Hawke Bay

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Hawke Bay
Hawke bay landsat.jpg
NASA satellite photo of Hawke Bay
New Zealand relief map.jpg
Disc Plain red.svg
Hawke Bay
Location Hawke's Bay
Coordinates 39°20′S177°30′E / 39.333°S 177.500°E / -39.333; 177.500 Coordinates: 39°20′S177°30′E / 39.333°S 177.500°E / -39.333; 177.500
Type Bight
Native nameTe Matau-a-Māui (Māori)
EtymologyNamed after Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke
Part of South Pacific Ocean
Primary inflows Nūhaka River, Wairoa River, Mohaka River, Esk River, Tutaekuri River, Ngaruroro River, Clive River, Tukituki River
Ocean/sea sources South Pacific Ocean
Basin  countriesFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Max. width91 kilometres (57 mi)
Shore length1166 kilometres (103 mi)
Settlements Napier, Hastings, Wairoa
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Hawke Bay (Māori : Te Matau-a-Māui), formerly named Hawke's Bay, [1] is a large bay on the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand, [2] surrounded by the Hawke's Bay region. It stretches from Māhia Peninsula in the northeast to Cape Kidnappers / Te Kauwae-a-Māui in the southwest, a distance of some 90 kilometres (56 mi).

Captain James Cook, sailing in HMS Endeavour, entered the bay on 12 October 1769. After exploring it, he named it for Sir Edward Hawke, First Lord of the Admiralty, on 15 October 1769, describing it as some 13 leagues (about 40 miles (64 km)) across. Hawke had decisively defeated the French at the Battle of Quiberon Bay in 1759. [2]

Hawke Bay at Napier Clouds over Hawke Bay.jpg
Hawke Bay at Napier

This part of the New Zealand coast is subject to tectonic uplift, with the land being raised out of the sea. For this reason, the coastal land in this area has significant marine deposits, with both marine and land dinosaur fossils having been found inland. The Napier earthquake of 3 February 1931 resulted in several parts of the seabed close to the city of Napier being raised above sea level. [3] Because the central mountain ranges come close to the coast at the north end of the bay, much of the bay's northerly coastline has deeply eroded tablelands that end in steep seaside cliffs which descend to narrow beaches.

Despite the bay being renamed Hawke Bay, without an apostrophe, the region surrounding it continues to bear the former name of Hawke's Bay. Several medium-sized towns are located in the immediate surrounds of the bay, including Wairoa at the mouth of the Wairoa River and its flood plain in the north, the so-called 'twin cities' of Napier and Hastings in the south, and the town of Havelock North slightly further inland. [4] Napier Port serves as the main export port for the region, and is the second largest in the North Island by tonnage. [5]

Related Research Articles

Hawke's Bay is a local government region on the east coast of New Zealand's North Island. The region's name derives from Hawke Bay, which was named by Captain James Cook in honour of Admiral Edward Hawke. The region is governed by Hawke's Bay Regional Council.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Napier, New Zealand</span> City in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand

Napier is a city on the eastern coast of the North Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Hawke's Bay region. It is a beachside city with a seaport, known for its sunny climate, esplanade lined with Norfolk Pines and extensive Art Deco architecture. Napier is sometimes referred to as the "Nice of the Pacific".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake</span> Deadly 1931 natural disaster centered north of Napier, New Zealand

The 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake, also known as the Napier earthquake, occurred in New Zealand at 10:47 am on 3 February, killing 256, injuring thousands and devastating the Hawke's Bay region. It remains New Zealand's deadliest natural disaster. Centred 15 km north of Napier, it lasted for two and a half minutes and had a magnitude of 7.8 Ms (7.7 Mw). There were 525 aftershocks recorded in the following two weeks, with 597 being recorded by the end of February. The main shock could be felt in much of New Zealand, with reliable reports coming in from as far south as Timaru, on the east coast of the South Island.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hastings, New Zealand</span> City in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand

Hastings is an inland city of New Zealand and is one of the two major urban areas in Hawke's Bay, on the east coast of the North Island. The population of Hastings is 50,400, with a further 15,100 people in Havelock North and 2,470 in Clive. Hastings is about 18 kilometres inland of the coastal city of Napier. These two neighbouring cities are often called "The Bay Cities" or "The Twin Cities".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gisborne, New Zealand</span> City in Gisborne Region, New Zealand

Gisborne is a city in northeastern New Zealand and the largest settlement in the Gisborne District. It has a population of 37,700. The district council has its headquarters in Whataupoko, in the central city.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wairoa</span> Town in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand

Wairoa is a town and territorial authority district in New Zealand's North Island. The town is the northernmost in the Hawke's Bay region, and is located on the northern shore of Hawke Bay at the mouth of the Wairoa River and to the west of Māhia Peninsula. It is on State Highway 2, 118 kilometres (73 mi) northeast of Napier, and 92 kilometres (57 mi) southwest of Gisborne. Wairoa is the nearest town to the Te Urewera protected area and former national park that is accessible from Wairoa via State Highway 38. It is the largest town in the district of Wairoa, and is one of three towns in New Zealand where Māori outnumber other ethnicities, with 62.29% of the population identifying as Māori.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hastings District, New Zealand</span> Territorial authority district in Hawkes Bay Region, New Zealand

Hastings District is a Territorial authority district within the Hawke's Bay Region, on the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand. It covers the southern half of the Hawke's Bay coast, excluding Napier City, which is a separate territorial authority. Hastings District Council is headquartered in the city of Hastings, the district's largest town.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clive, New Zealand</span> Town in New Zealand

Clive is a small town, ten kilometres from the city centres of both Napier and Hastings in the Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand's North Island. It is close to the mouth of the Ngaruroro River.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Napier-Hastings Urban Area</span> Urban area in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand

The Napier-Hastings Urban Area was defined by Statistics New Zealand as a main urban area of New Zealand that was based around the twin cities of Napier and Hastings in the Hawke's Bay Region. It was defined under the New Zealand Standard Areas Classification 1992 (NZSAC92), which has since been superseded by the Statistical Standard for Geographic Areas 2018 (SSGA18).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hawke's Bay Airport</span> Airport in Napier, New Zealand

Hawke's Bay Airport, commonly referred to as Napier Airport, is Hawke's Bay's main commercial airport, serving domestic flights to the main centres of Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch as well as smaller centres such as Gisborne, Wairoa and Blenheim. The airport is located 5.8 km from Napier and 20.7 km from Hastings. The airport is permitted to allow limited international flights for aircraft with up to fourteen people on board by prior arrangement with Air Napier or Skyline Aviation.

The Palmerston North–Gisborne Line (PNGL) is a secondary main line railway in the North Island of New Zealand. It branches from the North Island Main Trunk at Palmerston North and runs east through the Manawatū Gorge to Woodville, where it meets the Wairarapa Line, and then proceeds to Hastings and Napier in Hawke's Bay before following the coast north to Gisborne. Construction began in 1872, but the entire line was not completed until 1942. The line crosses the runway of Gisborne Airport, one of the world's only railways to do so since Pakistan's Khyber Pass Railway closed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Putorino</span> Rural settlement in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand

Putorino is a small farming settlement in northern Hawke's Bay, on the eastern side of New Zealand's North Island. It is located on State Highway 2 between Tutira and Mohaka, on the Hastings side of the border between Hastings and Wairoa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">State Highway 5 (New Zealand)</span> Road in New Zealand

State Highway 5, one of New Zealand's eight national highways, runs from State Highway 1 at Tīrau, in the south Waikato, to State Highway 2, close to the Hawkes Bay coast at Bay View, 10 km north of Napier. It is the second shortest of the national highways.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">State Highway 2 (New Zealand)</span> Road in New Zealand

State Highway 2 runs north–south through eastern parts of the North Island of New Zealand from the outskirts of Auckland to Wellington. It runs through Tauranga, Gisborne, Napier, Hastings and Masterton. It is the second-longest highway in the North Island, after State Highway 1, which runs the length of both of the country's main islands.

Waikokopu is a small coastal settlement in the north of New Zealand's Hawke's Bay Region, where the Waikokopu stream forms a small tidal estuary between two prominent headlands. The name Waikokopu translates from Māori as "waters" (wai) of the "kokopu", the kokopu being any one of three species of small native fresh-water fish. Waikokopu is about 40 km east of Wairoa, the largest town in northern Hawke's Bay.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mohaka Viaduct</span> Bridge in North Island, New Zealand

The Mohaka Viaduct is a railway viaduct spanning the Mohaka River in northern Hawke’s Bay, on the East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand, near the small settlement of Raupunga. It was built between 1930 and 1937 by the Public Works Department (PWD) for the New Zealand Railways Department (NZR). It is 276.8 metres (908 ft) in length, and at 95 metres (312 ft), is the tallest viaduct in Australasia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ahuriri Lagoon</span>

Ahuriri Lagoon was a large tidal lagoon at Napier, on the east coast of New Zealand's North Island, that largely drained when the area was raised by the 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake.

Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Whanganui-a-Orotu is a tribal division within the Māori iwi (tribe) of Ngāti Kahungunu in New Zealand's Hawke's Bay Region. It consists of a number of hapū (sub-tribes) located within a rohe east of Hawke Bay that includes the city of Napier and parts of the surrounding Hastings District.

Kotemaori is a village and rural community located in the Wairoa District of the Hawke's Bay Region, in New Zealand's North Island. It is located between Raupunga and Putorino, to the west of Wairoa. The settlement itself lies immediately to the south of the highway.

State Highway 51 is a New Zealand state highway that runs between Napier and Hastings via Clive. Known locally as the Coastal Route, it was the main route between the two cities prior to the completion of the Hawke's Bay Expressway.

References

  1. "Place name detail: Hawke Bay". New Zealand Gazetteer. New Zealand Geographic Board . Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  2. 1 2 Findlay, Alexander G. (1851). "New Zealand". A Directory for the Navigation of the Pacific Ocean. R.H. Laurie. p.  732 via Internet Archive. hawke bay water sir edward hawke.
  3. Hull, Alan G. (April 1990). "Tectonics of the 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake". New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics. 33 (2): 309–320. doi:10.1080/00288306.1990.10425689 . Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  4. "Cities and towns: Napier-Hastings | NauMai NZ". naumainz.studyinnewzealand.govt.nz. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  5. Taylor, Colin (18 October 2014). "Port a place to harbour dreams". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 18 October 2014.

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