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Kurdish history and Kurdish culture
The Hazaraspids ( Persian : هزاراسپیان) (1155–1424), was a Kurdish Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled the Zagros Mountains region of southwestern Iran, essentially in Lorestan and the adjacent parts of Fars which flourished in the later Saljuq, Ilkhanid, Muzaffarid, and Timurid periods.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
The Zagros Mountains are a long mountain range in Iran, Kurdistan and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of 1,600 km (990 mi). The Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran and roughly follows Iran's western border, while covering much of southeastern Turkey and northeastern Iraq. From this border region, the range roughly follows Iran's coast on the Persian Gulf. It spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau, ending at the Strait of Hormuz. The highest point is Mount Dena, at 4,409 metres (14,465 ft).
Iran, also called Persia and officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.
Although the founder was Abu Tahir ibn Muhammad, the dynasty is named after the latter's son and successor, Malik Hazarasp. The name of the dynasty is of Iranian origin, and means "thousand horses".
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family that are spoken natively by the Iranian peoples.
The founder of dynasty was Abu Tahir ibn Muhammad, a descendant of the Shabankara chieftain Fadluya, who was initially a commander of the Salghurids of Fars and was appointed as the governor of Kuhgiluya,but eventually gained independence in Luristan and extended his realm as far as Isfahan and assumed the prestigious title of atabeg. His son, Malik Hazarasp fought a successful campaign against Salghurids and assisted Jalal-al-din Khwarezmshah in his struggle against the Mongols. Another Hazaraspid ruler Takla, accompanied Hulagu on his march to Baghdad, but deserted because of the murder of the last caliph. He was eventually caught and executed on Hulagu's order.
Shabankara or Shabankareh was the name of a tribal federation of Iranian nomads who resided some parts of the Zagros mountains. They claimed descent from the mythical Iranian king Manuchehr, and are thought to be descendants of Daylamites who had followed the Buyid dynasty from northern Iran, or "Kurds" who had been deported to eastern Fars from Isfahan by the Buyid shahanshah 'Adud al-Dawla.
Amir Abu'l-Abbas Fadl, better known as Fadluya, was an Iranian tribal chieftain of the Shabankara in Fars. He was the son of Ali ibn Hasan ibn Ayyub of the Ramani clan of the Shabankara, and was the founder of the Shabankara dynasty in Fars, which lasted sporadically from 1030 to 1355. The Shabankaras occupied the mountain region of Kuhgiluya and maintained a great scale of independence.
The Salghurids of Fars, were a dynasty of Turkmen origin that ruled Fars, first as vassals of the Seljuqs then for the Khwarazm Shahs in the 13th century. The Salghurids were established by Sunqur in 1148, who had profited from the rebellions during the reign of Seljuq sultan Mas'ud b. Muhammad. Later the Salghurids were able to solidify their position in southern Persia to the point of campaigning against Kurds and involving themselves in the succession of the Kirman Seljuqs, holding Seljuq sultan Malik-Shah III's son Mahmud as a possible claimant to the Seljuq throne. They captured Isfahan in 1203-4, and later occupied Bahrain taken from the Uyunid dynasty in 1235.
Yusuf Shah I received Ilkhan Abaqa's confirmation of his rule and added Khuzestan, Kuhgiluya, Firuzan (near Isfahan) and Golpayegan to his domain. Afrasiab I attempted to extend his control to the coast of Persian Gulf but faced stiff opposition from the Mongols who defeated his army at Kuhrud near Kashan. He was reinstated by Ilkhan Gaykhatu but was executed by Gazan in October 1296.
Golpayegan is a city and capital of Golpayegan County, Isfahan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 47,849, in 14,263 families. Golpayegan is located 186 kilometres (116 mi) northwest of Isfahan and 102 kilometres (63 mi) southeast of Arak, situated at an altitude of 1,830 m. Its temperature fluctuates between +37° and -10° Celsius. Its average annual rainfall is 300 mm
The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest. The Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline.
Kashan is a city in Isfahan province, Iran. At the 2017 census, its population was 396,987 in 90,828 families.
The capital of Hazaraspids was located at Idaj located in present-day northern Khuzestan. Yusuf Shah II annexed the cities of Shushtar, Hoveizeh and Basra in the first half of fourteenth century.During the reign of Shams-al-din Pashang, the dynasty faced attacks from the Muzaffarids and the capital Idaj temporarily fell into their hands, until the occupiers had to retreat due to their own internecine fighting.
Izeh is a city and capital of Izeh County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 253,695, in 40,127 families.
Shushtar is a city and capital of Shushtar County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
Basra is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran. It had an estimated population of 2.5 million in 2012. Basra is also Iraq's main port, although it does not have deep water access, which is handled at the port of Umm Qasr.
In 1424, the Timurid ruler Shahrukh Mirza overthrew the last Hazaraspid ruler Ghiyath al-Din thereby ended the dynasty.
The Timurid dynasty, self-designated as Gurkani, was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineage descended from the warlord Timur. The word "Gurkani" derived from "gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kuragan" meaning "son-in-law", as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire. Members of the Timurid dynasty were strongly influenced by the Persian culture and established two significant empires in history, the Timurid Empire (1370–1507) based in Persia and Central Asia and the Mughal Empire (1526–1857) based in the Indian subcontinent.
The names of people, battles, and places need to be spelled as they are on other articles title and then wikified.
The Kurt dynasty, also known as the Kartids, was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Tajik origin, that ruled over a large part of Khorasan during the 13th and 14th centuries. Ruling from their capital at Herat and central Khorasan in the Bamyan, they were at first subordinates of Sultan Abul-Fateh Ghiyāṣ-ud-din Muhammad bin Sām, Sultan of the Ghurid Empire, of whom they were related, and then as vassal princes within the Mongol Empire. Upon the fragmentation of the Ilkhanate in 1335, Mu'izz-uddin Husayn ibn Ghiyath-uddin worked to expand his principality. The death of Husayn b. Ghiyath-uddin in 1370 and the invasion of Timur in 1381, ended the Kurt dynasty's ambitions.
Sayyida Shirin, also simply known as Sayyida, was a Bavandid princess, who was the wife of Buyid ruler of Ray, Fakhr al-Dawla. She was the de facto ruler of Ray during the reign of her son, Majd al-Dawla.
Ai-Toghdï, also known as Shumla was the ruler of Khuzestan from c. 1155 until his death.
Ghiyath al-Din, also transcribed as Ghiyāthu'd-Dīn, Ghiyasuddin, etc. is the name of many persons in the Islamic world. It may refer to:
The Atabegs of Yazd were a local dynasty, which ruled the city of Yazd from about 1141 to 1319. They succeeded the Kakuyids to whom they were linked by marriage.
The Paduspanids or Baduspanids were a local dynasty of Tabaristan which ruled over Royan, Nur and Rostamdar. The dynasty was established in 655, and ended in 1598 when the Safavids invaded their domains.
Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire from 1206 to 1212. He was the nephew and successor of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad.
Mubariz al-Din Muhammad (1301-1358), was the founder of the Muzaffarid dynasty, ruling from 1314 to 1358. He was born to a family of distant Arab origin which settled in Khurasan during the Islamic conquest. He was the son of Sharaf al-Din Muzaffar, a servant of the Ilkhanids and on his father's death in 1314 Mubariz inherited his father's offices.
Qavam al-Din ibn Abdallah al-Marashi, better known as Mir Buzurg or Mir Bozorg, was the founder of the Marashi dynasty, ruling from 1359 to 1362.
Pushang, also known by its Arabicized form of Bushanj, Bushang, Pushanj, and Fūshanj, was the name of a town in Khorasan, close to Herat in present-day Afghanistan.
Ardashir I, was the ruler of the Bavand dynasty from 1173 to 1205. He was the son and successor of Hasan I.
Izz al-Din Husain ibn Kharmil al-Ghuri, commonly known after his father as Ibn Kharmil, was an Iranian military leader of the Ghurid dynasty, and later the semi-independent ruler of Herat and its surrounding regions.
Baha al-Din Sam II was the fourth ruler of the Ghurid branch of Bamiyan, ruling from 1192 to 1206.
Nasrallah ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Hamid Shirazi, better known as Abu'l-Ma'ali Nasrallah, was a Persian poet and statesman who served as the vizier of the Ghaznavid Sultan Khusrau Malik.
Abd al-Hamid ibn Ahmad ibn Abd al-Samad Shirazi, better known as Abd al-Hamid Shirazi, was a Persian vizier of the Ghaznavid Sultan Ibrahim and the latter's son Mas'ud III.
Abu'l-Muzaffar Khusrau Malik ibn Khusrau-Shah, better simply known as Khusrau Malik, was the last Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire, ruling from 1160 to 1186. He was the son and successor of Khusrau-Shah.
Muzaffar al-Din Qizil Arslan Uthman, better known as Qizil Arslan, was the ruler (atabeg) of the Eldiguzids from 1186 to 1191. He was the brother and successor of Muhammad Jahan Pahlavan, and was later succeeded by his nephew Nusrat al-Din Abu Bakr.
HAZĀRASPIDS, a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia,...