Harry Atkinson

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Sir Harry Atkinson

Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, ca 1885.jpg
10th Premier of New Zealand
In office
1 September 1876 13 October 1877
Monarch Victoria
Governor George Phipps
William Jervois
William Onslow
Preceded by Julius Vogel
Succeeded bySir George Grey
In office
25 September 1883 16 August 1884
Preceded by Frederick Whitaker
Succeeded by Robert Stout
In office
28 August 1884 3 September 1884
Preceded by Robert Stout
Succeeded by Robert Stout
In office
8 October 1887 24 January 1891
Preceded by Robert Stout
Succeeded by John Ballance
7th Speaker of the Legislative Council
In office
23 January 1891 28 June 1892
Preceded by George Waterhouse
Succeeded by Henry Miller
Personal details
Born
Harry Albert Atkinson

(1831-11-01)1 November 1831
Broxton, Cheshire, England
Died28 June 1892(1892-06-28) (aged 60)
Wellington, New Zealand
Resting place Karori Cemetery, Wellington, New Zealand
Political partyNone
Spouse(s)
Amelia Jane Skinner
(m. 1856;died 1865)

Ann Elizabeth Smith(m. 1867)
Children7
Relatives Arthur Samuel Atkinson (brother)
Torchy Atkinson (grandson) [1]
Monica Brewster (granddaughter)
Signature Harry Atkinson Signature.jpg

Sir Harry Albert Atkinson KCMG (1 November 1831 – 28 June 1892) served as the tenth Premier of New Zealand on four separate occasions in the late 19th century, and was Colonial Treasurer for a total of ten years. He was responsible for guiding the country during a time of economic depression, and was known as a cautious and prudent manager of government finances, though distrusted for some radical policies such as his 1882 National Insurance (welfare) scheme and leasehold land schemes. He also participated in the formation of voluntary military units to fight in the New Zealand Wars, and was noted for his strong belief in the need for seizure of Māori land.

Prime Minister of New Zealand head of the New Zealand government

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Minister of Finance (New Zealand) in New Zealand

The Minister of Finance, originally known as Colonial Treasurer, is a senior figure within the Government of New Zealand and head of the New Zealand Treasury. The position is often considered to be the most important cabinet post after that of the Prime Minister. The Minister of Finance is responsible for producing an annual New Zealand budget outlining the government's proposed expenditure.

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Contents

Early life

Atkinson, born in 1831 in the English village of Broxton, Cheshire, received his education in England, but chose at the age of 22 to follow his elder brother William to New Zealand. [2] He was accompanied by his brother Arthur together with members of the Richmond family. On arriving in New Zealand, Harry and Arthur bought farmland in Taranaki, as did the Richmonds, and also the Ronalds family – five brothers and sisters of Dr Edmund Ronalds. James and William Richmond also later entered politics and the Ronalds sisters married Atkinson’s brothers. [3] Atkinson's correspondence shows that he was highly satisfied with his decision to move to New Zealand, seeing it as an opportunity to prosper. He named his small farmhouse Hurworth after a village in England where he had lived as a boy, although—as his father worked as an itinerant builder and architect—the family did not settle anywhere.

Broxton, Cheshire village in Cheshire, UK

Broxton is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. The village is 11 miles south of Chester, and only 10 miles east of Wrexham in Wales. The civil parish also contains the small settlements of Barnhill, Bolesworth, Brown Knowl, Fuller's Moor and Meadow Bank. According to the 2001 Census it had a total population of 390, increasing to 461 at the 2011 census.

Arthur Samuel Atkinson New Zealand politician

Arthur Samuel Atkinson was a 19th-century Member of Parliament from the Taranaki Region, New Zealand.

Taranaki Region of New Zealand in North Island

Taranaki is a region in the west of New Zealand's North Island. It is named after its main geographical feature, the stratovolcano of Mount Taranaki.

Provincial politics

Atkinson first became involved in politics, as a member of the Taranaki provincial council. He represented the Grey and Bell electorate from 1857 to 1865, and again from 1873 to 1874. [4] He was a member of the Executive Council from 1868 ^ and again in 1874 (May to October). [4] He was Deputy Superintendent in 1861–1862 to Charles Brown, and again in 1863. [5]

Taranaki Province Provinces of New Zealand in North Island

For the current top-level subdivision of Taranaki in New Zealand, see Taranaki region

Superintendent was the elected head of each Provincial Council in New Zealand from 1853 to 1876.

Charles Brown was a New Zealand politician from the Taranaki area.

Of particular interest to him was policy regarding Māori-owned land, which he wished to see taken over by the British settlers. Continued Māori ownership, he believed, prevented economic development for the colony. Atkinson and his Richmond relations regarded the Māori as "savages", and believed in war as a reasonable option for ensuring Māori co-operation with British land-acquisition.

When fighting broke out in Taranaki between Māori and the settlers in 1860, Atkinson helped to organise a number of volunteer units to fight the Māori. He himself fought in a number of battles. The importance of Atkinson's contribution is debated, but his endeavours earned him respect from like-minded politicians.

The First Taranaki War was an armed conflict over land ownership and sovereignty that took place between Māori and the New Zealand Government in the Taranaki district of New Zealand's North Island from March 1860 to March 1861.

Member of Parliament

New Zealand Parliament
YearsTermElectorateParty
1861 1866 3rd Grey and Bell Independent
1867 1869 4th Town of New Plymouth Independent
1872 1875 5th Egmont Independent
1876 1879 6th Egmont Independent
1879 1881 7th Egmont Independent
1881 1884 8th Egmont Independent
1884 1887 9th Egmont Independent
1887 1890 10th Egmont Independent
1890 1891 11th Egmont Independent

The death of William Cutfield King in February 1861 caused a by-election in the Grey and Bell electorate. Atkinson was elected to Parliament unopposed. In 1864, he was made Defence Minister in the government of Frederick Weld. He was highly active in this portfolio, advocating a policy of self-reliance in the conduct of the war. In 1866, however, he retired due to the death of his wife Amelia (whom he had married in 1856). The following year, he married his cousin Annie. He returned to parliament from 1867 to 1869 for the Town of New Plymouth electorate, but in April 1869 he resigned to concentrate on maintaining his farm.

William Cutfield King New Zealand politician

William Cutfield King was a 19th-century New Zealand politician who was elected to Parliament, but was killed in the New Zealand Wars before the first session.

Grey and Bell was a Taranaki electorate in the New Zealand Parliament from 1853 to 1881.

New Zealand Parliament legislative body of New Zealand

The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.

In 1872, Atkinson returned to politics for the Egmont electorate; to defeat a candidate who was allied with William Fox, a prominent supporter of Māori land rights. Atkinson declared that he would "not see a Foxite get in", and narrowly defeated the candidate. Once in parliament, Atkinson soon became involved in economic matters, opposing the policies of Julius Vogel (who also happened to be a supporter of Māori land rights). Vogel, who supported extensive borrowing to finance public works, was attacked by Atkinson as reckless. Vogel's response was that Atkinson was overly cautious, and would delay economic progress.

Egmont is a former New Zealand electorate, in south Taranaki. It existed from 1871 to 1978.

William Fox (politician) Premier of New Zealand

Sir William Fox was the second Premier of New Zealand and held that office on four separate occasions in the 19th century, while New Zealand was still a colony. He was known for his confiscation of Māori land rights, his contributions to the education system, and his work to increase New Zealand's autonomy from Britain. He has been described as determined and intelligent, but also as bitter and "too fond" of personal attacks. Different aspects of his personality are emphasised by different accounts, changing mainly due to the reviewers' political beliefs.

Julius Vogel 8th Premier of New Zealand

Sir Julius Vogel was the eighth Premier of New Zealand. His administration is best remembered for the issuing of bonds to fund railway construction and other public works. He was the first Jewish prime minister of New Zealand. Historian Warwick R. Armstrong assesses Vogel's strengths and weaknesses:

Vogel's politics were like his nature, imaginative – and occasionally brilliant – but reckless and speculative. He was an excellent policymaker but he needed a strong leader to restrain him....Yet Vogel had vision. He saw New Zealand as a potential 'Britain of the South Seas', strong both in agriculture and in industry, and inhabited by a large and flourishing population.

Atkinson and Vogel both agreed, however, that borrowing by provincial government (as opposed to the central government) was indeed out of control. The two also believed that provincial politicians were petty and self-interested, and that more co-operation was needed between provinces and the state. It was this shared view of provincial government that enabled Vogel and Atkinson to co-operate, although they never resolved their differences on borrowing by the central government or on dealings with the Māori. Atkinson eventually became part of Vogel's cabinet, but not with portfolios related to negotiations with Māori or to finance. He did continue to express his opinions on these matters, but found it increasingly harder to convince people of his views.

Premier of New Zealand

First term

In 1876, Vogel retired, and Atkinson managed to secure the Premiership. One of his first acts was to abolish the provinces. He also took over direct responsibility for financial policy, and implemented a less aggressive strategy for borrowing. He attempted to reform the system by which money was handled, placing all responsibility for borrowing with the government while increasing control of spending at a district or municipal level. However, growing economic problems caused his plan to encounter difficulties. As the economy declined, Atkinson became more and more unpopular.

Second and third terms

Atkinson lost power in 1877, only slightly over a year after he gained it. He entered opposition, continuing to promote his ideas of financial caution. He also proposed a number of other measures, including national insurance. In 1883, he managed to make a comeback, gaining the Premiership for eleven months before losing it to Robert Stout. The two then engaged in a protracted struggle for the leadership. A strong counter-offensive by Atkinson enabled him to unseat Stout again after only twelve days. Stout, however, was not so easily defeated, and took the Premiership again after seven days. This time, Stout held his position for three years, defeating Atkinson's attempts to oust him.

Fourth term

There was confusion in Wellington in September 1887 when the members gathered to form a government. John Bryce, Robert Stout and William Rolleston had all lost their seats. Sir John Hall said he was too old. Sir Julius Vogel's policies had been rejected by the voters. So there was no alternative to Harry Atkinson, and after two weeks of negotiations he announced a ministry on 11 October. Only two ministers had served with him before. The Scarecrow Ministry was not expected to last, but did. The years 1887 and 1888 were the worst of the Long Depression, and Atkinson cut salaries, raised loans and raised customs duties. He was not popular with the wealthy, but they feared the Opposition leaders Grey and Ballance even more.

During this term, Atkinson was Colonial Treasurer (1887–1891), Postmaster-General (1887–1889), Commissioner of Telegraphs (1887–1889), Minister of Marine (1887–1891), Commissioner of Stamps (1887–1891), Minister of Education (1889), and Commissioner of Trade and Customs. [6] In January 1888, Atkinson was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George. [7] A Freemason, he was installed as the Wellington district grand master in May 1888. [8]

By 1890 Atkinson was too ill to make speeches in the House.

Defeat

Harry Atkinson's grave in Karori Cemetery. Harry Atkinson Grave.jpg
Harry Atkinson's grave in Karori Cemetery.

In 1891, Atkinson was finally superseded as Premier by John Ballance of the newly created Liberal Party, the country's first organised political party. Atkinson acceded to the wishes of his friends, and on 23 January 1891 he was appointed to the Legislative Council, along with six other men, to attempt to block any radical bills that Ballance might introduce in the Lower House. Ballance became Premier on 24 January, and appointed Atkinson as Speaker of the Legislative Council. [2]

The Liberals, who represented the ideas of William Fox, Julius Vogel, and many other of Atkinson's opponents, were to hold power for 21 years after Atkinson's defeat, but Atkinson was not to see this. After presiding over the first meeting of the Council on 28 June in the 1892 session, Atkinson returned to the Speaker’s Room, where he died. [2] He was buried in Karori Cemetery. [9]

Notes

  1. Bollard, E. G. "John Dunstan Atkinson". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 Reeves 1901.
  3. Porter, F.; Macdonald, C.; MacDonald, T. (1996). My Hand Will Write what My Heart Dictates: The Unsettled Lives of Women in Nineteenth-century New Zealand. Bridget Williams Books.
  4. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 231.
  5. Scholefield 1950, p. 230.
  6. Wilson 1985, p. 70.
  7. "Installation of Sir H. A. Atkinson". Evening Post. 29 May 1888. p. 2. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  8. "Cemeteries search". Wellington City Council. Retrieved 14 March 2015.

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References

Government offices
Preceded by
Julius Vogel
Premier of New Zealand
1876–1877
1883–1884
1884
1887–1891
Succeeded by
George Grey
Preceded by
Frederick Whitaker
Succeeded by
Robert Stout
Preceded by
Robert Stout
Succeeded by
Robert Stout
Preceded by
Robert Stout
Succeeded by
John Ballance
Political offices
Preceded by
Julius Vogel
Postmaster-General
and Commissioner of Telegraphs

1887–1889
Succeeded by
Edwin Mitchelson
Preceded by
George Fisher
Minister of Education
1889
Succeeded by
Thomas William Hislop
Preceded by
William Fitzherbert
Speaker of the New Zealand Legislative Council
1891–1892
Succeeded by
Henry Miller
New Zealand Parliament
Preceded by
William Cutfield King
Member of Parliament for Grey and Bell
1861–1866
Succeeded by
James Crowe Richmond
Preceded by
John Richardson
Member of Parliament for Town of New Plymouth
1867–1869
Succeeded by
Thomas Kelly
Preceded by
William Gisborne
Member of Parliament for Egmont
1872–1891
Succeeded by
Felix McGuire