Harrow School

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Harrow School
Harrow Crest.svg
The Old Schools, Harrow School.JPG
The Old Schools photographed in 2013
Address
Harrow School
5 High Street, Harrow on the Hill

,
Middlesex
,
HA1 3HP

England
Coordinates 51°34′21″N00°20′06″W / 51.57250°N 0.33500°W / 51.57250; -0.33500
Information
Type Public school
Private boarding school
Mottoes Latin: Stet Fortuna Domus
(Let the Fortune of the House Stand)
Latin: Donorum Dei Dispensatio Fidelis
(The Faithful Dispensation of the Gifts of God)
Religious affiliation(s) Church of England
Established1572;452 years ago (1572) (Royal Charter)
Founder John Lyon of Preston
Department for Education URN 102245 Tables
Chairman of the GovernorsJ P Batting
Head Master Alastair Land
Staff~200 (full-time)
GenderMale
Age13to 18
Enrollment~830 pupils
Houses12
Colour(s)   Blue and white
Song"Forty Years On"
Publication The Harrovian
School fees£46,710
Former pupilsOld Harrovians
BadgesThe Harrow Lion
The Silver Arrow
Website www.harrowschool.org.uk OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

Harrow School ( /ˈhær/ ) [1] is a public school (English boarding school for boys) in Harrow on the Hill, Greater London, England. [2] The school was founded in 1572 by John Lyon, a local landowner and farmer, under a royal charter of Queen Elizabeth I.

Contents

The school has an enrolment of about 820 boys, all of whom board full-time, in twelve boarding houses. [3] It was one of the seven public schools selected for reform in the Public Schools Act of 1868. Harrow's uniform includes morning suits, straw boater hats, top hats and canes.

Its list of distinguished alumni includes seven former British prime ministers: Aberdeen, Perceval, Goderich, Peel, Palmerston, Baldwin and Churchill, as well as the former Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru; numerous former and current members of both Houses of the UK Parliament, several members of various royal families, three Nobel Prize winners, twenty Victoria Cross holders, and many prominent figures in the arts and sciences.

History

The original Old Schools at background, as they were in 1795 HarrowOldPrint.JPG
The original Old Schools at background, as they were in 1795

The Foundation

The school was founded in February 1572 under a royal charter granted by Queen Elizabeth I to John Lyon, a wealthy local farmer. [4] The school's formal name is still 'The Free Grammar School of John Lyon within the town of Harrow-on-the-Hill'. [5] The charter described this as a re-endowment, and there is some evidence of a grammar school at Harrow in the mid-16th century, but its location and connection with Lyon's foundation are unclear. [6] Evidence for earlier schools, possibly connected with the chantry of St Mary (established in 1324), is weak. [6] :13–17 In the original charter six governors were named, including two members of the Gerard family of Flambards, and two members of the Page family of Wembley and Sudbury Court. [7]

Speech Room in 1900 Harrow school speech room 1900.jpg
Speech Room in 1900

The founder John Lyon died in 1592, bequeathing his estate to two beneficiaries: the school and the maintenance of two roads, the Harrow Road and the Edgware Road, both going to London, 10 miles (16 km) away. The Road Trust received by far the greater share, the school's share providing just for the salary of The School Master and some minor provisions. This situation, reasonable at the time because of the need to transport merchandise to market, continued until 1991 when the considerable assets of the Road Trust were reassigned to John Lyon's Charity, a charity to provide educational benefits for the inhabitants of the boroughs through which the roads pass.

John Lyon's school was founded to provide free education for 30 (later extended to 40) poor boys of the parish. However, the School Master was permitted to accept "foreigners" (boys from outside the parish) from whom he received fees. It was the need for foreigners to find accommodation that led to the concept of boarding. As in all schools of the time, education was based on the languages and culture of the ancient civilisations of Rome and Greece.

As the reputation of the school grew through the 19th century, the number of foreigners increased, but the local families became increasingly reluctant to impose on their children a classical education and the number of free scholars declined. In 1825 there were 17 free scholars and 219 foreigners. In 1876 the Lower School of John Lyon was founded under the authority of the Governors of Harrow School to provide a modern education for local boys. It is now known as The John Lyon School and is a prominent independent school; it remains part of the Harrow School Foundation. [4]

Buildings

It was only after the death of Lyon's wife in 1608 that the construction of the first school building began. Known as the Old Schools, it was completed in 1615 and remains to this day, although it was extended and re-designed by architect Charles Cockerell in 1818. It is a Grade I listed building. [8]

The majority of the school's boarding houses were constructed in Victorian times, when the number of boys increased dramatically. [6] The Speech Room by William Burges (1877), and the chapel (1855) and Vaughan Library (1863), both by George Gilbert Scott, are all Grade II* listed buildings. [9] [10] [11] A total of 27 School buildings are Grade II listed, including Head Master's House (1843) by Decimus Burton; Museum Schools (1886) by Basil Champneys; and Music Schools (1890) by Edward Prior.

The school War Memorial building, marking the substantial loss of former pupils in the First World War, was designed by Herbert Baker and completed in 1926. Various other buildings such as a central dining hall, sports hall and classroom blocks were added in the 20th century.

Cartel

In 2005, the school was one of fifty of the country's leading independent schools which were found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel, exposed by The Times , which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents, although the schools said that they had not realised that the change to the law (which had happened only a few months earlier) about the sharing of information had subsequently made it an offence. [12] Each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling £3,000,000 into a trust designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared. [13]

School traditions

Uniform

Students in 1927 Harrow (Engeland) De leerlingen van de Harrow school, bekend om hun historische strohoeden, SFA006011144.jpg
Students in 1927

Everyday dress for boys at Harrow consists of a dark blue jacket known as a "bluer" with light grey trousers known as "greyers". With these are worn a white shirt, black tie, black shoes and an optional blue jumper. Boys also wear a Harrow hat, a straw hat with a dark blue band similar to a boater, but shallower in crown and broader in brim. The School blue-and-white woollen scarf and dark blue woollen overcoat may be worn in cold weather. Variations include boys who are monitors (prefects) who are allowed to wear a jumper of their choice of colour, and members of certain societies who may earn the right to replace the standard school tie with one of a variety of scarves, cravats, neck and bow ties of their society. [14]

Sunday dress, which is worn every Sunday up to lunch and on special occasions such as Speech Day and songs, consists of a black tailcoat, a black single-breasted waistcoat and striped trousers, worn with a white shirt and black tie. Boys with sports colours may wear a grey double-breasted waistcoat; members of the Guild (a society for boys who have achieved distinction in art, music or drama) may wear maroon double-breasted waistcoats with maroon bow ties; members of the Philathletic Club (a society for boys with achievements in sport) may wear black bow ties alongside grey double-breasted waistcoats. School monitors (prefects) may wear black double-breasted waistcoats and a top hat, and carry canes.

School houses

House name and Colours [3]
Bradbys – Purple and White (DJE)  
Druries – Red and Black (BTM)  
Elmfield – Purple and Black (AJC)  
Gayton – (over-spill house) (NSK)
The Grove – Red and Blue (CST)  
The Headmaster's – Pink and White (CTP)  
The Knoll – Gold and Black (CO)  
Lyon's – Green and Black (NJM)  
Moretons – White and Blue (SMS) [15]   
Newlands – Yellow and White (HKJ)  
The Park – Red and White (BJDS)  
Rendalls – Magenta and Silver (ADJT)  
West Acre – Red, White and Blue (HAH)   

Harrow School divides its pupils, who are all boarders, into twelve Houses, each of about seventy boys, with a thirteenth house, Gayton, used as an overflow. Each House has its own facilities, customs and traditions, and each competes in sporting events against the others.

Until the 1950s there existed what was known as 'small houses' where only 5–10 boys stayed at one time while they waited for a space in a large house to become available (hence the use of the term large house in this article). A twelfth large house, Lyon's, was built in 2010. [3]

House Masters, Assistant House Masters and their families live in the boarding Houses and are assisted by House Tutors appointed from the teaching staff. The House Master oversees the welfare of every boy in his care; for parents, he is the main point of contact with the School. [3]

Each House has a resident matron and sick room. The matrons are supported by the School's Medical Centre where trained nursing staff offer round-the-clock care. The medical centre is under the direct supervision of the school doctor who is available on the Hill every day for consultation. [3]

There are no dormitories: a boy shares his room for the first three to six terms and thereafter has a room to himself. [3]

Harrow Songs

The School has a book of songs, of which the best known is Forty Years On . In the 19th century, most schools had a school song, usually in Latin, which they sang at the beginning and end of term. Harrow had a master, Edward Bowen, who was a poet and a music teacher, and John Farmer, who was a composer. Between 1870 and 1885, these two wrote a number of songs about school life. The inspiring, wistful, amusing and thought-provoking words and the attractive tunes, made the songs very popular.[ citation needed ] Successors to Bowen and Farmer have added to the collection. The songs are sung in House and School concerts several times a term. Winston Churchill was a great lover of Harrow songs and when he returned for a concert as Prime Minister in 1940, it was the first of many annual visits. Churchill Songs is still celebrated in Speech Room each year, and every five years at the Royal Albert Hall.

Sport

Harraw school football team 1867.jpg
Football team of 1867
Harrow cricket team of 1869 for the match against Eton.jpg
Cricket team of 1868
Harrow School Footer Field.jpg
Football match at the School footer field, painted by Thomas M. Henry
Harrowtennis.jpg
Tennis courts include acrylic, hard and synthetic lawn surfaces.

The sport squash (originally called 'Squasher') was invented in Harrow out of the game rackets around 1830. [16] [17] [18] It spread to other schools, eventually becoming an international sport.

An annual cricket match has taken place between Harrow and Eton College at Lord's Cricket Ground since 1805. It is considered to be the longest-running cricket fixture in the world [19] and is the oldest fixture at Lord's (see: Eton v Harrow). Eton won the match in 2013, and Harrow in 2014 and 2015.

Harrow has its own unique style of football called Harrow Football. [20] Currently, the school offers around 30 sports activities for students such as archery, badminton, hockey and judo. [21]

Fagging

As in most boarding schools, for many years there was a system of 'fagging' whereby younger boys carried out duties for the seniors. At Harrow this was phased out in the 1970s and completely banned by 1990. [6] In his detailed history of the school, Christopher Tyerman recorded that in 1796 fagging was compulsory for boys up to the fourth form, and that 50 out of 139 boys were then fags. In 1928, Harrow Master C. H. P. Mayo said of fagging: "Those who hope to rule must first learn to obey... to learn to obey as a fag is part of the routine that is the essence of the English Public School system... the wonder of other countries". [6]

Media coverage

Harrow was featured in a Sky 1 documentary series entitled Harrow: A Very British School in 2013.

In February 2016, the actor Laurence Fox claimed Harrow threatened legal action to prevent him discussing the racism, homophobia and bullying he said he encountered as a pupil at the school. [22] [23]

Old Harrovians

A modern view from the library to the Old Schools, one of the sets of the Harry Potter films HarrowHighStreet.JPG
A modern view from the library to the Old Schools, one of the sets of the Harry Potter films

Harrow alumni are known as Old Harrovians, among seven British prime ministers were Winston Churchill, Stanley Baldwin and Robert Peel, and the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru. Twenty Old Harrovians have been awarded the Victoria Cross and one the George Cross. [24]

Five monarchs have attended the school: King Hussein of Jordan; [25] both Kings of Iraq, Ghazi I and his son Faisal II; the current Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani; and Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar.[ citation needed ]

Harrow has educated several Nobel laureates: John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1904; John Galsworthy, winner of the 1932 Nobel Prize in Literature; and Winston Churchill, who also received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953.

Future Indian prime minister Nehru in Harrow cadet uniform Nehru at Harrow.png
Future Indian prime minister Nehru in Harrow cadet uniform

Other alumni include writers Lord Byron, Anthony Trollope, Sir Terence Rattigan, Simon Sebag-Montefiore, and Richard Curtis, the Gerald Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster and prominent reformist Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, military commanders such as Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis and Sir Peter de la Billiere, and business people (including DeBeers chairman Nicky Oppenheimer, Pret a Manger founder Julian Metcalfe) and the big game hunter and artist General Douglas Hamilton, as well as Island Records founder Chris Blackwell. In sports, the school produced the first two Wimbledon champions (Spencer Gore and Frank Hadow) as well as FA Cup founder C. W. Alcock and current England rugby international players Billy Vunipola, Maro Itoje and Henry Arundell. Alumni in the arts and media industry include actors Edward Fox, Benedict Cumberbatch and Cary Elwes, photographer Nikolai von Bismarck, singers David Dundas and James Blunt, pianist James Rhodes, horse racing pundit John McCririck, and Mark Thatcher, son of Margaret Thatcher.

Fictional characters who have attended Harrow include Brett Sinclair of the TV series The Persuaders! , Withnail and Uncle Monty from the film Withnail & I ,[ citation needed ] Herbert Pocket from Charles Dickens's novel, Great Expectations , [26] and Geoffrey Charles Poldark from Poldark . [27]

Notable staff

Caricature of Joseph Wood, headmaster at Harrow (1898-1910) by George Algernon Fothergill ("GAF")
Caption reads: "Harrow" Joseph Wood, Vanity Fair, 1899-09-21.jpg
Caricature of Joseph Wood, headmaster at Harrow (1898–1910) by George Algernon Fothergill ("GAF")
Caption reads: "Harrow"

Directors of Music

Head masters

See also

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References

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Further reading