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Hazara (Hindko/Urdu : ہزارہ, Pashto : هزاره) is a region in the northeastern part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is located east of the Indus River and comprises seven districts: Abbottabad, Battagram, Haripur, Mansehra, Upper Kohistan, Lower Kohistan, and Torghar.
Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire in the early 16th century, records the name Hazara in his autobiography. He referred to the populace of a region called Hazaristan , located west of the Kabulistan region, east of Ghor, and north of Ghazni.
The conventional theory is that the name Hazara derives from the Persian word for "thousand" (hezār هزار). It may be the translation of the Mongol word ming (or minggan), a military unit of 1,000 soldiers at the time of Genghis Khan. With time, the term Hazar could have been substituted for the Mongol word and now stands for the group of people, while the Hazaras in their native language always call themselves (āzra آزره) and (azra ازره)"
Evidence from the seventh-century Chinese traveller Xuanzang,in combination with much earlier evidence from the Hindu Itihasa the Mahabharata, attests that Poonch and Hazara District of Kashmir had formed parts of the ancient state of Kamboja, whose rulers followed a republican form of government.
Alexander the Great, after conquering parts of the Northern Punjab, established his rule over a large part of Hazara. In 327 B.C., Alexander handed the area over to Abisaras (Αβισαρης), the raja of Poonch state.
Hazara remained a part of the Taxila administration during the rule of the Maurya dynasty. Ashoka the Great was the governor of the area when he was a prince. After the death of his father Bindusara around 272 B.C., Ashoka inherited the throne and ruled this area as well as Gandhara. Today, the Edicts of Ashoka inscribedon three large boulders near Bareri Hill serve as evidence of his rule there. The Mansehra rocks record fourteen of Ashoka's edicts, presenting aspects of the emperor's dharma or righteous law, and represent the earliest irrefutable evidence of writing in South Asia. Dating to middle of the third century BC, they are written from right to left in the Kharosthi script.
Hazara has several places of significance for the Hindus related to the Pandavas.
'There are the five Pandavas, the heroes of the Mahabharat favourite objects of worship in the east and sometimes addressed as the Panj Pir. Many are the legends current about these heroes and they are localised at quite a number of places. The Hill of Mokshpuri, just above Dunga Gali has an elevation of 9232 feet. Its name means 'the hill of salvation' and on its summit is a Panduan da Sthan, or place of the Pandavas, where it is said they were visited and tempted by Apsaras who still frequent the place .
In the 2nd century CE, a mythical king Raja Risalu, son of Raja Salbahan of Sialkot, supposedly brought the area under his control. The local people consider him as a popular folk hero. When a Chinese pilgrim, Hiun-Tsang, visited this area, it was under the control of Raja Durlabhavardhana, the ruler of Kashmir.
The Shahi dynasties ruled Hazara one after another. Among the Hindu Shahi dynasty rulers, Raja Jayapala is the best known. Mehmood of Ghazni defeated Raja Jayapala during his first campaign. However, there is no historical evidence that Mehmood of Ghazni ever visited or passed through Mansehra. After the fall of the Shahi dynasty, in the 11th century, the Kashmiris took control of the area under the leadership of Kalashan (1063 to 1089). From 1112 to 1120, King Susala ruled the area. In the 12th century, Asalat Khan captured this area but soon after Mohammad of Ghor's death the Kashmiris once again regained control of Hazara.
Amb and its surrounding areas of Hazara have a long history which can be traced to Alexander the Great's invasion of India. Arrian, Alexander's historian, did not indicate the exact location of Embolina, but since it is known that Aoronos was on the right bank of the River Indus, the town chosen to serve as Alexander's base of supplies may with good reason be also looked for there. The mention in Ptolemy's Geography of Embolima as a town of Indo-Scythia situated on the Indus supports this theory.
In 1399, the Muslim warrior Timur, on his return to Kabul, stationed his Turk soldiers (who belonged to a sub-tribe of Turks, called Karlugh Turks) in Hazara to protect the important route between Kabul and Kashmir. By 1472, Prince Shahab-ud-Din came from Kabul and established his rule over the region.
At the beginning of the 18th century, Turkish rule came to an end due to the increased aggression of the Swatis and their allied forces. The most crucial attack was that of the Swatis in collusion with Syed Jalal Baba in 1703. Syed Jalal Shah was the son in law of the last ruler of Turkic dynasty, Thus Swatis ousted the Turks and captured this area.
During the period of Mughal rule, local Turkish chiefs acknowledged Mughal authority. In fact, Mansehra provided the main route to Kashmir and was the most commonly used route for Emperor Akbar to travel to Kashmir.
Hazara remained part of the Afghan Durrani Empire from the mid-18th to the early 19th centuries. Durranis considered it wise to rule the region through the local tribal chiefs. The lower Hazara plain was a separate administrative region attached to the Chacch and Attock areas of Northern Punjab whereas most of upper Hazara was attached to the Durrani 'Subah' or governorship of Kashmir, with the exception of the Tanawal Ilaqa (Amb (princely state)) or area, which paid liege homage or tribute in exchange for comparative independence. This 'Subah' or governorship was ruled by Suba Khan Tanoli during Afghan Durrani Empire
After the First Sikh War, under the terms of the Treaty of Lahore, the area was governed by Major James Abbott. Abbott managed to secure and pacify the area within a year. During the Second Sikh War Abbott and his men were cut off by the Sikh army from supplies and reinforcements from the rest of the British Army, but were able to maintain their position.
By 1849, the British had gained control of all of Hazara. However, the western Pashtun tribes were occasionally rebellious. These tribes included the Swati clans of Allai, Batagram in the Nandhiar valley, The Black Mountain (Tor Ghar) Tribes. The British sent many expeditions against these tribes to crush several uprisings between 1852 and the 1920s.
The British divided Hazara District into three Tehsils (administrative subdivisions) : Mansehra, Abbottabad, and Haripur and annexed it to the Punjab. In 1901, when the North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) was formed, Hazara was separated from Punjab and made a part of NWFP.
From the early 1930s onwards, the people of Hazara gradually became active in the freedom movement for an independent Pakistan under the active leadership of renowned All India Muslim League leaders such as Shanshah e Muazzam Abdul Majid Khan Tarin of Talokar (1877–1939), an early member of the (then) Frontier Legislative Assembly, and others. Even before the All-India Muslim League started its movement for Pakistan in 1937, after the historic Lucknow Session of October that year, the Hazara Muslim League was properly formed and convened at the residence of Noor-Ud-Din Qureshi in Abbottabad in 1936. In this meeting the leaders of the All-India Muslim League, Nawab Bahadur Yar Jang, Maulana Shaukat Ali, Hamid Badayuni and others, came from India. The local people joined the movement in large numbers. In Mansehra in the same year the Muslim League was organised by Ali Gohar Khan of Chitti Dheri and Hakim Abdul Karim, who were elected the first president and general secretary of the tehsil Mansehra Muslim League. During the final phase of the movement for the creation of Pakistan, Captain Sardar Zain Muhammad Khan, OBI, and Jalal-ud-din Jalal Baba defeated their Congress rivals in the elections of 1946 from their respective rural and urban Constituencies, and politically routed the All India Congress from the region. In the Delhi Convention of Muslim League parliamentarians chaired by Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, which finally voted for the division of India and the creation of Pakistan, Capt. Sardar Zain Muhammad Khan represented Hazara. These Muslim League Leaders were also able to mobilize the people of this area in favour of the referendum for the creation of Pakistan. Jalal Baba, who was the main force behind Referendum in Hazara, served as the President of District Muslim League for 22 years.
Sometime before the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Nawab Muhammad Farid Khan Tanoli (KBE) of Amb State also developed good relations with Jinnah and Nawabzada Liaqat Ali Khanas a politic move. His correspondence and letters to and from Jinnah are available in Pakistan's archival records
During British rule, the region of Hazara had formed part of Punjab province, until the western parts of that province were separated to form the new NWFP. The areas around Abbottabad and Mansehra became the Hazara District of Peshawar Division, whilst areas to the north of this became the Hazara Tribal Agency. Sandwiched between Hazara Tribal Agency and Hazara District were the small princely states of Amb and Phulra. This system of administration continued until 1950, when these two small states were incorporated into the Hazara district.
From 1955 to 1970, NWFP province became part of West Pakistan under the One Unit policy, with the Hazara district forming part of the Peshawar Division of West Pakistan.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly here on 21 March 2014 passed a resolution demanding the creation of the Hazara province.
On the dissolution of West Pakistan in 1970, Hazara District and the two tribal agencies were merged to form the new Hazara Division with its capital at Abbottabad. The division was initially composed of two districts (Abbottabad, and Mansehra) but within a few years, Haripur district was spun off from Abbottabad District and Batagram District was spun off from Mansehra District.
Hazara remained a district until its conversion into a division in 1976. In October 1976, Mansehra was given the status of a full-fledged district, which consisted of Mansehra and Batagram tehsils. Subsequently, in July 1991, Haripur Tehsil was separated from Abbottabad and made into a district. Thus only the old Tehsil of Abbottabad remained, which was declared as Abbottabad District.
In 2000, administrative divisions were abolished and the fourth-tier districts were raised to become the new third tier of government in Pakistan. At abolition it contained the following districts:
Eventually, with all the administrative divisions being restored back in 2008, Hazara Division has returned.
Hazara is bounded on the north and east by the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir. To the south are the Islamabad Capital Territory and the province of Punjab, whilst to the west lies the rest of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The river Indus runs through the division in a north-south line, forming much of the western border of the division. The total area of Hazara is 18,013 km2.
Because it lies immediately south of the main Himalaya Range, and is exposed to moist winds from the Arabian Sea, Hazara is the wettest part of Pakistan. At Abbottabad, annual rainfall averages around 1,200 millimetres (47 in) but has been as high as 1,800 millimetres (71 in), whilst in parts of Mansehra District such as Balakot the mean annual rainfall is as high as 1,750 millimetres (69 in) . Due to its location on the boundary between the monsoonal summer rainfall regime of East Asia and the winter-dominant Mediterranean climate of West Asia, Hazara has an unusual bimodal rainfall regime, with one peak in February or March associated with frontal southwest cloudbands and another monsoonal peak in July and August. The driest months are October to December, though in the wettest parts even these months average around 40 millimetres (1.6 in) .
Due to the high altitude, temperatures in Hazara are cooler than on the plains, though Abbottabad at 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) still has maxima around 32 °C (90 °F) with high humidity in June and July. Further up, temperatures are cooler, often cooler than the Northern Areas valleys due to the cloudiness. In winter, temperatures are cold, with minima in January around 0 °C (32 °F) and much lower in the high mountains. Snowfalls are not uncommon even at lower levels.
Hazara lies close to the crossroads formed by the river Indus and the Grand Trunk Road. The Karakoram Highway begins at the town of Havelian and goes north through the division towards China via the Northern Areas.
Major ethnic groups of the Hazara region are the Hindkowans (who speak various Hindko dialects), Pashtuns (speakers of Pashto) and Kohistanis (speakers of Indus Kohistani).
Some districts of Hazara have received high scores in education in Alif Ailaan's 2017 rankings: Haripur District was ranked first in Pakistan, while Abbottabad and Mansehra were in the top three for the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
A movement founded in 1987 by the late Malik Asif Advocate named "Hazara Qaumi Mahaz" (HQM) demands for separate Hazara Province. People of Saraiki areas in south Punjab also raised the voice for separate province by disgraced PM Yousuf Raza Gilani similar to Hazarawal peoples.
In April 2010, it was announced that through an amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan, the name of NWFP would be changed to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa leading to protests across the Hazara region under the leadership of late Baba Haider ZamanThe announcement of the new name also led to calls from Hazara for a new separate province. Ten persons died, and nearly two hundred were hurt during the rallies and protest all over Hazara region against NWFP and creation of new province Hazara in April, 2010 and a complete wheel-jam and shutter-down strike was again observed in the Hazara on 2 May 2010, in support of this demand. Large public meetings in this regard as well as public protests have been regularly organised by the HQM (Hazara Quami Mahaz Pakistan ) and 'Tehreek I Hazara' movement, since; but the name of the NWF Province has been duly changed to 'Khyber Pakhtunkwha' and is a 'fait accompli'. The leadership of the Hazara movement, however, have vowed to continue their struggle until the achievement of their aims via peaceful and constitutional means.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly on 21 March 2014 passed a resolution demanding the creation of the Hazara province.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the International border with Afghanistan.
The North-West Frontier Province was a province of British India and later of Pakistan. It was established in 1901 and known by this name until 2010. The area became Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province on 19 April 2010 when the Eighteenth Amendment was signed by President Asif Ali Zardari.
Abbottabad District is a district of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is part of Hazara Division and covers an area of 1,969 km2, with the city of Abbottabad being the principal town. Neighbouring districts are Mansehra to the north, Muzaffarabad to the east, Haripur to the west, and Rawalpindi to the south.
Haripur District is a district in Hazara Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. Before becoming a district in 1991, Haripur had the status of a tehsil in Abbottabad District. Its headquarters is the city of Haripur.
Amb also known as Fuedal Tanawal was a princely state of the former British Indian Empire ruled over by chiefs of the Tanoli tribe of Pashtun descent.The Tanoli submitted to British colonial rule in the 1840s.. Following Pakistani independence in 1947, and for some months afterwards,The nawabs of Amb remained unaligned. At the end of December 1947 the nawab of Amb state acceded to Pakistan, while retaining internal self-government. Amb continued as a Princely state of Pakistan until 1969, when it was incorporated into the North West Frontier Province now (Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa).
Mansehra is a city in northern Pakistan. One of the largest cities of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, it is the capital of Mansehra District.
Allai is a tehsil of Batagram District in Pakistan's Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province. It is home to the Allai Valley.
Pakhli was an ancient sarkar (district) of the Mughal Subah of Punjab, now part of Hazara, Pakistan. It roughly corresponds to the ancient Urasa, the Aρσa or Οΰaρσa which Ptolemy placed between the Bidaspes (Jhelum) and the Indus. It was part of the Gandhara or Gandharva country of antiquity). It later became part of Chandragupta Maurya's Empire. The archaeological remains found here suggest that this was a place of great Buddhist learning. In the Rajatarangini this place now appeared as a separate kingdom and then again as tributary to the Kashmir valley. The Ain-i-Akbari refers to this entire region as Sarkar Pakhli, which formed a part of the larger Kashmir province, which in turn was part of Subah Kabul. The area of Pakhli today forms a part of the Mansehra of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Phulra was a minor Muslim princely state in the days of British Raj and ruled by the Tanoli tribe of purportedly Pashtun Ghilji or Mughal Barlas confederation, located in the region of the North West Frontier to the east of the nearby parent princely state of Amb (Tanawal).
The Karlugh Turks are a prominent Karluk Turkic tribe that resides mainly in the Hazara region of current Pakistan and in Azad Kashmir. These Karlugh Turks formed a Turki Shahi dynasty and ruled the state of Pakhli Sarkar for over 200 years from 1472 to 1703.
The Dilazak is a Pashtun tribe, primarily living in Afghanistan, India and Pakistan.
Hindkowans are an Indo-Aryan linguistic-cultural group, which is native to the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pothohar Plateau (Punjab), and Azad Kashmir regions of Pakistan. Hindkowans speak various Hindko dialects of the Lahnda language family in contrast to Pashto.
Garhi Habibullah is a town and union council of Mansehra District in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is located in Mansehra Tehsil and lies to the east of the district capital Mansehra, towards the Kashmir frontier. It is in an area affected by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. It is named after Habibullah Khan. Old name of Garhi Habibullah was Garhi Saadat Khan named as such by the founder of this town who was ruler of Pakhli(1762-1780) and nominal Chief Of Swati Tribe. Hindko Language is spoken in this town.
Lassan Nawab is a town situated in a long and narrow valley about 32 kilometers from Mansehra city. Lassan Nawab town is also a union council of Mansehra District in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Battagram Tehsil is an administrative subdivision (tehsil) of Battagram District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Bhanda Peeran(Urdu: بانذه بيران) is a village and a part of Inayatabad Union Council of Mansehra District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Swatiabad “سواتی آباد” is a village in Kathai union council, Tehsel Oghi, of Mansehra District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. 9.2 km from main city of Oghi on Battal Road, It lies in an area affected by the 2005 Balkot earthquake. 34°31'42.35" N 73°06'04.19" E
Khan Jalaluddin Khan, aka Jalal Baba, was a Muslim League stalwart and a Pakistan movement activist who served as the 8th Interior Minister of Pakistan under the Premiership of Feroz Khan Noon.
Dhund is a tribe found in the Abbottabad and Rawalpindi District, as well as Mansehra, Haripur, Bagh, and Muzaffarabad districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Azad Kashmir in Pakistan. They mainly speak Punjabi or Pahari dialects, as well as Hindko. The word Dhund was an honorary name given to one of their forefathers.