the capital, and, aiming to retake it urgently, the English moved onto the town in August with a handful of Burgundian auxiliaries. The siege was undertaken during the peace congress of Arras, during which no end to the fighting was seen, as both sides struggled to gain ground around and over Paris. The English were victorious at St. Denis after the French garrison surrendered due to lack of external support.
Events from the year 1415 in France.
Raoul de Gaucourt, also known as the Sieur de Gaucort or Sire de Gaucourt was a French soldier and statesman. He fought at the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 and the Siege of Harfleur in 1415, and spent 10 years as a prisoner in England. He was described by Juliet Barker in 2005 as "a medieval chivalric hero whom the modern world has forgotten".
Sir William de Grenlay of Edgbaston, Warwickshire, was a late medieval English knight and landowner who fought in several military campaigns during the Hundred Years' War.
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