Hassan Ali Mansur

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Hassan Ali Mansur
Hassan Ali Mansur 2.jpg
41st Prime Minister of Iran
In office
7 March 1964 26 January 1965
Monarch Mohammad Reza Shah
Preceded by Asadollah Alam
Succeeded by Amir-Abbas Hoveida
Personal details
Born13 April 1923
Tehran, Persia
Died27 January 1965(1965-01-27) (aged 41)
Tehran, Iran
Political party New Iran Party
Spouse(s)Farideh Emami
Children2
Father Ali Mansur
Alma mater University of Tehran

Hasan Ali Mansur (13 April 1923 – 27 January 1965) was an Iranian politician who was Prime Minister from 1964 to 1965. He served during the White Revolution of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and was assassinated by a member of the Fadayan-e Islam.

Iranian peoples diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group

The Iranian peoples, or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

Prime Minister of Iran former a political post in Iran

The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.

White Revolution

The White Revolution or the Shah and People Revolution was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and lasted until 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah’s reform program was built especially to weaken those classes that supported the traditional system. It consisted of several elements, including land reform, sale of some state-owned factories to finance this land reform, construction of an expanded road, rail, and air network, a number of dam and irrigation projects, the eradication of diseases such as malaria, the encouragement and support of industrial growth, enfranchisement of women, nationalization of forests and pastures, formation of literacy and health corps for rural isolated areas, and institution of profit sharing schemes for workers in industry. In the 1960s and 1970s the shah sought to develop a more independent foreign policy and established working relationships with the Soviet Union and eastern European nations. In subsequent decades, per capita income for Iranians skyrocketed, and oil revenue fueled an enormous increase in state funding for industrial development projects.

Contents

Early life and education

Hassan Ali was born in Tehran on 13 April 1923 [1] [2] to Prime Minister Ali Mansur (Mansour-al-Molk) and daughter of Zahir-ol-Molk Raiss. [3] He received primary education in Tehran and graduated from Firooz-Bahram High School. During the World War II era, he entered Law School at the University of Tehran and graduated with a degree in political science.

Tehran City in Iran

Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.4 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.

Ali Mansur Iranian Prime Minister

Ali Mansur was a Prime Minister of Iran.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Career

In the post World War II era, Mansour started his political career by entering the foreign ministry and completed several internal and foreign assignments including tours of Germany and France. In the 1950s, this thirty-year-old was twice appointed chief of prime minister's office, first for a brief period because of change in government, and second lasted for 2 years. In 1957, prime minister Manuchehr Eghbal appointed him as chairman of the economics council and vice prime minister. He also held the positions of minister of labor, and minister of trade. Prime minister Asadollah Alam appointed him as chairman of "Bimeh Iran" insurance company.

Asadollah Alam Prime Minister of Iran

Amir Asadollah Alam was an Iranian politician who was Prime Minister during the Shah's regime from 1962 to 1964. He was also Minister of Royal Court, President of Pahlavi University and Governor of Sistan and Baluchestan Provinces.

The Progressive Party or "Kanoon Motaraghion" was founded by Mansour to conduct economic policy research as well as the launching pad for his future prime ministership. In 1962 Mansour ran for the 21st Majlis and was elected as the second representative from Tehran, after Abdollah Riazi, speaker of the Majlis. A few dozen of his party members were also elected to Majlis, with the exception of Hoveyda and Kashefian who were more interested in executive branch. Mansour then expanded his power base by forming a coalition and founded "IRAN NOVIN" party with a majority of 175 out of 230 deputies, and was elected the Majority Leader of Parliament.

Abdollah Riazi Iranian politician

Abdollah Riazi was an Iranian politician who served as the Speaker of the Parliament of Iran for almost 15 years during Pahlavi dynasty.

Cabinet of Mansur Ghassem Rezai Mansoor.jpg
Cabinet of Mansur

After Alam resigned his premiership in 1963, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi appointed Mansur prime minister. He introduced many young new faces, such as Amir Abbas Hoveyda, Jamshid Amuzegar, Ataollah Khosravani, Nahavandi, Alinaghi Alikhani, Manouchehr Rohani, and many other Iran Novin members. Since most of his cabinet were young and American/European educated, Mansour had pro-American tendencies in his politics and enjoyed the support of American government. Clearly the Shah now felt more comfortable working with people from his own generation than older generation who also served his father and called him "Shah Javan" or the "Young Shah". The torch was passed from the old war heroes to younger educated technocrats to carry out the "White Revolution" and an explosive decade of growth.

Mansur passed the Geneva Convention American Force Protection Act, also known as the highly controversial Capitulation Law. This led to a fiery attack by Ayatollah Khomeini from Qom, and resulted in his historical exile to Turkey, and many subsequent riots. Mansur also raised the price of gasoline from 5 to 10 Rials to meet budget deficits, but later retreated after strikes by taxi drivers.

Qom City in Iran

Qom is the seventh metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran. Qom is the capital of Qom Province; and its distance to the south of Tehran is 140 km. At the 2016 census its population was 1,201,158. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Ankara is its capital but Istanbul is the country's largest city. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Personal life

Mansur was briefly engaged to Noushie Teymourtash, but subsequently married Farideh Emami. He was survived by a son, the jazz guitarist Ahmad Mansur (1960–2011) and a daughter, the journalist Fati Mansur (1964). Farideh's sister Leyla Emami, later married prime minister Amir Abbas Hoveyda. Javad Mansur, his brother, also served as a consultant to prime minister Hoveyda. His sister Touran was briefly engaged to Fereydoun Hoveyda but subsequently married Manouchehr Teymourtash.

Assassination

At 10am on 21 January 1965, [4] a few days before the first anniversary of the White Revolution, Mansour was entering the gates of Majlis to present his first State-of-the-Union speech. After he stepped out of his car in Baharestan Square, he was shot three times by 17-year-old Mohammad Bokharaei, a member of Fada'iyan-e Islam. [5] Bokharaei was later executed, along with three others implicated in the assassination – Reza Saffar Harandi, Haaj Sadegh Amani, and Morteza Niknejad. [5] [6]

Mansour was put back into the car and rushed to the hospital, where he remained in critical condition for 5 days before he finally died. During the crisis, Shah quickly appointed Mansur's friend, Amir-Abbas Hoveida as the acting prime minister, which he inherited for the next 13 years. Mansour's assassination occurred a few years after assassination of prime minister Ali Razmara.

Mansour was buried in "Shah-Abdol-Azim" near Reza Shah's mausoleum, and a Kennedy-like Black Granite Eternal Flame was constructed at his grave site. After the Islamic Revolution, the Mansur gravesite was destroyed by Ayatollah Khalkhali, and his remains were dug up and scattered.

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References

  1. Sahimi, Mohammad (3 February 2010). "The Ten Days That Changed Iran". PBS. Los Angeles. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  2. https://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=148667202
  3. Moezzi, Fatemeh. "Hassan Ali Mansur". IICHS. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
  4. Chicago Tribune, January 22, 1965, p1A-11
  5. 1 2 Sahimi, Mohammad (24 December 2009). "Ashura 101". PBS.
  6. Sahimi, Muhammad (26 July 2009). "Ahmadinejad Sacks Ministers; Mashaei to Remain Close". PBS.
Political offices
Preceded by
Asadollah Alam
Prime Minister of Iran
19641965
Succeeded by
Amir Abbas Hoveyda
Party political offices
Preceded by
None
Secretary-General of the New Iran Party
1963–1965
Succeeded by
Ataollah Khosravani