Hassan Habibi

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Hassan Habibi
حسن حبیبی
Hassan Habibi 1980.jpg
Habibi in 1980
First Vice President of Iran
In office
1 September 1989 11 September 2001
President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Mohammad Khatami
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded by Mohammad-Reza Aref
Minister of Justice
In office
9 March 1985 1 September 1989
President Ali Khamenei
Prime Minister Mir-Hossein Mousavi
Preceded byMohammad Asghari
Succeeded by Esmail Shooshtari
Member of the Parliament of Iran
In office
28 May 1980 28 May 1984
Constituency Tehran, Rey and Shemiranat
Majority1,552,478 (72.7%)
Minister of Culture and Higher Education
In office
1 October 1979 6 November 1979
Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan
Preceded by Ali Shariatmadari
Succeeded byHassan Arefi
Personal details
Born
Hassan Ebrahim Habibi
Persian: حسن ابراهیم حبیبی

(1937-01-29)29 January 1937
Tehran, Iran
Died31 January 2013(2013-01-31) (aged 76)
Tehran, Iran
Political party
Spouse(s)Shafigheh Rahideh [1]
Awards Independence Ribbon Bar (I.R.Iran).svg Excellent Order of Independence [2]
Ribbon of Knowledge.png Order of Knowledge (1st class) [3]

Hassan Ebrahim Habibi (Persian : حسن ابراهیم حبیبی, b. 29 January 1937 – d. 31 January 2013) was an Iranian politician, lawyer, scholar and the first vice president from 1989 until 2001 under Presidents Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and Mohammad Khatami. He was also a member of the High Council of Cultural Revolution and head of Academy of Persian Language and Literature from 2004 until his death in 2013.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Vice President of Iran

The Vice President of Iran is defined by article 124 of the Constitution of Iran, as anyone appointed by the President of Iran to lead an organization related to Presidential affairs. As of July 2009, there are 12 Vice Presidents in Iran. The First Vice President is the most important as he or she leads cabinet meetings in the absence of the president.

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Iranian politician, Shia cleric and Writer

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997. He was the head of the Assembly of Experts from 2007 until 2011, when he decided not to nominate himself for the post. He was also the chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council.

Contents

Early life and education

Habibi was born on 29 January 1937. He studied sociology in France. [4] [5] He held a PhD in law and sociology. When he was a university student he visited Khomeini while the latter was in exile. [6]

Career

Habibi was tasked by Ayatollah Khomenei to draft the prospective constitution of Iran when the latter was in exile in Paris. [7] His version was heavily modified due to criticisms and the final text was approved by the election in November 1979. [5]

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

Following the Iranian revolution, Habibi was named public spokesman for the revolutionary council. [8] He was among the main architects of the first draft of Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which was later passed for more discussion to an elected Assembly of Experts for Constitution. [9] The assembly made significant changes in the original draft, e.g. by introducing the new position of "leader of the Islamic Republic" based on Khomeini's concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists, which gave almost unlimited power to the clergy. The modified version was approved in a popular referendum in 1979. In the 1980 presidential election, Habibi run for office, but received only ten percent of the vote against Banisadr's seventy percent. [10] Habibi was backed by Mohammad Beheshti in the election process. [10] In the same year he won a parliamentary seat, being a representative of the Islamic Republican Party. [11]

Iranian Revolution Revolution in Iran to overthrow the Shah replace him with Ayatollah Khomeini.

The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution, was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements.

Politics of Iran

The politics of Iran take place in a framework that officially combines elements of theocracy and presidential democracy. The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran, declaring that Shia Islam of the Twelver school of thought is Iran's official religion.

Assembly of Experts for Constitution former Institution of the Revolution in Iran

Assembly of Experts for Constitution, also translated the Assembly for the Final Review of the Constitution (AFRC), was a constituent assembly in Iran, elected in the summer of 1979 to write a new constitution for the Islamic Republic Government. It convened on August 18 to consider the draft constitution written earlier, completed its deliberations rewriting the constitution on November 15, and saw the constitution it had written approved by referendum on December 2 and 3, 1979, by over 98 percent of the vote.

Habibi served as the minister of justice under Prime Minister Mousavi. He was first vice president of Iran from 1989 to 2001, eight years under President Rafsanjani and then four years under President Khatami. [9] He was replaced by Mohammad Reza Aref in the post in Khatami's second term. He was also head of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature [12] and a member of the Expediency Council. [13]

Mir-Hossein Mousavi Iranian politician and architect

Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989. He was a reformist candidate for the 2009 presidential election and eventually the leader of the opposition in the post-election unrest. Mousavi served as the president of the Iranian Academy of Arts until 2009, when Conservative authorities removed him.

Mohammad Khatami Iranian prominent reformist politician, scholar and shiite faqih

SeyyedMohammad Khatami served as the fifth President of Iran from 3 August 1997 to 3 August 2005. He also served as Iran's Minister of Culture from 1982 to 1992. He was a critic of former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's government.

Mohammad Reza Aref Iranian politician

Mohammad Reza Aref is an Iranian engineer, academic and reformist politician who is currently parliamentary leader of reformists' Hope fraction in the Iranian Parliament, representing Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr. Aref has also been heading the Reformists' Supreme Council for Policymaking since its establishment in 2015.

Death

Habibi died on 31 January 2013. He was buried at the mausoleum of Imam Khomeini in Tehran on 1 February. [13] The funeral service was attended by leading Iranian political figures, including President Ahmedinejad. [13]

Work

Habibi is the author of several books, including God (1981), Society, Culture, Politics (1984), Islam and the Crisis of Our Time (1984), In the Mirror Of Rights: Views Of International Rights, Comparative Rights And Sociology (1988), Seeking the Roots (editing & translation) (1994), Casework of An Ages Student (1997), One Word Out Of Thousands (2 vol.) (1998-2001) and General International Rights (2 vol.) (2003). [14]

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References

  1. Dana Dabir (7 March 2011). همسران حکومتی؛ از حاشیه تا متن [Governmental spouses; from the margin to the text]. Khodnevis (in Persian). Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
  2. اعطای نشان عالی استقلال به آقای حسن حبیبی معاون اول رئیس‌جمهور [Endowing the Excellent Order of Independence to Mr. Hassan Habibi, First Vice President]. Iranian Parliament (in Persian). 26 July 1997. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  3. نشان‌های دولتی در روزهای پایانی خاتمی و احمدی‌نژاد به چه کسانی رسید؟. Tasnim News Agency (in Persian). 24 August 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  4. Chehabi, H. E. (Summer 1991). "Religion and Politics in Iran: How Theocratic Is the Islamic Republic?". Daedalus. 120 (3): 69–91. JSTOR   . 20025388 .
  5. 1 2 Randjbar-Daemi, Siavush (2013). "Building the Islamic State: The Draft Constitution of 1979 Reconsidered". Iranian Studies. 46 (4): 641–663. doi:10.1080/00210862.2013.784519.
  6. Paola Rivetti (February 2012). "Islamic Republic: Shaping Iran's politics through the campus" (Chaillot Papers). In Rouzbeh Parsi (ed.). Iran: A Revolutionary Republic in Transition. Paris: Institute for Security Studies European Union. ISBN   978-92-9198-198-4 . Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  7. Akhavi, Shahrough (2008). "The Thought and Role of Ayatollah Hossein'ali Montazeri in the Politics of Post-1979 Iran". Iranian Studies. 41 (5): 645–666. doi:10.1080/00210860802518301.
  8. Rubin, Barry (1980). Paved with Good Intentions (PDF). New York: Penguin Books. p. 284.
  9. 1 2 "Hassan Ebrahim Habibi, Iranian scholar & former VP passes away". PressTV. 1 February 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  10. 1 2 Rouleau, Eric (1980). "Khomenei's Iran". Foreign Affairs. 59 (1): 1. doi:10.2307/20040651. JSTOR   20040651 . Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  11. Bahman Baktiari (1996). Parliamentary Politics in Revolutionary Iran: The Institutionalization of Factional Politics. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. p. 69.  via Questia (subscription required)
  12. "Iranologists condemn deliberate distortion of Persian Gulf's name". Payvand. 24 December 2004. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  13. 1 2 3 "Iran's former first vice president laid to rest". Tehran Times. 1 February 2013. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  14. "Dr. Hassan Habibi". Eve Literary Agency. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
Political offices
Preceded by
Office established
First Vice President of Iran
1989–2001
Succeeded by
Mohammad-Reza Aref
Party political offices
Preceded by
Jalaleddin Farsi
Islamic Republican Party nominee for President of Iran
1980
Succeeded by
Mohammad-Ali Rajaei

asr:Hassan Habibi