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Hartley Travers Ferrar (28 January 1879 – April 1932) was a geologist who accompanied Captain Scott's first Antarctic expedition.
Ferrar was born at 3 Grosvenor Place, Dalkey, near Dublin, in 1879, the son of John Edgar Ferrar, a bank clerk, and Mary Holmes Hartley.
He moved to South Africa at an early age with his parents, receiving his early schooling at Simonstown school near Cape Town. He was sent back to Oundle School in England for his secondary education, and then went to Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge,where he studied geology. He excelled at sports, and many of his team photographs are archived at his old school and college respectively. On going down from Cambridge, when rowing at Henley, he was offered the post of Geologist on Captain Scott's first Antarctic expedition, and became the youngest member of the scientific staff.
He sailed on the RRS Discovery , and met his future wife (Gladys Anderson) when the ship was in New Zealand. The Discovery then sailed South and found suitable anchorage in McMurdo Sound in the Ross Sea - the expedition was to spend two winters there, as the ship was frozen in and could not get free of the ice in the first summer. Ferrar took an active part in exploring and in carrying out scientific studies (e.g. sea water salinity measurements) as well as his primary responsibility of geological surveying. He accompanied Ernest Shackleton and Dr Wilson amongst others on sledging trips, and it was in the Antarctic summer of 1903 that he went on his major sledging trip of discovery into the Western Mountains of Victoria Land. He travelled to the Upper Taylor Glacier, and found coal deposits at an altitude of 8,000 ft. He also characterised a broad layer of sandstone found in the region, and this became known as the Ferrar or Beacon Supergroup layer. The Ferrar Glacier was named after him, and he unwittingly discovered the first fossils found on what was then known to be the Antarctic mainland. One of the many rock samples which was returned to the National History Museum in London was split open by Dr W. N. Edwards in 1928, and found to contain two fossilised leaves of Glossopteris indica. Ferrar returned on the Discovery in 1904, and spent the next year writing up the Geological report of the expedition. He was then appointed to the Geological Survey in Egypt, and worked there until the First World War broke out, when he took his family back to New Zealand. He returned to serve with the 1st (Canterbury) Regiment in Palestine, working principally on aerial surveys and intelligence.
After the war he took up a position with the New Zealand Geological Survey, and carried out extensive field work in both the North and the South islands. He obtained his PhD whilst working for the service, but died in Wellington after an operation in 1932. As a mark of respect he had Ferrar peak in the Cloudy Range of the South Island named after him. Apart from the aforementioned photographs of his school and college days, various of his Polar relics are held by the Scott Polar Research Museum (Cambridge), the Canterbury Museum in New Zealand and the Discovery itself at Dundee in Scotland.
Edward Adrian Wilson was an English polar explorer, ornithologist, natural historian, physician and artist.
Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink was an Anglo-Norwegian polar explorer and a pioneer of modern Antarctic travel. He was the precursor of Sir Robert Falcon Scott, Sir Ernest Shackleton, Roald Amundsen, and others associated with the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. From 1898 to 1900, he led the British-financed Southern Cross expedition, which established a new Farthest South record at 78° 50'S.
The Transantarctic Mountains comprise a mountain range of uplifted rock in Antarctica which extend, with some interruptions, across the continent from Cape Adare in northern Victoria Land to Coats Land. These mountains divide East Antarctica and West Antarctica. They include a number of separately named mountain groups, which are often again subdivided into smaller ranges.
Ferrar Glacier is a glacier in Antarctica. It is about 35 nautical miles long, flowing from the plateau of Victoria Land west of the Royal Society Range to New Harbour in McMurdo Sound. The glacier makes a right (east) turn northeast of Knobhead, where it also feeds the upper end of the Taylor Glacier, which flows on the other (northern) side of the Kukri Hills from the Ferrar Glacier, which continues east along the south side of the Kukri Hills to New Harbour.
The Taylor Glacier is an Antarctic glacier about 54 kilometres (34 mi) long, flowing from the plateau of Victoria Land into the western end of Taylor Valley, north of the Kukri Hills, south of the Asgard Range. The middle part of the glacier is bounded on the north by the Inland Forts and on the south by Beacon Valley.
Petty Officer Edgar Evans was a Royal Navy officer and member of the "Polar Party" in Robert Falcon Scott's ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition to the South Pole in 1911–1912. This group of five men, personally selected for the final expedition push, attained the Pole on 17 January 1912. The party perished as they attempted to return to the base camp.
Admiral Edward Ratcliffe Garth Russell Evans, 1st Baron Mountevans, was a Royal Navy officer and Antarctic explorer.
The DiscoveryExpedition of 1901–1904, known officially as the British National Antarctic Expedition, was the first official British exploration of the Antarctic regions since the voyage of James Clark Ross sixty years earlier (1839–1843). Organized on a large scale under a joint committee of the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society (RGS), the new expedition carried out scientific research and geographical exploration in what was then largely an untouched continent. It launched the Antarctic careers of many who would become leading figures in the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, including Robert Falcon Scott who led the expedition, Ernest Shackleton, Edward Wilson, Frank Wild, Tom Crean and William Lashly.
The NimrodExpedition of 1907–1909, otherwise known as the British Antarctic Expedition, was the first of three successful expeditions to the Antarctic led by Ernest Shackleton. Its main target, among a range of geographical and scientific objectives, was to be first to the South Pole. This was not attained, but the expedition's southern march reached a Farthest South latitude of 88° 23' S, just 97.5 nautical miles from the pole. This was by far the longest southern polar journey to that date and a record convergence on either Pole. A separate group led by Welsh Australian geology professor Edgeworth David reached the estimated location of the South Magnetic Pole, and the expedition also achieved the first ascent of Mount Erebus, Antarctica's second highest volcano.
The Terra NovaExpedition, officially the British Antarctic Expedition, was an expedition to Antarctica which took place between 1910 and 1913. Led by Captain Robert Falcon Scott, the expedition had various scientific and geographical objectives. Scott wished to continue the scientific work that he had begun when leading the Discovery Expedition from 1901 to 1904, and wanted to be the first to reach the geographic South Pole. He and four companions attained the pole on 17 January 1912, where they found that a Norwegian team led by Roald Amundsen had preceded them by 34 days. Scott's party of five died on the return journey from the pole; some of their bodies, journals, and photographs were found by a search party eight months later.
Laurence McKinley Gould was an American geologist, educator, and polar explorer. He made expeditions to both the Arctic and Antarctic, and was chief scientist on Richard Evelyn Byrd's first Antarctic expedition, which Gould described in his 1931 book Cold: the Record of an Antarctic Sledge Journey. He served as president of Carleton College from 1945 to 1962, and president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1964. His namesakes include the research vessel Laurence M. Gould as well as Antarctic features including Gould Bay, Gould Coast, and Mount Gould.
Sir Raymond Edward Priestley was an English geologist and early Antarctic explorer. He was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Birmingham, where he helped found The Raymond Priestley Centre on the shores of Coniston Water in the Lake District National Park.
Robert Forde was an Antarctic explorer and member of the Terra Nova Expedition under Captain Robert Falcon Scott from 1910–1912.
The Southern CrossExpedition, otherwise known as the British Antarctic Expedition, 1898–1900, was the first British venture of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, and the forerunner of the more celebrated journeys of Robert Falcon Scott and Ernest Shackleton. The brainchild of the Anglo-Norwegian explorer Carsten Borchgrevink, it was the first expedition to over-winter on the Antarctic mainland, the first to visit the Great Ice Barrier—later known as the Ross Ice Shelf—since Sir James Clark Ross's groundbreaking expedition of 1839 to 1843, and the first to effect a landing on the Barrier's surface. It also pioneered the use of dogs and sledges in Antarctic travel.
Nobu Shirase was a Japanese army officer and explorer. He led the first Japanese Antarctic Expedition, 1910–12, which reached a southern latitude of 80°5′, and made the first landing on the coast of King Edward VII Land.
Kukri Hills is a prominent east-west trending range, about 25 nautical miles (46 km) long and over 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) high, forming the divide between Ferrar Glacier on the south and Taylor Glacier and Taylor Valley on the north, in Victoria Land, Antarctica.
Mount Handsley is a subsidiary rock peak on the Knobhead massif in Victoria Land, Antarctica. It rises 1.5 nautical miles (3 km) south-southeast of Knobhead and overlooks the upper part of Ferrar Glacier from the northwest. It was named in 1969 by the New Zealand Antarctic Place-Names Committee after Jesse Handsley, a member of the Discovery crew of Captain Robert Falcon Scott's expedition, who accompanied Scott, Evans, Feather, Skelton and Lashly on the major sledging journey up the Ferrar and Taylor Glaciers in 1903.
Surgeon Captain Edward W. Bingham, was a British Royal Navy officer and polar explorer who had the rare third clasp added to his Polar Medal.
Jesse Handsley was an able seaman who served with distinction under Captain Robert Falcon Scott on Scott's first expedition to the Antarctic regions; the Discovery expedition of 1901 to 1904.
Arthur Harry Blissett, was a Lance Corporal, Royal Marine who joined Captain Robert Falcon Scott on the Discovery expedition of 1901–1904.