Hassan Rouhani

Last updated


Hassan Rouhani
حسن روحانی
Hassan Rouani 2017 portrait.jpg
7th President of Iran
Assumed office
3 August 2013
Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei
First Vice President Eshaq Jahangiri
Preceded by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
In office
3 August 2013 17 September 2016
Preceded by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Succeeded by Nicolás Maduro
Chief Nuclear Negotiator of Iran
In office
6 October 2003 15 August 2005
President Mohammad Khatami
Deputy Hossein Mousavian
Preceded byPosition created
Succeeded by Ali Larijani
Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council
In office
14 October 1989 15 August 2005
President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Mohammad Khatami
Preceded byPosition created
Succeeded by Ali Larijani
Member of the Assembly of Experts
Assumed office
19 February 2007
Constituency Tehran Province
Majority2,238,166 (53.56%)
In office
18 February 2000 18 February 2007
Constituency Semnan Province
First Deputy Speaker of the Parliament
In office
2 June 1992 26 May 2000
Preceded by Hossein Hashemian
Succeeded by Behzad Nabavi
Member of the Parliament
In office
28 May 1984 27 May 2000
Constituency Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr
Majority729,965 (58.3%; 2nd term)
In office
28 May 1980 27 May 1984
Constituency Semnan
Majority19,017 (62.1%)
Personal details
Born
Hassan Fereydoun

(1948-11-12) November 12, 1948 (age 70)
Sorkheh, Iran
Political party Moderation and Development Party (1999–present)
Other political
affiliations
Combatant Clergy Association (1988–present; inactive since 2009) [1]
Islamic Republican Party (1979–87)
Spouse(s) Sahebeh Arabi (1968–present)
Children5
Alma mater Qom Seminary
University of Tehran
Glasgow Caledonian University
Signature Rouhani signature.png
Website Government website
Personal website (Persian)
Military service
AllegianceFlag of Iran.svg  Iran
Years of service1971–72 (conscription) [2]
1985–91 [3]
Unit Sepah Danesh of Nishapur (1971–72) [2]
Commands Commander-in-Chief of Air Defense (1985–91) [3]
Deputy to Second-in-Command of Iran's Joint Chiefs of Staff (1988–89) [3]
Battles/wars Iran–Iraq War
Awards Order of Nasr Ribbon.svg Order of Nasr (1st Class) [4]
Fath Medal 2nd Order.jpg Order of Fath (2nd Class) [5] [6]

Hassan Rouhani (Persian : حسن روحانی, Standard Persian pronunciation: [hæˈsæne ɾowhɒːˈniː] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); born Hassan Fereydoun (Persian: حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) [7] [8] is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013. He was also a lawyer, [9] academic, former diplomat and Islamic cleric. He has been a member of Iran's Assembly of Experts since 1999, [10] member of the Expediency Council since 1991, [11] and a member of the Supreme National Security Council since 1989. [3] [12] Rouhani was deputy speaker of the fourth and fifth terms of the Parliament of Iran (Majlis) and Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council from 1989 to 2005. [3] In the latter capacity, he was the country's top negotiator with the EU three, UK, France, and Germany, on nuclear technology in Iran, and has also served as a Shi'ite [13] ijtihadi cleric, [14] and economic trade negotiator. [15] [16] :138 He has expressed official support for upholding the rights of ethnic and religious minorities. [17] In 2013, he appointed former industries minister Eshaq Jahangiri as his first vice-president. [18]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

President of Iran position

The President of Iran is the head of government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The President is the highest ranking official of Iran. The President carries out the decrees, and answers to the Supreme Leader of Iran, who functions as the country's head of state. Unlike the executive in other countries, the President of Iran does not have full control over the government, which is ultimately under the control of the Supreme Leader. Chapter IX of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran sets forth the qualifications for presidential candidates. The procedures for presidential election and all other elections in Iran are outlined by the Supreme Leader. The President functions as the executive of the decrees and wishes of the Supreme Leader, including: signing treaties with foreign countries and international organizations; and administering national planning, budget, and state employment affairs. The President also appoints the ministers, subject to the approval of Parliament, and the Supreme Leader who can dismiss or reinstate any of the ministers at any time, regardless of the president or parliament's decision. The Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei directly chooses the ministries of Defense, Intelligence and Foreign Affairs, as well as certain other ministries, such as the Science Ministry. Iran’s regional policy is directly controlled by the office of the Supreme Leader with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ task limited to protocol and ceremonial occasions. All of Iran’s ambassadors to Arab countries, for example, are chosen by the Quds Corps, which directly reports to the Supreme Leader.

Assembly of Experts

The Assembly of Experts —also translated as the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership or as the Council of Experts— is the deliberative body empowered to designate and dismiss the Supreme Leader of Iran. However all directly-elected members after the vetting process by the Guardian Council still have to be approved by the Supreme Leader of Iran before gaining membership to the Assembly of Experts.

Contents

On 7 May 2013, Rouhani registered for the presidential election that was held on 14 June 2013. [19] He said that, if elected, he would prepare a "civil rights charter", restore the economy and improve rocky relations with Western nations. [20] [21] Rouhani is frequently described as a moderate. He was elected as President of Iran on 15 June, defeating Tehran mayor Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf and four other candidates. [22] [23] [24] He took office on 3 August 2013. [25] In 2013, Time magazine named him in its list of the 100 Most Influential People in the World. In domestic policy, he encourages personal freedom and free access to information, has improved women's rights by appointing female foreign ministry spokespeople, and has been described as a centrist and reformist who has improved Iran's diplomatic relations with other countries through exchanging conciliatory letters. [26] [27] [28] Rouhani won re-election in the 2017 election with 23,636,652 votes (57.1%). [29] He became the third Iranian President, after Mohammad Khatami and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, to win a presidential victory as an incumbent with an increased electoral mandate.

2013 Iranian presidential election election

Presidential elections were held in Iran on 14 June 2013. Hassan Rouhani won with a landslide victory, elected in the first round of voting with 50.71% of the vote. Tehran Mayor Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf finished second with 16.56% of the vote. Over 36.7 million Iranians voted, 72.71% of eligible voters.

Tehran Capital and largest city of Iran

Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.

Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf Iranian conservative politician, professor, and former air force pilot

Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf is an Iranian conservative politician and former military officer who held office as the Mayor of Tehran from 2005 to 2017. Ghalibaf was formerly Iran's Chief of police from 2000 to 2005 and commander of Revolutionary Guards' Air Force from 1997 to 2000.

Name

He was born Hassan Fereydoun (or Fereydun, in reference to a just king in Persian mythology, Persian : ‌حسن فریدون, Persian pronunciation:  [hæˌsæn-e feɾejˈdun]) and later changed his last name to Rouhani , which means 'spiritual' or 'cleric'; [30] also transliterated as Rowhani, Ruhani, or Rohani). It is not clear when he officially changed his last name. He was named as "Hassan Fereydoun Rouhani" (Persian : حسن فریدون روحانی) in a list of Majlis representatives on 5 July 1981, [31] while photos of his identification card (in Persian transliteration: shenasnameh) taken around his presidential campaign in 2013 only mention "Rouhani" as his last name. [8]

Fereydun

Fereydun, also pronounced and spelled Freydun, Faridon and Afridun, is the name of an Iranian mythical king and hero from the kingdom of Varena. He is known as an emblem of victory, justice, and generosity in Persian literature.

Persian mythology traditional legends and stories etc. from the Persian culture

Persian mythology are traditional tales and stories of ancient origin, all involving extraordinary or supernatural beings. Drawn from the legendary past of Iran, they reflect the attitudes of the society to which they first belonged - attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil, the actions of the gods, yazats, and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures. Myths play a crucial part in Iranian culture and our understanding of them is increased when we consider them within the context of Iranian history.

Rouhani, also transliterated as Rowhani and Rohani, is a surname, and may refer to:

Early life and education

Hassan Rouhani as a teenager Hassan Rouhani childhood.jpg
Hassan Rouhani as a teenager

Hassan Rouhani (born Hassan Fereydoun) was born on 12 November 1948 [8] in Sorkheh, near Semnan, into a religious Persian family. [32] His father, Haj Asadollah Fereydoun (died 2011), [33] had a spice shop in Sorkheh [34] and his mother lived in Semnan until her death in 2015 with her daughters and sons-in-law. [8] [35] Asadollah Fereydoun is reported to have been politically active against Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran, and arrested first in 1962, and then more than twenty times before the Iranian Revolution in 1979. [36]

Sorkheh City in Semnan, Iran

Sorkheh is a city in and the capital of Sorkheh County, in Semnan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 9,062, in 2,686 families. Sorkhei, a Semnani language, is still spoken by some of its inhabitants.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi the last shah of Iran

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, also known as Mohammad Reza Shah, was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah took the title Shahanshah on 26 October 1967. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief"). His dream of what he referred to as a "Great Civilisation" in Iran led to a rapid industrial and military modernisation, as well as economic and social reforms.

Iranian Revolution Revolution in Iran to overthrow the Shah replace him with Ayatollah Khomeini.

The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution, was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements.

Rouhani started religious studies in 1960, first at Semnan Seminary [9] :55 before moving on to the Qom Seminary in 1961. [9] :76 He attended classes taught by prominent scholars of that time including Mostafa Mohaghegh Damad, Morteza Haeri Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza Golpaygani, Soltani, Mohammad Fazel Lankarani, and Mohammad Shahabadi. [9] :81 In addition, he studied modern courses, and was admitted to the University of Tehran in 1969, and obtained a BA degree in Judicial Law in 1972. [3] [9] :309–312 In 1973, Rouhani entered military service in the city of Nishapur. [37]

Qom Seminary largest traditional Islamic school of higher learning

The Qom Seminary is the largest Islamic seminary (hawza) in Iran, established in 1922 by Grand Ayatollah Abdul-Karim Haeri Yazdi in Qom.

Mostafa Mohaghegh Damad Iranian cleric

Seyyed Mostafa Mohaghegh Damad is an Iranian Shia cleric and scholar.

Morteza Haeri Yazdi was the son of Shia Islam Faqīh Abdul-Karim Haeri Yazdi.

Rouhani continued his studies at Glasgow Caledonian University in Scotland, graduating in 1995 with an M.Phil. degree in Law with his thesis entitled The Islamic legislative power with reference to the Iranian experience and a PhD degree in Constitutional Law in 1999 for a thesis titled The Flexibility of Shariah (Islamic Law) with reference to the Iranian experience. [38] [39] Rouhani's Caledonian research was initially supervised by Iranian lawyer and scholar Professor Sayed Hassan Amin and later by Islamic law scholar Dr Mahdi Zahraa. [40]

Continuing education is an all-encompassing term within a broad list of post-secondary learning activities and programs. The term is used mainly in the United States and Canada.

Glasgow Caledonian University university

Glasgow Caledonian University is a public university in Glasgow, Scotland. It was formed in 1993 by the merger of The Queen's College, Glasgow and Glasgow Polytechnic.

The Master of Philosophy is an advanced postgraduate degree. An MPhil typically includes a taught portion and a significant research portion, during which a thesis project is conducted under supervision. An MPhil may be awarded to postgraduate students after completing taught coursework and one to two years of original research, which may also serve as a provisional enrollment for a PhD programme.

The website of the Center for Strategic Research, a think-tank headed by Rouhani, misattributed his PhD to Glasgow University rather than Glasgow Caledonian University and confusion ensued as a result on whether he was a graduate of either university, especially as he was known during his student years by his birth name "Hassan Fereydoun". [41] Glasgow Caledonian University carried out an internal investigation to confirm Rouhani's alumnus status and after confirming it, it published Rouhani's theses abstracts and a video showing him being capped, as Scottish academic tradition provides, during the University's 1999 graduation ceremony. [42] [43]

PhD thesis plagiarism allegation

Allegations regarding Rouhani's plagiarism were first raised in 2013 when it was claimed that he had probably "lifted" sentences from a book by Afghan author Mohammad Hashim Kamali. Glasgow Caledonian University, Rouhani's graduation school, argued that the sentences were both cited properly. The issue was raised again amid 2017 Iranian presidential election when a student campaign claimed that they had for the first time investigated Rouhani's whole thesis using plagiarism detection tool iThenticate and that chapters one through four of Rouhani’s thesis had been plagiarized at least 39%, 43%, 40% and 82%, respectively. Ayatollah Ali Akbar Kalantari, a member of Assembly of Experts, Shiraz University faculty member and one of the alleged victims, said that "major segments" of Chapter 4 of Rouhani's thesis had been translated from his book without being referenced. [44]

Reformist Sadegh Zibakalam accused Rouhani's rival of politicizing the case right before the elections. Mohammad Mehdi Zahedi, head of Iranian Parliament's Commission on Education and Research, said that he had found major plagiarisms in chapter 4 of Rouhani's thesis and that the case would be investigated in Education and Research Commission. [44] 50 student-run organizations [45] as well as Shiraz University faculty professors asked Ali Akbar Kalantari to prosecute the case in separate letters. [46]

Political activities before the Iranian Revolution

As a young cleric Hassan Rouhani started his political activities by following the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini during the beginning of the Iranian Islamist movement. In 1965, he began traveling throughout Iran making speeches against the government of the Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the Shah (king) of Iran. During those years he was arrested many times and was banned from delivering public speeches. [9] :232

In November 1977, during a public ceremony held at Tehran's Ark Mosque to commemorate the death of Mostafa Khomeini (the elder son of the Ayatollah Khomeini), Rouhani used the title "Imam" for the Ayatollah Khomeini, the then exiled leader of the Islamist movement, for the first time. [9] :375 [32] It has been suggested that the title has been used for Khomeini by others before, including by the Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr, although Rouhani was influential in publicizing the title. [47] [48] [49]

Since he was under surveillance by SAVAK (Iran's pre-revolution intelligence agency), the Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti and the Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari advised him to leave the country. [9] :385

Outside Iran he made public speeches to Iranian students studying abroad and joined Khomeini upon arriving in France. [9] :410

Political career during the 1980s and 1990s

Early years of Islamic Republic

Following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Rouhani, who had been engaged in revolutionary struggles for about two decades, did his best to stabilize the nascent Islamic Republic and as a first step, he started with organizing the disorderly Iranian army and military bases. [9] :515 He was elected to the Majlis, the Parliament of Iran, in 1980. During five terms in the Majlis and for a total of 20 years (from 1980 to 2000), he served in various capacities including deputy speaker of the Majlis (in 4th and 5th terms), as well as the head of defense committee (1st and 2nd terms), and foreign policy committee (4th and 5th terms). [32]

Among responsibilities shouldered by him in the post-revolution era was leadership of the supervisory council of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) from 1980 to 1983. [3] In July 1983, while Rouhani was heading the council, the council members and Rouhani had conflicts [50] with Mohammad Hashemi Rafsanjani the then head of IRIB, which led to temporary replacement of Hashemi by first Rouhani and then immediately Mohammad Javad Larijani. [51] The conflict was resolved by the Ayatollah Khomeini intervening and insisting on Rafsanjani staying as the head of IRIB. [52]

Iran–Iraq War

Rouhani after being elected as a member of the parliament Hassan Rouhani in theologian uniform (Talabegi clothes) poster for the 1st Islamic Consultative Assembly election.jpg
Rouhani after being elected as a member of the parliament

During the Iran–Iraq War, Rouhani was a member of the Supreme Defense Council (1982–1988), member of the High Council for Supporting War and headed its Executive Committee (1986–1988), deputy commander of the war (1983–1985), commander of the Khatam-ol-Anbiya Operation Center (1985–1988), and commander of the Iran Air Defense Force (1986–1991). [3] He was appointed as Deputy to Second-in-Command of Iran's Joint Chiefs of Staff (1988–1989). [3]

When Robert C. McFarlane, Reagan's national security adviser, came to Tehran in May 1986, Rouhani was one of the three people who talked to McFarlane about buying weapons. Eventually, this weapons sale became known as the Iran–Contra affair. [53] [54]

At the end of the war, Hassan Rouhani was awarded the second-grade Fath (Victory) Medal along with a group of commanders of the Iranian Army and the Revolutionary Guards. In another ceremony on the occasion of the liberation of Khoramshahr, he and a group of other officials and military commanders who were involved in the war with Iraq were awarded first-grade Nasr Medal by the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces Ayatollah Khamenei.

After the war

Rouhani was offered and turned down the post of Minister of Intelligence of Iran in 1989. [55]

After the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was amended and the Supreme National Security Council (SNSC) came into being up to the present time, he has been representative of the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, at the council. [3] Rouhani was the first secretary of the SNSC and kept the post for 16 years from 1989 to 2005. He was also national security advisor – to President Hashemi and President Khatami – for 13 years from 1989 to 1997 and from 2000 to 2005. [3] In 1991, Rouhani was appointed to the Expediency Council and has kept that post up to the present time. He heads the Political, Defense, and Security Committee of the Expediency Council. [3]

After the Iran student protests, July 1999 he, as secretary of Supreme National Security Council, stated in a pro-government rally that "At dusk yesterday we received a decisive revolutionary order to crush mercilessly and monumentally any move of these opportunist elements wherever it may occur. From today our people shall witness how in the arena our law enforcement force . . . shall deal with these opportunists and riotous elements, if they simply dare to show their faces." [56] and led the crackdown. [57]

In the midterm elections for the third term of the Assembly of Experts which was held on 18 February 2000, Rouhani was elected to the Assembly of Experts from Semnan Province. He was elected as Tehran Province's representative to the Assembly's fourth term in 2006 and is still serving in that capacity. He was the head of the political and social committee of the assembly of experts (from 2001 to 2006), member of the presiding board, and head of Tehran office of the secretariat of the assembly (from 2006 to 2008). On 5 March 2013, he was elected as a member of the Assembly's "Commission for investigating ways of protecting and guarding Velayat-e Faqih". [58]

In addition to executive posts, Rouhani kept up his academic activities. From 1995 to 1999, he was a member of the board of trustees of Tehran Universities and North Region. Rouhani has been running the Center for Strategic Research since 1991. He is the managing editor of three academic and research quarterlies in Persian and English, which include Rahbord (Strategy), Foreign Relations, and the Iranian Review of Foreign Affairs.

Nuclear dossier

Iran-EU three's first meeting, Tehran, Iran, 21 October 2003 EU ministers in Iran for nuclear talks, 21 October 2003.jpg
Iran-EU three's first meeting, Tehran, Iran, 21 October 2003
Hassan Rouhani, January 29, 2005 Hassan Rouhani - January 29, 2005.png
Hassan Rouhani, January 29, 2005

Rouhani was secretary of the Supreme National Security Council (SNSC) for 16 years. His leading role in the nuclear negotiations which brought him the nickname of "Diplomat Sheikh", first given to him by the nascent Sharq newspaper in November 2003 and was frequently repeated after that by domestic and foreign Persian-speaking media. His career at the Council began under President Hashemi Rafsanjani and continued under his successor, President Khatami. Heinonen, former senior IAEA official, said that Rouhani used to boast of how he had used talks with Western powers to "buy time to advance Iran's programme." [59] His term as Iran's top nuclear negotiator, however, was limited to 678 days (from 6 October 2003 to 15 August 2005). That period began with international revelations about Iran's nuclear energy program and adoption of a strongly worded resolution by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In June 2004, the board of governors of the IAEA issued a statement which was followed by a resolution in September of the same year, which focused on Iran's nuclear case with the goal of imposing difficult commitments on Iran. That development was concurrent with the victory of the United States in Iraq war and escalation of war rhetoric in the region. The international community was experiencing unprecedented tensions as a result of which Iran's nuclear advances were considered with high sensitivity. [16] :120–126

As tensions increased and in view of the existing differences between Iran's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Atomic Energy Organization, a proposal was put forth by the foreign minister, Kamal Kharazi, which was accepted by the president and other Iranian leaders. According to that proposal, a decision was made to establish a politically, legally, and technically efficient nuclear team with Hassan Rouhani in charge. The team was delegated with special powers in order to formulate a comprehensive plan for Iran's interactions with the IAEA and coordination among various concerned organizations inside the country. Therefore, on the order of President Khatami with the confirmation of Ali Khamenei, Hassan Rouhani took charge of Iran's nuclear case on 6 October 2003. [16] :138–140 Subsequently, negotiations between Iran and three European states started at Saadabad in Tehran and continued in later months in Brussels, Geneva and Paris.

Rouhani visiting Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) field hospital after the 2003 Bam earthquake Hassan Rouhani at US Field Hospital 12-24-2003 - FEMA - 13321 - by Marty Bahamonde.jpg
Rouhani visiting Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) field hospital after the 2003 Bam earthquake

Rouhani and his team, whose members had been introduced by Velayati and Kharazi as the best diplomats in the Iranian Foreign Ministry, [16] :109,141 based their efforts on dialogue and confidence building due to political and security conditions. As a first step, they prevented further escalation of accusations against Iran in order to prevent reporting Iran's nuclear case to the United Nations Security Council. Therefore, and for the purpose of confidence building, certain parts of Iran's nuclear activities were voluntarily suspended at several junctures.

In addition to building confidence, insisting on Iran's rights, reducing international pressures and the possibility of war, and preventing Iran's case from being reported to the UN Security Council, Iran succeeded in completing its nuclear fuel cycle and took groundbreaking steps. [16] :660–667 However, decisions made by the nuclear team under the leadership of Rouhani were criticized by certain circles in later years. [60] [61]

Following the election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad as president, Rouhani resigned his post as secretary of the Supreme National Security Council after 16 years on 15 August 2005, [16] :594,601 and was succeeded by Ali Larijani as the new secretary who also took charge of Iran's nuclear case. Larijani, likewise, could not get along with the policies of the new government and resigned his post on 20 October 2007, to be replaced by Saeed Jalili. Rouhani then was appointed by the Supreme Leader as his representative at the SNSC. [62]

Presidential campaigns

2013 presidential election

Rouhani's supporters celebrate his presidential victory in Tehran Hassan Rouhani election winning celebration 04.jpg
Rouhani's supporters celebrate his presidential victory in Tehran
Rouhani during his victory speech, 15 June 2013 Hassan Rouhani press conference after his election as president 14.jpg
Rouhani during his victory speech, 15 June 2013
Our centrifuges are good to spin when our people's economy is also spinning in the right direction.

Rouhani during TV debate [63]

Rouhani was considered a leading candidate in the June election because of his centrist views yet close ties to Iran's ruling clerics and the Green Movement. [64] He announced his presidential candidacy on 11 March 2013 and registered as a presidential candidate on 7 May. Amid the run-up to the election, former presidents Mohammad Khatami and Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, together with reformists supported Rouhani on the presidential race after pro-reform candidate Mohammad Reza Aref dropped out of the presidential race after Khatami advised him to quit in favor of Rouhani. [65] On 10 June, Mehr news agency and Fars news agency, suggested that Rouhani might be disqualified prior to the election [66] and The Washington Post , in an editorial, predicted that Rouhani "will not be allowed to win". [67] On 15 June 2013, Interior Minister Mostafa Mohammad Najjar announced the results of the election, with a total number of 36,704,156 ballots cast; Rouhani won 18,613,329 votes, while his main rival Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf secured 6,077,292 votes. [68] [69] Rouhani performed well with both the middle class and youth, even garnering majority support in religious cities such as Mashhad and Qom (an important seat of Shia Islam and the clergy, many of whom surprisingly do not support conservatives) [70] as well as small towns and villages. [22] Rouhani's electoral landslide victory was widely seen as the result of the Green Movement from the 2009 elections, with crowds chanting pro-reform slogans. Religious Iranians equally celebrated Rouhani's victory, demonstrating what analysts described as a thorough rejection of the policies of the conservative factions. [22]

2017 presidential election

Rouhani shaking hands with Ebrahim Raisi at the Assembly of Experts Rouhani and Raisi in Assembly of Experts.jpg
Rouhani shaking hands with Ebrahim Raisi at the Assembly of Experts

Rouhani saw off a strong challenge from hardline Ebrahim Raisi at the 2017 election, a fellow cleric with radically different politics, who stirred up populist concerns about the sluggish economy, lambasted Rouhani for seeking foreign investment and appealed to religious conservatives. He had gathered momentum as conservatives keen to win back control of the government coalesced behind Raisi's initially lacklustre campaign. His other rivals were Mostafa Mir-Salim and Mostafa Hashemitaba.

Rouhani ultimately won the election in a landslide, providing a ringing endorsement of his efforts to re-engage with the West and offer greater freedoms. [71] He received 23,636,652 of the votes, [29] in an election that had 73.07% turnout.

Presidency (2013–present)

In his press conference one day after election day, Rouhani reiterated his promise to recalibrate Iran's relations with the world. He promised greater openness and to repair the country's international standing, offering greater nuclear transparency in order to restore international trust. [72] Revolutionary Guards Major General Mohammad Jafari criticised Rouhani's administration. "The military, systems and procedures governing the administrative system of the country are the same as before, [but it] has been slightly modified and unfortunately infected by Western doctrine, and a fundamental change must occur. The main threat to the revolution is in the political arena and the Guards cannot remain silent in the face of that." In May 2017, Rouhani was re-elected as President with 23.5 million votes. [73]

Hassan Rouhani taking oath of office in the Iranian Parliament with Chief Justice Sadeq Larijani at his left Hassan Rouhani's second term inauguration 09.jpg
Hassan Rouhani taking oath of office in the Iranian Parliament with Chief Justice Sadeq Larijani at his left

He was announced the winner on the day following the election. He received his presidential precept from his predecessor, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad on 3 August 2013 and entered Sa'dabad Palace in a private ceremony. His work as president officially began on the same day at 17:00 IRDT. He was inaugurated as the seventh president of Iran on 4 August in House of the Parliament. [74]

Cabinet

Rouhani speaking after a cabinet meeting President Rouhani speechs after a cabinet meeting 02.jpg
Rouhani speaking after a cabinet meeting

Rouhani announced his cabinet on 4 August. He had a ten-day mandate for introducing his cabinet members to the parliament but he did not use this. Then, parliament voted on his cabinet, which was scheduled on 14–19 August. Between three reformist politicians (Mohammad Reza Aref, Eshaq Jahangiri or Mohammad Shariatmadari) that were likely for the vice presidency, Rouhani appointed Jahangiri for the position. There were also many candidates for ministry of foreign affairs: Ali Akbar Salehi, Kamal Kharazi, Sadegh Kharazi, Mohammad Javad Zarif and Mahmoud Vaezi but Zarif became Rouhani's final nominee. [75] Although several names were being circulated for the other ministerial posts before the final announcement, the office of president-elect denied these speculations. On 23 July 2013, it was reported that eight members of Rouhani's cabinet had been finalized: Jahangiri as first vice president, Zarif as foreign minister, Rahmani Fazli as interior minister, Tayebnia as finance minister, Dehghan as defense minister, Namdar Zanganeh as petroleum minister, Najafi as education minister, Chitchian as energy minister, Nematzadeh as industries minister, Hassan Hashemi as health minister and Akhondi as transportation minister. [76] This become official after Rouhani presented the list of his ministry nominates to the parliament on his inauguration day. He also appointed Mohammad Nahavandian as his chief of staff.

Rouhani with First Vice President, Eshaq Jahangiri, after a cabinet meeting President Rouhani and VP Jahangiri in Saadabad Palace 03.jpg
Rouhani with First Vice President, Eshaq Jahangiri, after a cabinet meeting

Domestic policy

Economic

The economic policy of Hassan Rouhani focuses on the long-term economic development of Iran. It deals with increasing the purchasing power of the public, economic growth, raising sufficient funds, implementation of the general policies of 44th Principle of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran and improving the business environment in the short term. [77] Rouhani believes that improving the economic conditions of the people should be accomplished by boosting the purchasing power of the people, reducing the wealth gap. He also thinks that equitable distribution of national wealth and economic growth lead to all mentioned economic goals. He states that if national wealth was not created, poverty would be distributed. National wealth creation causes an increase in real income per capita and equitable distribution of wealth. His plan is targeted to increase direct and indirect assistance to low-income groups. [78]

Rouhani is urgently going to regenerate the Management and Planning Organization of Iran. His economic policies also comprise optimal distribution of subsidies, control of liquidity and inflation, speeding economic growth and reducing import. He believes that inflation results in damaging effects on the economy of families and hopes to deflate that in Foresight and Hope Cabinet . [79]

Rouhani plans urgent economic priorities such as control of high inflation, increasing purchasing power and cutting down high unemployment. [80]

Culture and media

According to a March 2014 report by Center for International Media Assistance, since Rouhani takeover in 2013, "Censorship of the Internet has only gotten worse, but it's more and more clear that Rouhani does not have complete control over this process". [81]

Regarding internet censorship, he has stated: "Gone are the days when a wall could be built around the country. Today there are no more walls." He has also criticized Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting for showing trivial foreign news, while ignoring pressing national matters. [82] Rouhani also appeared to pledge his support for increasing Internet access and other political and social freedoms. In an interview, he said: "We want the people, in their private lives, to be completely free, and in today’s world having access to information and the right of free dialogue, and the right to think freely, is the right of all peoples, including the people of Iran." [83]

Human and women's rights

Rouhani has maintained a policy of not publicly addressing human rights issues, on which he may have limited powers. [84]

President Rouhani during an Iranian Army Day parade President Rouhani at National Armed Force Day parade 2016 02.jpg
President Rouhani during an Iranian Army Day parade

Rouhani is a supporter of women's rights. In a speech after he was elected as the President of Iran, he said:

There must be equal opportunities for women. There is no difference between man and woman in their creation, in their humanity, in their pursuit of knowledge, in their understanding, in their intelligence, in their religious piety, in serving God and in serving people. [85]

Rouhani's government appointed Elham Aminzadeh, Shahindokht Molaverdi and Masoumeh Ebtekar as vice presidents; as well as Marzieh Afkham, the first female spokesperson for the foreign ministry. Rouhani has promised to set up a ministry for women. Many women's rights activists, however, are reluctant about a ministry for women; because they feel that this ministry may isolate women's issues. It has also been suggested that Rouhani will require a deputy minister position within each ministry to address gender issues and issues pertaining to women. [86]

Rouhani's supporters celebrate his presidential victory, May 2017 Rouhani re-election celebrations in Tehran 3.jpg
Rouhani's supporters celebrate his presidential victory, May 2017

In September 2013, eleven political prisoners were freed including noted human rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh and Mohsen Aminzadeh. The move came just days before his visit to the United States for the United Nations General Assembly. [87]

Critics say that little has changed in domestic policy since Rouhani took office. Iranian authorities executed 599 people during Rouhani's first 14 months in power, compared with 596 during the last year in office of his predecessor, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Iran has the highest number of executions anywhere in the world, apart from China. [88] Nobel Peace Prize winner Shirin Ebadi has criticized Rouhani's human rights record. She cited the increase in executions, Abdolfattah Soltani's hunger strike, and the continued house arrest of Mir Hossein Mousavi and Mahdi Karroubi. An Iranian spokesperson said Ebadi's comments would end up provoking animosity towards Iran. [89] [90] [91]

In 2015, Rouhani appointed Marzieh Afkham and Saleh Adibi, as the first female since the 1979 (the second in history) and the first Sunni Kurd respectively, to hold office as ambassadors. [92] [93]

Foreign policy

Rouhani meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin at the SCO summit in China, 9 June 2018 Vladimir Putin and Hassan Rouhani (2018-06-09) 1.jpg
Rouhani meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin at the SCO summit in China, 9 June 2018
Rouhani designated Mohammad Javad Zarif (left), an experienced Iranian diplomat, as foreign minister. President Hassan Rouhani and FM Javad Zarif in Saadabad Palace 02.jpg
Rouhani designated Mohammad Javad Zarif (left), an experienced Iranian diplomat, as foreign minister.

Rouhani's foreign policy has been contained by the conservatism of Iranian Principlists, who fear change, while also realizing it is necessary. Furthermore, Iran's foreign policy, which was deadlocked by the efforts of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, needs new predecessor by cautious and decisive efforts of Rouhani.[ clarification needed ] The main task of Rouhani is only to develop dialogues between Iran and Political rivals including P5+1. This course can help lift sanctions that damaged the Iranian economy. [94]

In March 2015, Rouhani sent a letter to President Obama and the heads of the other five countries negotiating with Iran, explaining Iran's stance. He announced it on his Twitter account. The US National Security Council confirmed that the letter had been passed on to the U.S. negotiating team, but its contents were not released. Rouhani also spoke by phone with the leaders of all the nations involved in the negotiations, except for the United States. [95]

Rouhani with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, 23 May 2016 Prime Minister Narendra Modi with President of Iran Hassan Rouhani.jpg
Rouhani with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, 23 May 2016

Nuclear talks

United Kingdom

Rouhani met with British Prime Minister David Cameron, marking the first time since the 1979 Islamic revolution that the leaders of Iran and the United Kingdom have met. [96] On 20 February 2014 the Iranian Embassy in London was restored and the two countries agreed to restart diplomatic relations. [97] On 23 August 2015 the embassy was officially reopened. [98]

United States

Rouhani with Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro in Tehran, November 2015 President Rouhani in meeting with Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro 02.jpg
Rouhani with Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro in Tehran, November 2015

Rouhani's visit to New York City in September 2013 was hailed[ who? ] as major progress in Iran's relations with the United States. He previously said that his government is ready to hold talks with the United States after thirty-two years. Rouhani denied reports that during his trip he had refused a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama, [99] and felt more time was needed to coordinate such a meeting. [99] On 27 September 2013, a day after the two countries foreign ministers met during the P5+1 and Iran talks, Rouhani had a phone call with President Obama that marked two countries' highest political exchange since 1979. [99] [100] [101] However, due to this phone call Rouhani was protested by conservatives who chanted "death to America" when he returned to Tehran. [99]

In February 2019, Rouhani condemned the United States for trying to topple Iran’s ally, Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro. [102]

Syria

Rouhani, Vladimir Putin and Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Russia, 22 November 2017 Vladimir Putin, Hassan Rouhani, Recep Tayyip Erdogan 02.jpg
Rouhani, Vladimir Putin and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. Russia, 22 November 2017

It is generally assumed that he will follow the ruling establishment in completely supporting Bashar al-Assad, Syria's contentious president, in the Syrian Civil War, as well as "strengthening the Shia Crescent" that runs from southern Lebanon, through Syria, Iraq and into Iran. [103] In his first press conference after winning the presidential election, Rouhani said that "the ultimate responsibility to resolve the Syrian civil war should be in the hands of the Syrian people." [104]

Iraq

Rouhani has termed Iran–Iraq relations "brotherly" and signed several agreements with Iraq. [105] Right after the Northern Iraq offensive, Iran was the first country to send support for Iraq [106] and is a "key player" in Military intervention against the ISIL. [107]

Saudi Arabia

On Iran's relationship to Saudi Arabia, Rouhani wrote that during the Khatami administration, he, as the secretary-general of the National Security Council at that time, reached "a comprehensive and strategic agreement" with the Saudis, but that this agreement was not upheld during the Ahmadinejad's government. Specifically, while discussing the episode, he stated:

there was a consensus [during Khatami's administration] that we should have good relations with Saudi Arabia. No one within the nezaam [regime] was opposed to it. I went to Saudi Arabia for the first time in 1998. At that time Saudi Arabia had accused us of involvement in the Khobar Towers bombing. I went to Saudi Arabia as the secretary-general of the SNSC. From their side, [Minister of Interior] Nayef bin Abdulaziz took part in the negotiations. The negotiations began at 10 p.m. and lasted until 5 a.m. the next morning. We finally agreed on a security agreement. I returned to Saudi Arabia in [early] 2005, and had extensive discussions about the region, mutual problems between us, and the nuclear issue. We agreed with Nayef to form four committees. They were supposed to convene every few months and pursue the issues. After I left [the post of] secretary-general, none of the committees were formed and there were no meetings. [108]

Hassan Rouhani, Sterateji-ye Amniat-e Melli Jomhouri-ye Eslami-ye Iran (National Security Strategy of the Islamic Republic of Iran)
Rouhani and Ali Khamenei with Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Lofven, 11 February 2017 Swedish PM Stefan Lofven meeting Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei 05.jpg
Rouhani and Ali Khamenei with Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven, 11 February 2017

Rouhani has criticized Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen, saying: "Don't bomb children, elderly men and women in Yemen. Attacking the oppressed will bring disgrace." [109]

Israel

Rouhani describes Israel as "an occupier and usurper government" that "does injustice to the people of the region, and has brought instability to the region, with its warmongering policies." When asked to clarify his opinion about the Holocaust, Rouhani replied: "... in general, I can tell you that any crime that happens in history against humanity, including the crime the Nazis created towards the Jews as well as non-Jews is reprehensible and condemnable. Whatever criminality they committed against the Jews, we condemn". [110] In an interview with CNN, it was claimed by the CNN translator that Rouhani had acknowledged the existence of the Holocaust, however CNN's statements were accused by Iranian state media as a fabrication created by a deliberate mistranslation by CNN. [111] Other sources, such as the Wall Street Journal, argued that their independent translators corroborated Iranian media's position, and described CNN's translation as highly inaccurate, having added to their translation many words (such as 'holocaust') that he had not said. [112] In November 2018, Rouhani called Israel a "cancerous tumor established by Western countries to advance their interests in the Middle East." [113]

Public image and perception

According to a poll conducted in March 2016 by Information and Public Opinion Solutions LLC (iPOS) among Iranian citizens, Rouhani has 75% approval and 12% disapproval ratings and thus a +54% net popularity, making him the second most popular politician in Iran, after Mohammad Javad Zarif with +69% net popularity. Rouhani surpasses Hassan Khomeini (+52%), Mohammad Khatami (+43%) and Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (+38%) who take the following places. The firm states with 95% confidence that the margin of sampling error is ±3 percentage points. [114]

Rouhani during a visit of Semnan Hassan Rouhani in Semnan 08.jpg
Rouhani during a visit of Semnan

Job approval

Rouhani began his presidency in November 2013 with approval and disapproval ratings near 58% and 27% respectively, [115] according to Information and Public Opinion Solutions LLC (iPOS) which is assessing it on a quarterly basis. It gradually fell down to 48% and he recorded a 33% disapproval rating in May 2015. [115] His job approval boosted after Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, according to the survey conducted by IranPoll for the University of Maryland's Center for International and Security Studies (CISSM), standing on 88% with a large majority (61%) expressing a "very favorable view" of him (up from 51% in July 2014) and a ±3.2 margin of sampling error. The poll also indicated Rouhani has a "tough challenge" in maintaining the support due to the fact that people have high economic expectations from the deal, and it could become his Achilles' heel. [116] iPOS has recorded a 54% approval and 24% disapproval, days after the deal in August 2015. [115] The trend has continued until February 2016, with 67% and 18% approval and disapproval ratings, marking the highest level since he took office. [117]

Hassan Rouhani
Results of Rouhani's approval ratings conducted by Center for International and Security Studies and IranPoll referring to Very favorable (dark green), Somewhat favorable (light green), Somewhat unfavorable (light red) and Very unfavorable (dark red) [118] [119]

Political positions

Rouhani is considered to be a moderate and pragmatic politician. [22] In 2000, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy described him as "power-hungry". [120] He was elected as president with heavy reformist support, and he pledged to follow through with reformist demands and to bridge divides between reformists and conservatives. [121]

During the 2017 presidential election, Rouhani's views moved more to the left and he fully aligned with the reformist faction. [122]

Electoral history

Rouhani casting his vote in the 2016 elections. Hassan Rouhani casting his vote for 2016 elections.jpg
Rouhani casting his vote in the 2016 elections.
YearElectionVotes%RankNotes
1980 Parliament 19,01762.11stWon
1984 Parliament 729,96558.317thWon
1988 Parliament Decrease2.svg 412,895Decrease2.svg 42.1Won
1992 Parliament Increase2.svg 432,767Increase2.svg 47Won
1996 Parliament Increase2.svg 465,440Decrease2.svg 32.5Won
2000 Parliament Increase2.svg 498,916Decrease2.svg 17.0240thLost
Assembly of Experts mid-term120,81947.561stWon
2006 Assembly of Experts 844,1907thWon
2013 President 18,613,32950.881stWon
2016 Assembly of Experts Increase2.svg 2,238,166Increase2.svg 49.723rdWon
2017 President Increase2.svg 23,636,652Increase2.svg 57.141stWon

Personal life

Hassan Rouhani's daughter speaking with his brother Hossein Fereydoun Hassan Rouhani's second term inauguration 26.jpg
Hassan Rouhani's daughter speaking with his brother Hossein Fereydoun
Rouhani surrounded by his family at his father's funeral, Noor mosque, Tehran on 5 October 2011 . Khatam funeral of Asadollah Fereydoun, Noor Mosque, Tehran - 5 October 2011 01.jpg
Rouhani surrounded by his family at his father's funeral, Noor mosque, Tehran on 5 October 2011 .

Rouhani married his cousin, Sahebeh Erabi (Rouhani), [123] who is six years younger, when he was around 20 years old [35] [124] and has four children (one son and three daughters). [125] Rouhani's wife changed her last name from "Еrabi" (Persian : عربی) to "Rouhani" some time after marriage. [34] Born in 1954, she is not politically active. [123] The Guardian and the Financial Times reported that Rouhani also had a fifth child, a son who has died in unknown circumstances. [126] [127] Based on a comment by Alireza Nourizadeh, some sources reported that he committed suicide "in protest of his father's close connection with Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei". [128] [129] This claim, apparently originating from Nourizadeh's report in the Saudi-owned newspaper Asharq Al-Awsat , included the following text which allegedly came from the son's suicide note: "I hate your government, your lies, your corruption, your religion, your double standard and your hypocrisy...I was forced to lie to my friends each day, telling them that my father isn't part of all of this. Telling them my father loves this nation, whereas I believe this to be untrue. It makes me sick seeing you, my father, kiss the hand of Khamenei." [130] [131]

Rouhani has three sisters and a brother. [35] Rouhani's brother, Hossein Fereydoun, is also a diplomat and politician, a former governor, ambassador, [132] and former Vice Minister of Intelligence. [133] He was Rouhani's representative to IRIB in arrangements for presidential debates. [134] Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, in a memoir dated 15 May 1982, mentions Hossein Fereydoun as the then governor of Karaj. [135] Rafsanjani later briefly mentions Fereydoon in a memoir dated 31 March 1984: "In Karaj, something has happened about Mr. Ferydoon Rouhani". [136]

Publications

Having the rank of research professor at Iran's Center for Strategic Research, he has written many books and articles in Persian, English and Arabic, including the following: [3]

in Persian
in English
in Arabic

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