Harold Stassen

Last updated

Harold Stassen
Harold Stassen.jpg
Director of the United States Foreign Operations Administration
In office
August 3, 1953 March 19, 1955
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Director of the Mutual Security Agency
In office
January 28, 1953 August 1, 1953
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Preceded by W. Averell Harriman
Succeeded byPosition abolished
3rd President of the University of Pennsylvania
In office
1948–1953
Preceded by George William McClelland
Succeeded by William Hagan DuBarry (acting)
Chair of the National Governors Association
In office
January 7, 1941 June 21, 1942
Preceded by William H. Vanderbilt
Succeeded by Herbert O'Conor
25th Governor of Minnesota
In office
January 2, 1939 April 27, 1943
Lieutenant C. Elmer Anderson
Edward John Thye
Preceded by Elmer Austin Benson
Succeeded by Edward John Thye
Personal details
Born
Harold Edward Stassen

(1907-04-13)April 13, 1907
West St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.
DiedMarch 4, 2001(2001-03-04) (aged 93)
Bloomington, Minnesota, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s)
Esther Glewwe
(m. 1929;died 2000)
Education University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (BA, LLB)
Military service
Branch/serviceFlag of the United States.svg  United States Navy
Years of service1942-1945
Rank US Navy O6 infobox.svg Captain
Battles/warsWorld War II
Awards Legion of Merit

Harold Edward Stassen (April 13, 1907 – March 4, 2001) was an American politician who was the 25th Governor of Minnesota. He was a leading candidate for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in 1948, considered for a time to be the front-runner. He thereafter regularly continued to run for that and other offices, such that his name became most identified with his status as a perennial candidate.

Contents

Born in West St. Paul, Minnesota, Stassen was elected as the district attorney of Dakota County, Minnesota after graduating from the University of Minnesota. He won election as Governor of Minnesota in 1938. Stassen was then and remains the youngest person elected to that office. [1] He gave the keynote address at the 1940 Republican National Convention. He resigned as governor to serve in the United States Navy during World War II, becoming an aide to Admiral William Halsey Jr. After the war, he became president of the University of Pennsylvania, holding that position from 1948 to 1953. Stassen sought the presidential nomination at the 1948 Republican National Convention, winning a significant share of the delegates on the first two ballots of the convention. During the Republican primaries preceding the convention, he engaged in the Dewey–Stassen debate, the first recorded debate between presidential candidates.

Stassen sought the presidential nomination again at the 1952 Republican National Convention, and helped Dwight D. Eisenhower win the nomination by shifting his support to Eisenhower. After serving in the Eisenhower administration, Stassen sought various offices. Between 1958 and 1990, he campaigned unsuccessfully for the positions of Governor of Pennsylvania, Mayor of Philadelphia, United States Senator, Governor of Minnesota, and United States Representative. He further sought the Republican nomination for president in 1964, 1968, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, and 1992.

Life and career

Early life (1907-1930)

Stassen, the third of five children, was born in West St. Paul, Minnesota, to Elsie Emma (née Mueller) and William Andrew Stassen, a farmer and several-times mayor of West St. Paul. His mother was German and his father was born in Minnesota, to German and Czech parents. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] At the age of 11 Stassen graduated from elementary school and four years later graduated from high school. [7] At the University of Minnesota, Stassen was an intercollegiate debater and orator, [8] and captain of the champion university rifle team in 1927. [9] He received his B.A. degree in 1927, [10] and his LL.B. degree in 1929. [11] [12] That year, he married his wife, the former Esther Glewwe, whose sister, Martha, was married to Harold's younger brother, William. [13]

Early political career (1930-1938)

In 1930, after opening a law office with Elmer J. Ryan in South St. Paul, Stassen defeated Alfred Joyce, the incumbent District Attorney of Dakota County, and took office on January 5, 1931, months after Joyce was suspended from practicing law. [14] Three years after taking office Stassen was elected president of the Minnesota County Attorney's association. [15] [5]

In 1935 Stassen partipated in the creation of the Young Republicans committee in Minnesota and was one of three elected to be temporary members of the state committee to carry on pre-convention work and would be elected its chairman later that year. [16] [17] In 1936 Stassen led an effort by the Young Republicans that demanded greater representation for them at county conventions and for their inclusion in state leadership before his tenure as chairman ended later that year. [18] [19]

Stassen was a delegate to the 1936 Republican National Convention. On April 24, 1937 he gave the keynote address at the Minnesota Republican state convention. [20] [21] In October he announced his intention to run for governor in 1938, and formally started his campaign in November. Despite being a member of the party's executive committee Stassen seconded a motion preventing a gubernatorial endorsement at the convention in December. [22] [23]

Governorship (1939-1943)

On January 2, 1939 Stassen was inaugurated by Chief Justice Henry M. Gallagher. His first action was to order an audit of expenditures in every state department. He would later sign into law Minnesota's first civil service law. [24] In September he organized a farm problems conference with World War Two's effect on agricultural being the main issue that was attended by the governors of South Dakota, Wisconsin, Kansas, North Dakota, and Illinois or their representatives. [25] When New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey traveled to Minneapolis during the 1940 presidential campaign he was introduced by Stassen. [26] By the end of 1939 Stassen's approval rating was over 80% and he had the support of over 80% of both Democrats and Farmer-Laborers. [27] Despite the fact that Stassen was then constitutionally ineligible for the presidency because of his age, some Republicans supported his involvement in presidential politics and Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes commented that Stassen was a political upcomer and was more serious than Dewey. [28]

YearApproveDisapprove
193981%19%
194391%5% [29]

World War II

Commander Harold E. Stassen, USNR while serving as Aide to Admiral William F. Halsey, Commander, Third Fleet Harold E. Stassen.jpg
Commander Harold E. Stassen, USNR while serving as Aide to Admiral William F. Halsey, Commander, Third Fleet
External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Booknotes interview with Stassen on Eisenhower: Turning the World Toward Peace, October 14, 1990, C-SPAN

Stassen, who was reelected as governor of Minnesota in 1940 and 1942, supported President Franklin D. Roosevelt's foreign policy and encouraged the state Republican Party to repudiate American isolationism before the attack on Pearl Harbor. During the 1942 campaign, he announced that, if re-elected, he would resign to serve on active duty with the United States Naval Reserve, which Stassen had joined with the rank of lieutenant commander earlier that year. [5] [30]

Stassen was re-elected governor in November 1942 and, true to his campaign promise, resigned as governor on April 23, 1943 prior to reporting for active duty with the Navy. (Although he would run in 13 more elections in his life, this was the last time he would hold an elected office.)

After being promoted to the rank of commander, he joined the staff of Admiral William F. Halsey, Commander of the Third Fleet in the Pacific Theater. He was awarded the Legion of Merit for meritorious service in this position. After almost two and a half years of service, he was promoted to the rank of captain on September 27, 1945 and was released from active duty in November of the same year. [30]

Stassen lost some of his political base while overseas, whereas Republican candidates such as Thomas E. Dewey had a chance to increase theirs. Stassen was a delegate at the San Francisco Conference that established the United Nations, and was one of the US signatories of the United Nations Charter. He served as president of the University of Pennsylvania from 1948 to 1953. His attempt to increase the prominence of the university football team was unpopular and soon abandoned. [3] From 1953 to 1955, he was the director of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's short-lived Foreign Operations Administration. [31]

Presidential politics (1944-1964)

Stassen was later best known for being a perennial candidate for the Republican Party nomination for President of the United States, seeking it nine times between 1944 and 1992 (1944, 1948, 1952, 1964, 1968, 1980, 1984, 1988, and 1992). He never won the Republican nomination, much less the presidency; in fact, after 1952, he never even came close, but continued to campaign actively and seriously for President until just a year before his death.

Due to his victory in the gubernatorial race, status as America's youngest governor and overwhelming approval rating Stassen was touted as a possible future Republican presidential nominee starting in 1940 despite the fact that he would be constitutionally unable to serve. [32]

Stassen's strongest bid for the Republican presidential nomination was in 1948, when he won a series of upset victories in early primaries. His challenge to the front runner, New York Governor and 1944 G.O.P. presidential nominee Thomas E. Dewey, was serious enough that Dewey challenged Stassen to a debate on the night before the Oregon Republican primary. The May 17 Dewey–Stassen debate was the first recorded modern debate between presidential candidates to take place in the United States. The debate, which concerned the criminalization of the Communist Party of the United States, was broadcast over the radio throughout the nation.

At the convention in Philadelphia, Osro Cobb, the then Republican state chairman in Arkansas, made a seconding speech for Stassen, having been motivated by Stassen's promise if nominated to campaign actively in the South. Cobb described the South as "the last frontier to which we can turn for substantial gains for our party - gains that can be held in the years to come. There is a definite affinity between the southern farmer and the grassroots Midwestern Republicans. ...Our party simply cannot indulge the luxury of a Solid South, handed on a silver platter to the opposition every four years...." [33]

In the first two rounds of balloting, Stassen finished third behind Dewey, the front runner, and Robert Taft. After the second round, Stassen and Taft bowed out and Dewey was selected unanimously as the nominee on the next ballot. In all Republican conventions since 1948, the nominee has been selected on the first ballot.

Stassen's home-state delegation played a key role in the 1952 Republican contest when, over his objection, his delegates were released to Dwight D. Eisenhower. This swing helped Eisenhower to defeat Robert A. Taft on the first ballot. [34] He served in the Eisenhower Administration, filling posts including director of the Mutual Security Administration (foreign aid) and Special Assistant to the President for Disarmament. [31] During this period, he held cabinet rank and led a quixotic effort (perhaps covertly encouraged by Eisenhower, who had reservations about Richard Nixon's maturity for the presidency) [35] to "dump Nixon" at the 1956 Republican Convention. [31]

Stassen's last significant presidential campaign was in 1964. Despite being a supporter of the "Stop Goldwater" movement and attempting to form an alliance with Margaret Chase Smith to prevent a Goldwater nomination Stassen was approached by Goldwater over the possibility of being his running mate and stated that "I would consider running with you. But with no one else." [36] However, Goldwater later chose Representative William E. Miller.

Later life (1964-2001)

Stassen also ran for:[ citation needed ]

After leaving the Eisenhower Administration, Stassen campaigned unsuccessfully for governor of Pennsylvania (1958 and 1966) and for mayor of Philadelphia (1959). In 1978, Stassen moved back to Minnesota and ran a campaign for the U.S. Senate. In 1982, he campaigned for the Minnesota governorship and in 1986 for the fourth district congressional seat. He campaigned for the Republican Party presidential nomination in every election except 1956, 1960, and 1972. [37] He was on the ballot in the 1988 New Hampshire Republican primary and received 130 votes, and also received 1 vote in the Democratic primary.

Harold Stassen, as Governor HaroldStassenOfficialOil.jpg
Harold Stassen, as Governor

On the death of Happy Chandler, Stassen became the earliest serving governor of any U.S. state still living. When he died, the title was passed to Charles Poletti, a former governor of New York State. Stassen died in 2001 in Bloomington, Minnesota, at the age of 93 and is buried at the Acacia Park Cemetery in Mendota Heights, Minnesota. The Minnesota Department of Revenue headquarters near the State Capitol is named for him.

Religious life

Raised as a Baptist, Stassen was active with regional Baptist associations as well as many other religious organizations. During the 1960s, he gained a reputation as a liberal, particularly when, as president of the American Baptist Convention in 1963, he joined Martin Luther King in his march on Washington, D.C. [3] Much of Stassen's political thought came from his religious beliefs. He held important positions in his denomination and in local and national councils of churches. [5] In the latter 1960s and early 1970s, Stassen also participated with the U.S. Inter-religious Committee on Peace, which sponsored a series of conferences on religion and peace. [37] Baptists writing memorials remembered him as much as a church figure as a political candidate. [38] His son Glen Stassen was a prominent Baptist theologian.

Political positions

Throughout his life Stassen was a liberal Republican and challenged the more conservative elements of the Republican Party such as when he primaried Senator Robert A. Taft, favorite son and a leader of the conservative coalition, in his home state of Ohio during the 1948 Republican primary. [39]

Economics

During the 1938 Minnesota gubernatorial campaign Stassen ran against the creation of a sales tax and later in life supported a form of universal basic income in which unemployed mothers of two or more children would be given $115 per month. [40] [41]

Foreign policy

Despite having called for the banning of the Communist Party in the United States Stassen differed from the majority of conservatives with his stances against the embargo on Cuba and military intervention in Vietnam instead favoring both North and South Vietnam joining the UN where their problems could be settled. [42] [43]

United Nations

Stassen was one of the founders of the United Nations and supported it throughout his life. When he died on March 4, 2001, aged 93, he was the last living signer of the United Nations Charter.

Military awards

Legion of Merit citation

Commander Harold E. Stassen, United States Navy, is awarded the Legion of Merit for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States as Assistant Chief of Staff, Administration, and Aide and Flag Secretary on the staff of Commander, THIRD Fleet, from 15 June 1944 to 26 January 1945. [44]

General Orders: Bureau of Naval Personnel Information Bulletin No. 337 (April 1945) & No. 363 (May 1947)

Action Date: June 15, 1944 - January 26, 1945

Cultural references

Stassen at the 1980 Republican National Convention Harold Stassen 1980.jpg
Stassen at the 1980 Republican National Convention

Electoral history

Harold Stassen electoral history

Minnesota gubernatorial election, 1938 [45]

Minnesota gubernatorial election, 1940 [46]

Minnesota gubernatorial election, 1942 [47]

1944 Republican presidential primaries [48]

1948 Republican presidential primaries [49]

1948 Republican National Convention [50]

1952 Republican presidential primaries [51]

1952 Republican National Convention (1st ballot)

Republican primary for Governor of Pennsylvania, 1958 [52]

Philadelphia mayoral election, 1959 [53]

1964 Republican presidential primaries [54]

Republican primary for Governor of Pennsylvania, 1966 [55]

1968 Republican presidential primaries [56]

1968 Republican National Convention (1st ballot)

1978 Republican primary for the United States Senate from Minnesota [57]

  • Rudy Boschwitz – 185,393 (86.81%)
  • Harold Stassen – 28,170 (13.19%)

1980 Republican presidential primaries [58]

1984 Republican presidential primaries [59]

  • Ronald Reagan (inc.) – 6,484,987 (98.78%)
  • Unpledged delegates – 55,458 (0.85%)
  • Harold Stassen – 12,749 (0.19%)

Minnesota's 4th congressional district, 1986 [60]

  • Bruce F. Vento (DFL) (inc.) – 112,662 (72.88%)
  • Harold Stassen (R) – 41,926 (27.12%)

1988 Republican presidential primaries [61]

1992 Republican presidential primaries [62]

Republican primary for the United States Senate from Minnesota, 1994 [63]

Bibliography

Archives

In the Harold E. Stassen Papers at the Minnesota Historical Society, digital content is available for researcher use. [64] Researchers will find content that includes speech files, handwritten notes, memoranda, annotated briefings, correspondence, war diaries, working papers, and draft charters for the United Nations. The entire Harold E. Stassen collection includes campaign and political, naval service, United Nations, Eisenhower administration, and organizational membership files of the Minnesota Governor (1938–1943), Naval Officer (1943–1945), United Nations delegate (April–June 1945), Presidential contender (1948), and Eisenhower cabinet member and Director of the Mutual Security Agency (1953–1958), documenting most aspects of Stassen's six-decade career, including all of his public offices, campaigns, and Republican Party and other non-official activities. Digital selections from this manuscript collection were made based on user and researcher interest, historic significance, and copyright status.

Related Research Articles

1948 United States presidential election 41st United States presidential election

The 1948 United States presidential election was the 41st quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, 1948. Incumbent President Harry S. Truman, the Democratic nominee, defeated Republican Governor Thomas E. Dewey. Truman's victory is considered to be one of the greatest election upsets in American history.

1952 United States presidential election 42nd quadrennial U.S. presidential election

The 1952 United States presidential election was the 42nd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 4, 1952. Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower won a landslide victory over Democrat Adlai Stevenson, ending a string of Democratic Party wins that stretched back to 1932.

1956 United States presidential election 43rd quadrennial U.S. presidential election

The 1956 United States presidential election was the 43rd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 6, 1956. The popular incumbent President, Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, successfully ran for re-election. The election was a re-match of 1952, for Eisenhower's opponent in 1956 was Adlai Stevenson, a former Illinois governor whom he had defeated four years earlier.

Earl Warren Former Chief Justice of the United States

Earl Warren was an American politician and jurist who served as Governor of California from 1943 to 1953 and Chief Justice of the United States from 1953 to 1969. The "Warren Court" presided over a major shift in American constitutional jurisprudence, which has been recognized by many as a "Constitutional Revolution" of the liberal, with Warren writing the majority opinions in landmark cases such as Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Reynolds v. Sims (1964), Miranda v. Arizona (1966) and Loving v. Virginia (1967). Warren also led the Warren Commission, a presidential commission that investigated the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy. He is the last Chief Justice to have served in an elected office before entering the Supreme Court, and is generally considered to be one of the most influential Supreme Court justices and political leaders in the history of the United States.

1952 Republican National Convention

The 1952 Republican National Convention was held at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois from July 7 to 11, 1952, and nominated the popular general and war hero Dwight D. Eisenhower of New York, nicknamed "Ike," for president and the anti-communist crusading Senator from California, Richard M. Nixon, for vice president.

1948 Republican National Convention

The 1948 Republican National Convention was held at the Municipal Auditorium, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from June 21 to 25, 1948.

1992 Republican Party presidential primaries Selection of the Republican Party nominee for President of the United States in 1992

The 1992 Republican presidential primaries and caucuses were a series of electoral contests taking place within all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia occurring between February 18 to June 9, 1992. Sanctioned by the Republican Party, these elections are designed to select the 2,277 delegates to send to the national convention in Houston, Texas from August 17 to August 20, 1992, who selected the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 1992 election, incumbent president George H. W. Bush. The delegates also approved the party platform and vice-presidential nominee.

Presidential primaries have been held in the United States since 1912 to nominate the Republican presidential candidate.

Riley A. Bender American politician

Riley Alvin Bender was a United States businessman and political candidate.

1984 Republican Party presidential primaries Selection of the Republican Party nominee for President of the United States in 1984

The 1984 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1984 U.S. presidential election. Incumbent President Ronald Reagan was again selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1984 Republican National Convention held from August 20 to August 23, 1984, in Dallas, Texas.

1988 Republican Party presidential primaries Selection of the Republican Party nominee for President of the United States in 1988

The 1988 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process that Republican voters used to choose their nominee for President of the United States in the 1988 U.S. presidential election. Incumbent Vice President George H.W. Bush was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1988 Republican National Convention held from August 15 to August 18, 1988, in New Orleans, Louisiana.

1952 Republican Party presidential primaries Selection of the Republican Party nominee for President of the United States in 1952

The 1952 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1952 U.S. presidential election. Former U.S. Army General Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1952 Republican National Convention held from July 7 to July 11, 1952, in Chicago, Illinois.

1948 Republican Party presidential primaries Selection of the Republican Party nominee for President of the United States in 1948

The 1948 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1948 U.S. presidential election. The nominee was selected through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1948 Republican National Convention held from June 21 to June 25, 1948, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

James M. Lloyd (1886–1969) was an American politician from South Dakota who served as a delegate to multiple Republican national conventions.

Electoral history of Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States (1969–1974), 36th Vice President of the United States (1953–1961); United States Senator (1950–1953) and United States Representative (1947–1950) from California.

Electoral history of Robert Taft

Electoral history of Robert A. Taft, United States Senator from Ohio (1939–1953), United States Senate Majority Leader (1953) and a candidate for 1940, 1948 and 1952 Republican presidential nominations

The Dewey–Stassen debate was the first audio-recorded presidential debate to ever take place in the United States. It featured New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey and former Minnesota Governor Harold Stassen discussing the legal status of Communist Party of the United States four days before the 1948 Oregon Republican presidential primary. The debate transmitted throughout the nation via radio broadcast, and is credited with helping Dewey win the primary and the nomination of his party. It is often cited as establishing the modern presidential debate standard.

1944 Republican Party presidential primaries Selection of the Republican Party nominee for President of the United States in 1944

The 1944 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1944 U.S. presidential election. The nominee was selected through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1944 Republican National Convention held from June 26 to June 28, 1944, in Chicago, Illinois.

1948 Republican Party vice presidential candidate selection

This article lists those who were potential candidates for the Republican nomination for Vice President of the United States in the 1948 election. After New York Governor Thomas Dewey secured the Republican presidential nomination on the third ballot of the 1948 Republican National Convention, the convention needed to choose Dewey's running mate. Dewey and several party leaders discussed Dewey's running mate during the evening of June 24. House Majority Leader Charles A. Halleck and former Minnesota Governor Harold Stassen were both considered, but Dewey ultimately decided to ask California Governor Earl Warren to serve as his running mate. Warren had earlier said that he would not accept the position, and asked for time to consider the offer. In the meantime, Stassen was asked to serve as running mate if Warren declined. However, Dewey convinced the reluctant Warren to join his ticket. Halleck alleged that he had been promised the vice presidency in exchange for supporting Dewey, but Halleck's isolationism convinced Dewey and others to pass him over. The Dewey-Warren ticket was well-received by the press, as it combined the youthful, popular governors of two of the three most populous states in the nation. Despite being favored by most, the Dewey-Warren ticket lost the 1948 election to the Democratic Harry S. Truman-Alben W. Barkley ticket. In 1953, Warren was appointed Chief Justice of the United States by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.

References

  1. http://libguides.mnhs.org/stassen
  2. A Nation Divided: The 1968 Presidential Campaign By Darcy G. Richardson page 219
  3. 1 2 3 "Guide, Harold Edward Stassen Papers, 1940–1957, 1914–1919, University of Pennsylvania University Archives". Archives.upenn.edu. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  4. Krebs, Albin (March 5, 2001). "Harold E. Stassen, Who Sought G.O.P. Nomination for President 9 Times, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
  5. 1 2 3 4 "Governor Stassen". Life. October 19, 1942. p. 122. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  6. https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/M2L5-72R
  7. "Stassen -- 'Middle of the Road' Liberal". The Des Moines Register. February 5, 1939. p. 2. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  8. "Wins Oratorical Prize". Minneapolis Star. Minneapolis, MN. April 4, 1927. p. 16 via Newspapers.com.
  9. "Gopher Riflemen Win From Culver Academy". Minneapolis Star. Minneapolis, MN. February 24, 1927. p. 18 via Newspapers.com.
  10. "1,200 Students Given Diplomas at 'U' Program: College of Science, Literature and the Arts". Minneapolis Star. Minneapolis, MN. June 13, 1927. p. 4 via Newspapers.com.
  11. "List of Graduating University Seniors: Law School". Minneapolis Star. Minneapolis, MN. June 17, 1929. p. 10 via Newspapers.com.
  12. Mayer, Michael S. (2010). The Eisenhower Years. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 723. ISBN   978-0-8160-5387-2.
  13. "Esther Ethel Glewwe Stassen (1906-2000) - Find A..." www.findagrave.com. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
  14. "Dakota County Attorney Suspended For 6 Months". Star Tribune. December 27, 1930. p. 2. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  15. "H. E. Stassen Heads County Attorneys". Star Tribune. December 31, 1933. p. 4. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  16. "Young Republicans Arrange For Minnesota Organization". St. Cloud Times. October 22, 1935. p. 2. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  17. "Harold Stassen elected chairman". St. Cloud Times. November 2, 1935. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  18. "Harold Stassen Heads Session of Determined Group". The Minneapolis Star. March 28, 1936. p. 2. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  19. "Boom Stassen For Governor". Star Tribune. October 17, 1936. p. 17. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  20. "Stassen To Give Keynote For GOP". The Minneapolis Star. April 12, 1937. p. 10. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  21. "Minnesota GOP Moving To Iron Out Difficulties". The Minneapolis Star. June 28, 1937. p. 11. Archived from the original on May 25, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  22. "Motion to Kill Autumn Convention Beaten by Tabling". The Minneapolis Star. November 6, 1937. p. 10. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  23. "South St. Paul Man In Governor's Race". Argus-Leader. October 17, 1937. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  24. "Stassen Takes Governor's Oath, Demands Reforms In Government". The Minneapolis Star. January 3, 1939. p. 10. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  25. "6 Governors Accept Invitation To Meet". The La Crosse Tribune. September 19, 1939. p. 10. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  26. "Dewey". The Minneapolis Star. December 6, 1939. p. 6. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  27. "Stassen Takes Governor's Oath, Demands Reforms In Government". The Daily Tribune. September 18, 1939. p. 3. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  28. "Ickes Says Stassen Is a 'Political Comer'". The Minneapolis Star. December 22, 1939. p. 5. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  29. "Gallup Analyzes Stassen's Position". The Minneapolis Star. May 1, 1943. p. 4. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  30. 1 2 "Captain Harold E. Stassen, USNR, (1907–2001)". Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center. March 10, 2001. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
  31. 1 2 3 Krebs, Albin (March 5, 2001). "Harold E. Stassen, Who Sought G.O.P. Nomination for President 9 Times, Dies at 93". The New York Times.
  32. "Dew Is Leading Popular Choice of GOP for 1940". The Minneapolis Star. May 1, 1943. p. 12. Archived from the original on May 25, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  33. Osro Cobb, Osro Cobb of Arkansas: Memoirs of Historical Significance, Carol Griffee, ed. (Little Rock, Arkansas: Rose Publishing Company, 1989), pp. 99-100
  34. Template:Jean Edward Smith, Eisenhower in War and Peace, p. 519
  35. "American President". Millercenter.org. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  36. "Bill Gaggs Cablegrams". The Miami News. July 11, 1964. p. 10. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  37. 1 2 "Governors of Minnesota". Mnhs.org. Archived from the original on July 25, 2013. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  38. First Baptist Church, White Plains, NY. "Who are we? Harold Stassen". Archived from the original on March 7, 2009. Retrieved June 23, 2011.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  39. "Strange Saga of Harold Stassen". Oakland Tribune. November 28, 1967. p. 22. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  40. "Both Wrong". St. Cloud Times. September 6, 1933. p. 4. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  41. "Harold Stassen: Man with a plan $115 Per Month for Millions of Mothers!". The Portsmouth Herald. February 21, 1964. p. 7. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  42. "Eisenhower Called Him His "Secretary For Peace"". The Portsmouth Herald. February 27, 1964. p. 9. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  43. "What Makes Stassen Run?". The Philadelphia Inquirer. January 4, 1968. p. 27. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019 via Newspapers.com.
  44. "Valor awards for Harold E. Stassen". Military Times. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  45. "MN Governor Race – Nov 08, 1938". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  46. "MN Governor Race – Nov 05, 1940". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  47. "MN Governor Race – Nov 03, 1942". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  48. "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1944". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  49. "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1948". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  50. "US President – R Convention Race – Jun 21, 1948". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  51. "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1952". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  52. "PA Governor- R Primary Race – May 20, 1958". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  53. "Philadelphia Mayor Race – Nov 03, 1959". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  54. "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1964". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  55. "PA Governor- R Primary Race – May 17, 1966". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  56. "US President – D Primaries Race – Mar 12, 1968". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  57. "MN US Senate- R Primary Race – Sep 12, 1978". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  58. "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 17, 1980". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  59. "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 20, 1984". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  60. "MN District 4 Race – Nov 07, 1986". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  61. "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1988". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  62. "US President – R Primaries Race – Feb 01, 1992". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  63. "MN US Senate – R Primary Race – Sep 13, 1994". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  64. "Harold E. Stassen: An Inventory of His Papers at the Minnesota Historical Society". Mnhs.org. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
Party political offices
Preceded by
Martin A. Nelson
Republican nominee for Governor of Minnesota
1938, 1940, 1942
Succeeded by
Edward John Thye
Preceded by
Frederick Steiwer
Keynote Speaker of the Republican National Convention
1940
Succeeded by
Earl Warren
Political offices
Preceded by
Elmer Austin Benson
Governor of Minnesota
1939–1943
Succeeded by
Edward John Thye
Preceded by
William H. Vanderbilt
Chair of the National Governors Association
1941–1942
Succeeded by
Herbert O'Conor
Academic offices
Preceded by
George William McClelland
President of the University of Pennsylvania
1948–1953
Succeeded by
William Hagan DuBarry
Acting
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
W. Averell Harriman
Director of the Mutual Security Agency
1953
Position abolished
New office Director of the United States Foreign Operations Administration
1953–1955
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Happy Chandler
Earliest serving U.S. governor
1991–2001
Succeeded by
Charles Poletti