Hassanzai

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The Hassanzai is a sub-clan of Yousafzai, which is a Pakhtoon/Pashtoon/Pathan tribe. It is one of the divisions of the Isazai clan of the Yousafzai tribe. Yousafzai tribe is regarded as one of the most powerful, famous, and respected tribes of Pashtoons. Colonel H. C. Wylly (1858–1932) described these people in the following words: [1]

Contents

The Yousafzai is an agriculturist, generally fine, well-limbed man, of a good physique and appearance with great deal of race-pride, well dressed and cheery, while his hospitality is proverbial.

Origin

The Hasanzais are amongst The Black Mountain (Tor Ghar) Tribes; a division of the Isazai clan of the Yousafzai tribe. [2] They are the descendants of Hassan the son of Isa (Isazai) and the grandson of Yusaf/Yousaf/(Yousafzai). The Hassanzais are further divided into following ten Sections: [3] [4]

The Sections

Sub ClanSection
HassanzaiKhan Khel
 Kotwal
 Zakaria Khel
 Mir Ahmad Khel
 Lughman Khel
 Kaka Khel
 Dada Khel
 Mamu Khel
 Nanu Khel
 Nasrat Khel

Demographics

The Hassanzais live on either side of the Indus; those cis-Indus occupy the most southern portion of the western slopes of Tor Ghar, while those trans-Indus live immediately opposite to them. The Hassanzai area is bounded on the north and east by the Akazais, on the west by the Indus, and on the south the Hassanzai border adjoins the territory of Tanawal, the former state of Amb. [5] [ better source needed ]

Culture and traditions

Like all other Pashtoons, Hassanzais have maintained their cultural identity and individuality. They lead their lives strictly in accordance with code of ethics of Pashtoonwali which comprises Manliness, Goodness, Gallantery, Loyalty and Modesty. Hassanzais have also maintained the Pashtoon customs of Jirga (Consultative Assembly), Nanawati (Delegation pleading guilty), Hujhra (Large drawing room) and Melmasteya (Hospitality). [6]

Fighting against the British

The Black Mountain (Tor Ghar) Tribes had never been under the British Rule. Hassanzais along with Akazais had been actively involved in fighting with British for quite some time. Brief account of the British Expeditions against The Black Mountain (Tor Ghar) Tribes is as under:- [7] [8]

Recent developments

On 28 January 2011, Tor Ghar became the 25th district of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa. [10] Judba is the Capital of this newly born district with multiple tehsils:-

Most of the Hassanzai areas come under the Kandar tehsil.

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Black Mountain , is located in Hazara division of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Tor Ghar is Pushto word which means Tor (Black) Ghar (Mountain). It is also called Kala Dhaka, which means the same as its Pushto name; in Hindko a local language spoken by the people of Tanawal and Agror which are located on eastern side of Tor Ghar, however, the original name of this mountain is Tor Ghar. Tor Ghar lies to the east of the River Indus from Thakot to Darband. The total length of this mountain is about twenty five to thirty miles and its average height about 8000 feet above sea level. It ascends from the Indus basin at its southern end near the village of Kiara and goes up to its watershed near the village Baradar; then it runs north-east by north to the point on the crest known as Chitabat. From here the range runs due north, finally descending to the Indus by two large spurs, at the foot of the easternmost of which lies Thakot. The Indus, after passing Thakot, turns westward along the northern foot of the mountain till it washes the western of the two aforementioned spurs, when it takes a sharp bend to the south, and runs below and parallel to the western foot of this mountain range.

References

  1. H.C. Wylly (1912). "From the Black Mountain to Waziristan". London, Macmillan. p. 56.
  2. Compiled by H. A. Rose. Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and N.W.F.Province. p. 10.https://archive.org/details/glossaryoftribes03rose
  3. J. Wolfe Murray. A Dictionary of the Pathan Tribes on the North-west Frontier of India. https://archive.org/details/adictionarypath00brangoog
  4. Compiled by the Intelligence Branch, Division of the Chief of Army Staff, Army Headquarters India. Frontier and Overseas Expeditions from India. Vol I. Chapter III and IV. https://archive.org/details/frontieroverseas01indi
  5. Wylly H.C. From the Black Mountain to Waziristan, Chapter - II pges (24 -53). https://archive.org/details/fromblackmountai00wyll
  6. Surinder Singh and Ishwar Dayal Gaur. Popular Literature and Pre-Modern Societies in South ASia. p. 336. https://books.google.com/books?id=QVA0JAzQJkYC&pg=PA336&dq=pushtoonwali
  7. Compiled by the Intelligence Branch, Division of the Chief of Army Staff, Army Headquarters India. Frontier and Overseas Expeditions from India. Vol I. Chapter III and IV https://archive.org/details/frontieroverseas01indi
  8. Wylly H.C. From the Black Mountain to Waziristan, Chapter-II pages (24-53). https://archive.org/details/fromblackmountai00wyll
  9. Raugh, Harold E. The Victorians at War, 1815-1914: An Encyclopedia of British Military History. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2004, pp. 163-164, ISBN   978-1-57607-925-6.
  10. Tor Ghar: Kala Dhaka becomes 25th K-P district The Express Tribune. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2011.