Sir Harry Atkinson
|10th Premier of New Zealand|
1 September 1876 –13 October 1877
|Governor|| George Phipps |
|Preceded by||Julius Vogel|
|Succeeded by||Sir George Grey|
25 September 1883 –16 August 1884
|Preceded by||Frederick Whitaker|
|Succeeded by||Robert Stout|
28 August 1884 –3 September 1884
|Preceded by||Robert Stout|
|Succeeded by||Robert Stout|
8 October 1887 –24 January 1891
|Preceded by||Robert Stout|
|Succeeded by||John Ballance|
|7th Speaker of the Legislative Council|
23 January 1891 –28 June 1892
|Preceded by||George Waterhouse|
|Succeeded by||Henry Miller|
Harry Albert Atkinson
1 November 1831
Broxton, Cheshire, England
|Died||28 June 1892 60) (aged|
Wellington, New Zealand
|Resting place||Karori Cemetery, Wellington, New Zealand|
Amelia Jane Skinner
(m. 1856;died 1865)
Ann Elizabeth Smith(m. 1867)
|Relatives|| Arthur Samuel Atkinson (brother)|
Torchy Atkinson (grandson)
Monica Brewster (granddaughter)
Sir Harry Albert Atkinson KCMG (1 November 1831 – 28 June 1892) served as the tenth Premier of New Zealand on four separate occasions in the late 19th century, and was Colonial Treasurer for a total of ten years. He was responsible for guiding the country during a time of economic depression, and was known as a cautious and prudent manager of government finances, though distrusted for some radical policies such as his 1882 National Insurance (welfare) scheme and leasehold land schemes. He also participated in the formation of voluntary military units to fight in the New Zealand Wars, and was noted for his strong belief in the need for seizure of Māori land.
The Prime Minister of New Zealand is the head of government of New Zealand. The incumbent Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, leader of the New Zealand Labour Party, took office on 26 October 2017.
The Minister of Finance, originally known as Colonial Treasurer, is a senior figure within the Government of New Zealand and head of the New Zealand Treasury. The position is often considered to be the most important cabinet post after that of the Prime Minister. The Minister of Finance is responsible for producing an annual New Zealand budget outlining the government's proposed expenditure.
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction when there is a general decline in economic activity. Recessions generally occur when there is a widespread drop in spending. This may be triggered by various events, such as a financial crisis, an external trade shock, an adverse supply shock or the bursting of an economic bubble. In the United States, it is defined as "a significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real GDP, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales". In the United Kingdom, it is defined as a negative economic growth for two consecutive quarters.
Atkinson, born in 1831 in the English village of Broxton, Cheshire, received his education in England, but chose at the age of 22 to follow his elder brother William to New Zealand.He was accompanied by his brother Arthur together with members of the Richmond family. On arriving in New Zealand, Harry and Arthur bought farmland in Taranaki, as did the Richmonds, and also the Ronalds family – five brothers and sisters of Dr Edmund Ronalds. James and William Richmond also later entered politics and the Ronalds sisters married Atkinson’s brothers. Atkinson's correspondence shows that he was highly satisfied with his decision to move to New Zealand, seeing it as an opportunity to prosper. He named his small farmhouse Hurworth after a village in England where he had lived as a boy, although—as his father worked as an itinerant builder and architect—the family did not settle anywhere.
Broxton is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. The village is 11 miles south of Chester, and only 10 miles east of Wrexham in Wales. The civil parish also contains the small settlements of Barnhill, Bolesworth, Brown Knowl, Fuller's Moor and Meadow Bank. According to the 2001 Census it had a total population of 390, increasing to 461 at the 2011 census.
Arthur Samuel Atkinson was a 19th-century Member of Parliament from the Taranaki Region, New Zealand.
Taranaki is a region in the west of New Zealand's North Island. It is named after its main geographical feature, the stratovolcano of Mount Taranaki.
Atkinson first became involved in politics, as a member of the Taranaki provincial council. He represented the Grey and Bell electorate from 1857 to 1865, and again from 1873 to 1874. ^ and again in 1874 (May to October). He was Deputy Superintendent in 1861–1862 to Charles Brown, and again in 1863.He was a member of the Executive Council from 1868
For the current top-level subdivision of Taranaki in New Zealand, see Taranaki region
Superintendent was the elected head of each Provincial Council in New Zealand from 1853 to 1876.
Charles Brown was a New Zealand politician from the Taranaki area.
Of particular interest to him was policy regarding Māori-owned land, which he wished to see taken over by the British settlers. Continued Māori ownership, he believed, prevented economic development for the colony. Atkinson and his Richmond relations regarded the Māori as "savages", and believed in war as a reasonable option for ensuring Māori co-operation with British land-acquisition.
When fighting broke out in Taranaki between Māori and the settlers in 1860, Atkinson helped to organise a number of volunteer units to fight the Māori. He himself fought in a number of battles. The importance of Atkinson's contribution is debated, but his endeavours earned him respect from like-minded politicians.
The First Taranaki War was an armed conflict over land ownership and sovereignty that took place between Māori and the New Zealand Government in the Taranaki district of New Zealand's North Island from March 1860 to March 1861.
|New Zealand Parliament|
|1861 –1866||3rd||Grey and Bell||Independent|
|1867 –1869||4th||Town of New Plymouth||Independent|
The death of William Cutfield King in February 1861 caused a by-election in the Grey and Bell electorate. Atkinson was elected to Parliament unopposed. In 1864, he was made Defence Minister in the government of Frederick Weld. He was highly active in this portfolio, advocating a policy of self-reliance in the conduct of the war. In 1866, however, he retired due to the death of his wife Amelia (whom he had married in 1856). The following year, he married his cousin Annie. He returned to parliament from 1867 to 1869 for the Town of New Plymouth electorate, but in April 1869 he resigned to concentrate on maintaining his farm.
William Cutfield King was a 19th-century New Zealand politician who was elected to Parliament, but was killed in the New Zealand Wars before the first session.
Grey and Bell was a Taranaki electorate in the New Zealand Parliament from 1853 to 1881.
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.
In 1872, Atkinson returned to politics for the Egmont electorate; to defeat a candidate who was allied with William Fox, a prominent supporter of Māori land rights. Atkinson declared that he would "not see a Foxite get in", and narrowly defeated the candidate. Once in parliament, Atkinson soon became involved in economic matters, opposing the policies of Julius Vogel (who also happened to be a supporter of Māori land rights). Vogel, who supported extensive borrowing to finance public works, was attacked by Atkinson as reckless. Vogel's response was that Atkinson was overly cautious, and would delay economic progress.
Egmont is a former New Zealand electorate, in south Taranaki. It existed from 1871 to 1978.
Sir William Fox was the second Premier of New Zealand and held that office on four separate occasions in the 19th century, while New Zealand was still a colony. He was known for his confiscation of Māori land rights, his contributions to the education system, and his work to increase New Zealand's autonomy from Britain. He has been described as determined and intelligent, but also as bitter and "too fond" of personal attacks. Different aspects of his personality are emphasised by different accounts, changing mainly due to the reviewers' political beliefs.
Sir Julius Vogel was the eighth Premier of New Zealand. His administration is best remembered for the issuing of bonds to fund railway construction and other public works. He was the first Jewish prime minister of New Zealand. Historian Warwick R. Armstrong assesses Vogel's strengths and weaknesses:
Vogel's politics were like his nature, imaginative – and occasionally brilliant – but reckless and speculative. He was an excellent policymaker but he needed a strong leader to restrain him....Yet Vogel had vision. He saw New Zealand as a potential 'Britain of the South Seas', strong both in agriculture and in industry, and inhabited by a large and flourishing population.
Atkinson and Vogel both agreed, however, that borrowing by provincial government (as opposed to the central government) was indeed out of control. The two also believed that provincial politicians were petty and self-interested, and that more co-operation was needed between provinces and the state. It was this shared view of provincial government that enabled Vogel and Atkinson to co-operate, although they never resolved their differences on borrowing by the central government or on dealings with the Māori. Atkinson eventually became part of Vogel's cabinet, but not with portfolios related to negotiations with Māori or to finance. He did continue to express his opinions on these matters, but found it increasingly harder to convince people of his views.
In 1876, Vogel retired, and Atkinson managed to secure the Premiership. One of his first acts was to abolish the provinces. He also took over direct responsibility for financial policy, and implemented a less aggressive strategy for borrowing. He attempted to reform the system by which money was handled, placing all responsibility for borrowing with the government while increasing control of spending at a district or municipal level. However, growing economic problems caused his plan to encounter difficulties. As the economy declined, Atkinson became more and more unpopular.
Atkinson lost power in 1877, only slightly over a year after he gained it. He entered opposition, continuing to promote his ideas of financial caution. He also proposed a number of other measures, including national insurance. In 1883, he managed to make a comeback, gaining the Premiership for eleven months before losing it to Robert Stout. The two then engaged in a protracted struggle for the leadership. A strong counter-offensive by Atkinson enabled him to unseat Stout again after only twelve days. Stout, however, was not so easily defeated, and took the Premiership again after seven days. This time, Stout held his position for three years, defeating Atkinson's attempts to oust him.
There was confusion in Wellington in September 1887 when the members gathered to form a government. John Bryce, Robert Stout and William Rolleston had all lost their seats. Sir John Hall said he was too old. Sir Julius Vogel's policies had been rejected by the voters. So there was no alternative to Harry Atkinson, and after two weeks of negotiations he announced a ministry on 11 October. Only two ministers had served with him before. The Scarecrow Ministry was not expected to last, but did. The years 1887 and 1888 were the worst of the Long Depression, and Atkinson cut salaries, raised loans and raised customs duties. He was not popular with the wealthy, but they feared the Opposition leaders Grey and Ballance even more.
During this term, Atkinson was Colonial Treasurer (1887–1891), Postmaster-General (1887–1889), Commissioner of Telegraphs (1887–1889), Minister of Marine (1887–1891), Commissioner of Stamps (1887–1891), Minister of Education (1889), and Commissioner of Trade and Customs.In January 1888, Atkinson was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George. A Freemason, he was installed as the Wellington district grand master in May 1888.
By 1890 Atkinson was too ill to make speeches in the House.
In 1891, Atkinson was finally superseded as Premier by John Ballance of the newly created Liberal Party, the country's first organised political party. Atkinson acceded to the wishes of his friends, and on 23 January 1891 he was appointed to the Legislative Council, along with six other men, to attempt to block any radical bills that Ballance might introduce in the Lower House. Ballance became Premier on 24 January, and appointed Atkinson as Speaker of the Legislative Council.
The Liberals, who represented the ideas of William Fox, Julius Vogel, and many other of Atkinson's opponents, were to hold power for 21 years after Atkinson's defeat, but Atkinson was not to see this. After presiding over the first meeting of the Council on 28 June in the 1892 session, Atkinson returned to the Speaker’s Room, where he died.He was buried in Karori Cemetery.
Sir Robert Stout was a New Zealand politician who was the 13th Premier of New Zealand on two occasions in the late 19th century, and later Chief Justice of New Zealand. He was the only person to hold both these offices. He was noted for his support of liberal causes such as women's suffrage, and for his strong belief that philosophy and theory should always triumph over political expediency.
Sir Francis Dillon Bell was a New Zealand politician of the late 19th century. He served as New Zealand's third Minister of Finance, and later as its third Speaker of the House. The town of Bell Block near New Plymouth – on land Bell bought from the Puketapu iwi in 1849 – is named after him, as is Bell Street, Whanganui. Bell's son, Francis Henry Dillon Bell, became the first New Zealand born Prime Minister in 1925.
The New Zealand general election of 1887 was held on 26 September to elect 95 MPs to the tenth session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Māori vote was held on 7 September. 175,410 votes were cast. In 5 seats there was only one candidate.
William James Mudie Larnach was a New Zealand businessman and politician. He is known for building Larnach Castle and for his suicide.
William Rolleston was a New Zealand politician, public administrator, educationalist and Canterbury provincial superintendent.
Sir Patrick Alphonsus Buckley was a New Zealand soldier, lawyer, statesman, and judge who held several high government posts in Wellington in the early 1890s.
The following lists events that happened during 1887 in New Zealand.
Sir Donald McLean was a 19th-century New Zealand politician and government official. He was involved in negotiations between the settler government and Māori from 1844 to 1861, eventually as Native Secretary and Land Purchase commissioner. He was one of the most influential figures in Māori-Pākehā relations in the mid-1800s and was involved in the dispute over the "Waitara Purchase", which led up to the First Taranaki War.
Sir Edwin Mitchelson was a New Zealand politician and timber merchant.
Thames is a former New Zealand electorate, in the Thames-Coromandel District. It existed from 1871 to 1946.
The third New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Elections for this term were held between 12 December 1860 and 28 March 1861 in 43 electorates to elect 53 MPs. Two electorates were added to this during this term, Gold Fields District and a new Dunedin electorate created by splitting the existing City of Dunedin into Dunedin and Suburbs North and Dunedin and Suburbs South, increasing the number of MPs to 57. During the term of this Parliament, six Ministries were in power.
The fifth New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament.
The 9th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand.
The 10th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Elections for this term were held in 4 Māori electorates and 91 European electorates on 7 and 26 September 1887, respectively. A total of 95 MPs were elected. Parliament was prorogued in October 1890. During the term of this Parliament, two Ministries were in power.
The 11th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand.
The Continuous Ministry was the government of New Zealand from 1876 to 1890, except for 1877–79 and 1884–87.
The New Zealand Liberal leadership election, 1889 was held on 6 July 1889 to choose who would lead New Zealand's parliamentary opposition and, ultimately, decide the inaugural leader of the New Zealand Liberal Party. The election was won by Wanganui MP John Ballance.
The Stout–Vogel Ministry was the second responsible government to be formed in New Zealand. It formed in August 1884 and governed until October 1887. From the outset, Robert Stout served as Prime Minister as well as Attorney-General whilst Julius Vogel held the post of Minister of Finance. Initially, the ministry lasted only two weeks, with Harry Atkinson managing to pass a vote of no confidence against Stout. However, Atkinson failed to establish his own government, and was unable to supplant Stout and Vogel who remained in power for the next three years.
The 1872 Egmont by-election was a by-election held on 3 October 1872 during the 5th New Zealand Parliament in the Taranaki electorate of Egmont.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harry Atkinson .|
| Premier of New Zealand |
and Commissioner of Telegraphs
| Minister of Education |
Thomas William Hislop
| Speaker of the New Zealand Legislative Council |
|New Zealand Parliament|
William Cutfield King
| Member of Parliament for Grey and Bell |
James Crowe Richmond
| Member of Parliament for Town of New Plymouth |
| Member of Parliament for Egmont |