Haute-Savoie

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Haute-Savoie
Port Rives Thonon Bains 4.jpg
Grand Balcon Nord 7.jpg
Lec Houches view 2.jpg
Aiguille du Midi 5.JPG
Prefecture Annecy.jpg
From top down, left to right: Thonon-les-Bains, landscape near Chamonix, a view of Les Houches, Aiguille du Midi, prefecture building in Annecy
Flag of Savoie.svg
Flag
Blason duche fr Savoie.svg
Coat of arms
Haute-Savoie-Position.svg
Location of Haute-Savoie in France
Coordinates: 46°00′N06°20′E / 46.000°N 6.333°E / 46.000; 6.333 Coordinates: 46°00′N06°20′E / 46.000°N 6.333°E / 46.000; 6.333
Country France
Region Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
Prefecture Annecy
Subprefectures Bonneville
Saint-Julien-en-Genevois
Thonon-les-Bains
Government
   President of the Departmental Council Christian Monteil (DVD)
Area
1
  Total4,388 km2 (1,694 sq mi)
Elevation
2
1,160 m (3,810 ft)
Highest elevation
4,810.40 m (15,782.15 ft)
Lowest elevation
250 m (820 ft)
Population
 (2016)
  Total801,416
  Rank 28th
  Density180/km2 (470/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number 74
Arrondissements 4
Cantons 17
Communes 279
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2
^2 Inventaire forestier départemental, IIIe inventaire 1998

Haute-Savoie ( [ot savwa] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Arpitan: Savouè d’Amont or Hiôta-Savouè; English: Upper Savoy; German : Obersavoyen or Hochsavoyen; Italian : Alta Savoia) is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of Southeastern France, bordering both Switzerland and Italy. Its prefecture is Annecy. To the north is Lake Geneva and Switzerland; to the south and southeast are the Mont Blanc and Aravis mountain ranges.

Contents

It holds its name from the Savoy historical region, as does the department of Savoie, located south of Haute-Savoie. In 2016, it had a population of 801,416. Its subprefectures are Bonneville, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois and Thonon-les-Bains. The French entrance to the Mont Blanc Tunnel into Italy is in Haute-Savoie. It is noted for winter sports; the first Winter Olympic Games were held at Chamonix in 1924.

History

Before 1860, the territory occupied by modern Haute-Savoie and the adjoining department of Savoie had been part of the Kingdom of Sardinia since the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Annexation of the region by France was formalized in the Treaty of Turin on March 24, 1860.

From November 1942 to September 1943, Haute-Savoie was subjected to military occupation by Fascist Italy. The Maquis des Glières (a band of Free French Resistance fighters who opposed the Nazi, Vichy, and Milice regimes during World War II) operated from Haute-Savoie.

Politics

Current National Assembly Representatives

ConstituencyMember [1] Party
Haute-Savoie's 1st constituency Véronique Riotton La République En Marche!
Haute-Savoie's 2nd constituency Frédérique Lardet La République En Marche!
Haute-Savoie's 3rd constituency Martial Saddier The Republicans
Haute-Savoie's 4th constituency Virginie Duby-Muller The Republicans
Haute-Savoie's 5th constituency Marion Lenne La République En Marche!
Haute-Savoie's 6th constituency Xavier Roseren La République En Marche!

Geography

Haute-Savoie highlighted in brown in the former Rhone-Alpes region, with arrondissements outlined Departement de la Haute-Savoie.PNG
Haute-Savoie highlighted in brown in the former Rhône-Alpes region, with arrondissements outlined

Haute-Savoie comprises four arrondissements, divided into 281 communes and 17 cantons. To the north, it borders the Swiss Canton of Geneva and Lake Geneva; to the east the Swiss Canton of Valais and Italy's Aosta Valley; to the west the French department of Ain, and to the south the department of Savoie.

Haute-Savoie has the largest range of elevations of all the departments in France; the lowest point is 250 metres (820 ft) in the Rhône River Valley, and the highest Mont Blanc at 4,810.40 metres (15,782.2 ft). [2] :9 Some of the world's best-known ski resorts are in Haute-Savoie. The terrain of the department includes the Alpine Mont Blanc Range; the French Prealps of the Aravis Range, the Chablais, Bornes and Bauges Alps; and the peneplains of Genevois haut-savoyard and Albanais (known collectively as L'Avant-pays savoyard). [2] :9 Its mountainous terrain makes mountain passes important to trade and economic life. Some of the most important are the Col de la Forclaz (which connects Chamonix to the Canton of Valais) and the Mont Blanc Tunnel, linking Chamonix to Courmayeur in the Aosta Valley. [2] :10

Forests

As of 1996, 178,624 hectares (441,390 acres) of Haute-Savoie is forested (38.8 percent of the total land area), compared to 34.4 percent for the Rhone-Alpes region and 27.1 percent for France as a whole. Of the forested area 141,063 hectares (348,570 acres) (79 percent) is managed for timber and other forest products, with the remaining 37,561 hectares (92,820 acres) having no commercial value or used for outdoor recreation. [2] :12

Map of Haute-Savoie Haute-Savoie-OSM.png
Map of Haute-Savoie

National nature reserves are designated by the French government as areas where an outstanding natural heritage is present in both rare and typical areas in terms of species and geology. Management is charged to local organizations, with direction and evaluation focusing on long-term protection for future generations and environmental education. [3] Of the 37,561 hectares (92,820 acres) of land not managed for timber, Haute-Savoie has nine national nature reserves totaling 24,542 hectares (60,640 acres). [4]

Lakes

Aerial view of Annecy Lake from the southeast LacAnnecy.jpg
Aerial view of Annecy Lake from the southeast

Haute-Savoie has significant freshwater resources. Lake Annecy is a major attraction, along with the town of Évian-les-Bains, perhaps the best-known town on the French shore of Lake Geneva, and known worldwide for its Evian mineral water. Haute-Savoie is entirely within the watershed of the Rhone.

Demographics

Population development since 1861:

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1861267,496    
1872273,027+0.19%
1881274,087+0.04%
1891268,471−0.21%
1901263,803−0.18%
1911255,137−0.33%
1921235,668−0.79%
1931252,794+0.70%
1936259,961+0.56%
1946270,565+0.40%
1954293,852+1.04%
1962329,230+1.43%
1968378,550+2.35%
1975447,795+2.43%
1982494,505+1.43%
1990568,286+1.75%
1999631,679+1.18%
2006696,254+1.40%
2016801,416+1.42%
source: [5]

Economy

Agriculture

In 2006 approximately 142,000 hectares (350,000 acres) of land was suitable for agriculture, of which 33,600 hectares (83,000 acres) (24 percent) was arable land suitable for market gardening, cultivation or pasture; 600 hectares (1,500 acres) was orchards; 300 hectares (740 acres) was vineyards, and 108,300 hectares (268,000 acres) was alpine tundra or grasses. [6] There were 4,450 farmers in 1999, 4,800 farmers and over 1,700 full-time farm employees at the end of 2006. In 1999, crop production was valued at €71.5 million and animal production at €165.4 million.

Reblochon cheese Reblochon AOC.jpg
Reblochon cheese

Dairy production is a large part of the Haute-Savoie economy, earning €117.2 million in 2006 and representing 74 percent of the net animal-product worth. Cattle earned €29.7 million. [6] :8 Cheese production (by variety) in 1999 (except as noted) was:

Crafts

In late 2000 crafts occupied 15 percent of the workforce, or 28,443 employees and 1,922 apprentices. The 11,951 companies represented on the Répertoire des Métiers (Trade Index) were divided into:

Construction and public works

In late December 2000, building construction and public works included 13,867 employees in 4,838 companies as follows:

Trade

In late December 2000, the trade sector accounted for 33,994 employees in 9,351 companies as follows:

Retail

In late 2006, the département had 600 commercial establishments in over 300 square metres (3,200 sq ft) (for a total area of 705,419 square metres (7,593,070 sq ft)), including:

From 1998 to 2005, 65 new supermarkets were built for an area totaling 50,000 square metres (540,000 sq ft). The average expenditure per capita in 2006 was €21,706. With the 2004–2007 rise of the euro, Swiss customer traffic decreased five or six percent (Swiss shoppers make up half the shoppers in the Geneve Savoyard district). At the end of 2006, traditional small businesses (less than 300 square metres (3,200 sq ft)) represented 84 percent of businesses and 40 percent of retail space.

Companies

4,301 companies were established in 2004 in Haute-Savoie: nearly 80 percent in the service sector, with a high percentage offering service to individuals (hotels, restaurants, recreational, cultural, sports, personal and household services). This accounted for 21.6 percent of new businesses. The most active sectors were real estate (up 24 percent), construction (up 15.4 percent), business services (up 12.4 percent) and the food industry (up 10 percent).

Industry

In 1999, Haute-Savoie had 2,779 industrial companies producing 13.60 percent of all business income.

Companies in Haute-Savoie

  • Food: Entremont, Evian (mineral water), Cereal Partners France, La Gerbe Savoyarde, France, Decoration, Besnier, Fruity
  • Chemistry-Pharmacy-Medical: Labcatal, Nicholas Roche, Pierre Fabre Galderma, Ivoclar-Vivadent, Corneal, SNCI, Anthogyr
  • Commerce: Provencia, Botanic
  • Electrical and electronic: Chauvin-Arnoux, DAV, Label, Amphenol Socapex, Cartier, Varilac CEB
  • Mechanical equipment: Dassault, adixen Vacuum Products, Bosch-Rexroth, Union Pump-Guinard Pumps (Group Textron)
  • Home, household equipment: Tefal, Scaime Bourgeois, Mobalpa, Somfy
  • Personal items: S.T. Dupont, Rexam Reboul, Gay, Maped, Pilot
  • Data: Sopra, Cross Systems
  • Machine tools and special machines: Stäubli, Prosys, Mach 1, Techmeta (Bodycote), Wirth and Gruffat, Mecasonic, Almo
  • Mechanics: SNR Bearings, Parker Hannifin, Glacier Vandervell, Invensys, Eurodec, Frank and Pignard, Bouverat, Nicomatic, ZF, Sandvik, Rossignol Technology
  • Metals and materials: PSB Industries, Pechiney Rhenalu, Fonlem Lachenal
  • Plastics: Veka, SMPI, Decoplast
  • Sport and leisure goods: Salomon (skiing), Mavic, Dynastar, Millet, Fusalp, Eider
  • Other: Velsol France, Mecalac, ABMT (Bodycote)

Screw-cutting is a precision parts-machining industry, and Haute-Savoie generates the bulk of French screws. Firms engaged in screw-cutting are major employers in the department. While the automotive industry is the principal client, firms also service the electronics, household-appliance and medical sectors. [7]

Arve Industries is part of 67 "competitiveness clusters" created in 2005. The cluster is dedicated to mechatronics and includes 60,000 industrial jobs in over 280 companies (primarily small), 1,200 researchers and 250 patents in 2002. Among the projects supported by the cluster is inertial tolerancing, a new approach in evaluating the quality of machined parts. Based on the Taguchi loss function, inertia is defined by its deviation from its target. Inertial tolerancing is a research-and-development program supported by the cluster for its member companies. It is led by a research team from the Symme Laboratory of the University of Savoie and the CTDEC (Centre Technique du Decolletage). The publication of the French standard NFX 04-008 demonstrates the relevance of topics covered by the cluster.

Other programs involve the production of clean parts (4P project), developing new models of customer-supplier relationships to improve the effectiveness of simultaneous engineering tasks, and development of the international visibility of the cluster and its members. The companies concerned are involved with industrial mechanics, precision engineering, precision turning and sub-assemblies and mechanical assemblies, often associated with integrating technologies such as plastics, electronics and hydraulics. Markets served by member companies of the cluster include transport (cars, trucks, rail and air), production and distribution of electricity, hydraulics (gas or liquid, high-pressure vacuum), medical and health-related.

Research

The research sector in Haute-Savoie filed 201 patents in 2000. It is represented by:

Services

In late December 2000, the service sector employed 75,768 people in 11,129 companies in:

Tourism

As of late December 2000, the tourism sector had a total of 635,000 beds divided as follows:

In 1999 there were 37.9 million overnight stays: 56 percent in winter and 44 percent during the rest of the year.

Cross-border workers

Many people who live in Haute-Savoie (more than 52,200 in November 2006) work in Switzerland (in the cantons of Geneva, Vaud and Valais).[ citation needed ] The phenomenon has accelerated since bilateral agreements concluded between Switzerland and the European Union, of which a significant part concerned free movement of people. In 2007, commuting increased over 12%.

Effective June 1, 2007, a resident of Haute-Savoie may freely work in Switzerland. The department and municipalities receive compensation ("frontier funds") allocated to municipalities in proportion to the number of border residents there. Following an agreement signed in Geneva in 1973, the Canton of Geneva transferred to Haute-Savoie 3.5 percent of total worker compensation, equivalent in December 2006 to €77.687 million.

Export

Exports are an important part of the economy; forty percent of Haute-Savoie employees work for exporting firms. Exports are primarily to Germany, the United States, Switzerland, Italy and the United Kingdom. Imports come mainly from Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and the United States.

Taxation

Haute-Savoie has property and income taxes. In 2006, 312,823 households were subject to property taxes and 27,747 were exempt. The average income tax per household was €25,621 in 2007 (compared with the national average of €21,930).

Transport

Haute Savoie is served by the A41 and A43 highways. Annecy is accessible from Lyon, with an estimated travel time between two and three hours in normal traffic. Since it is closer to Geneva, the new highway connects the two cities in about an hour. Meythet Airport in Annecy has Air France Regional round-trip service to Paris Orly. Saint-Gervais is the only railroad station directly serving a ski resort. The main rail line serves Annecy-Annemasse-Geneva. The Annecy railway station has TGV (high speed trains) departures and arrivals to and from Paris via the high-speed line from Lyon Part-Dieu.

Sources

See also

History

Language

Places

Wine

Related Research Articles

Savoy Cultural-historical region between Western and Central Europe

Savoy is a cultural-historical region in Europe. It comprises roughly the territory of the Western Alps between Lake Geneva in the north and Dauphiné in the south.

Rhône river in Switzerland and France

The Rhône is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire, rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France. At Arles, near its mouth on the Mediterranean Sea, the river divides into two branches, known as the Great Rhône and the Little Rhône. The resulting delta constitutes the Camargue region.

Rhône-Alpes Region of France

Rhône-Alpes was an administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. It is located on the eastern border of the country, towards the south. The region was named after the Rhône and the Alps mountain range. Its capital, Lyon, is the second-largest metropolitan area in France after Paris. Rhône-Alpes has the sixth-largest economy of any European region.

Vaud Canton of Switzerland

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Annecy City in Haute-Savoie, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Annecy is the largest city of Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in southeastern France. It lies on the northern tip of Lake Annecy, 35 kilometers (22 mi) south of Geneva.

Annemasse Commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Annemasse is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. It is a chef-lieu de canton and part of a transborder agglomeration known as Grand Genève.

Thonon-les-Bains Subprefecture and commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Thonon-les-Bains is a town (commune) in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. Thonon is part of a transborder agglomeration known as Grand Genève. The town is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva.

Talloires Part of Talloires-Montmin in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Talloires is a former commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Talloires-Montmin. Due to its setting on Lake Annecy Talloires has become a popular resort town not only since it has been rediscovered by a privileged society of artists and writers but also since the start of the 20th century when the place became a world-renowned location.

Annecy-le-Vieux Part of Annecy in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Annecy-le-Vieux is a former commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in southeastern France. On 1 January 2017, it was merged into the commune Annecy.

Les Contamines-Montjoie Commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Les Contamines-Montjoie is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.

La Clusaz Commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

La Clusaz is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.

Château de Menthon-Saint-Bernard

The Château de Menthon is a medieval castle located in the commune of Menthon-Saint-Bernard, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south of Annecy in the Haute-Savoie department of France. Standing on a 200 metres (660 ft) tall rock, its stone towers loom over Lake Annecy, the Roc de Chère National Nature Reserve, and Menthon-Saint-Bernard. Since 1989, it has been listed as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture.

Vulbens Commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Vulbens is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.

Mouxy Commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Mouxy is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.

Burdignin Commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Burdignin is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.

Roc de Chère National Nature Reserve

The Roc de Chère National Nature Reserve is a major ecologic site in southeastern France. A protected nature reserve since 1977, it covers a small area of 69 hectares. It is located near the commune of Talloires, on the eastern bank of Lake Annecy at an elevation of 448 metres (1,470 ft). The Roc de Chère is a small mountain, culminating at a modest 651 metres (2,136 ft), which was formed by a quaternary glacier from the south.

The Albanais is a small Savoyard region situated between Lake Annecy and Lac du Bourget, at the entrance to the Parc naturel régional du Massif des Bauges. Located in the French departments of Savoie and Haute-Savoie, its principal city is Rumilly. The name Albanais comes from the Latin Albinnum, which is derived from the names of the tribes Albii whose presence is attested to in the toponymy of places such as Albens, Alby, and Albigny.

Dranse (Haute-Savoie) French river

The Dranse is a French river in the department of Haute-Savoie, that empties into Lake Geneva between Thonon-les-Bains and Évian-les-Bains.

Dranse may refer to:

Defensive Sector of the Rhône

The Defensive Sector of the Rhône was the French military organization that in 1940 controlled the section of the French border with Switzerland and Italy in the area of Geneva. The area was not regarded as a likely point of invasion, owing to the neutrality of Switzerland and the extremely difficult terrain along the Italian portion of the border. It was therefore lightly fortified. Its chief fortified position was the 19th-century Fort l'Écluse, manned by a small force, which held its strategic position against a Panzerkorps for a week in June 1940.

References

  1. http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Haute-Savoie: IIIe inventaire 1998" (pdf). Inventaire forestier départemental. Inventaire Forestier National. 2005. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
  3. "What is a nature reserve?". Réserves naturelles de France. Archived from the original on August 24, 2003. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
  4. "Rhône-Alpes". Les réserves naturelles de France - les réserves - par region. Réserves naturelles de France. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
  5. Site sur la Population et les Limites Administratives de la France
  6. 1 2 "Mémento agricole et rural Haute-Savoie". Direction Départementale de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt. April 2008. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
  7. "Haute-Savoie sub-contracting". Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de la Haute-Savoie. 2009. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011. Industry at the heart of dynamism in Haute-Savoie. 30% of GDP in Haute-Savoie comes from industry (compared with 20% in France) A concentration of several professions/skills on one region: screw-cutting, pre-cutting, assembly of sub-assemblies, innovative materials, surface treatment, grinding, tool manufacture. Three key activities: - Sub-contracting and manufacture of sub-assemblies - Capital goods (specialist machinery, robotics) - Consumer goods: agri-food, sports and leisure, household equipment Some 2,500 production organisations 52,000 industrial employees (of which 26,000 in metallurgy and metal-working) Industrial fabric made up primarily of SMEs (79.2% of businesses with fewer than 10 employees). The Arve valley: the global benchmark for screw-cutting The capital of screw-cutting, Haute-Savoie represents 65% of screw-cutting in France, and 20% of industrial enterprises within the administrative area + 800 sub-contracting SMEs and almost 500 SMEs specialising in screw-cutting More than 8,000 employees work in screw-cutting in the Arve valley. Main client screw-cutting client sectors in decreasing order of size: automotive (60% of screw-cutting organisations work for this sector), electronics, household appliances, medical.