Hazaraspids

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The Hazaraspids ( Persian : هزاراسپیان) (1155–1424), was a Kurdish Sunni Muslim dynasty [1] [2] that ruled the Zagros Mountains region of southwestern Iran, essentially in Lorestan and the adjacent parts of Fars which flourished in the later Saljuq, Ilkhanid, Muzaffarid, and Timurid periods. [3]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Zagros Mountains mountain range

The Zagros Mountains are a long mountain range in Iran, Kurdistan and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of 1,600 km (990 mi). The Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran and roughly follows Iran's western border, while covering much of southeastern Turkey and northeastern Iraq. From this border region, the range roughly follows Iran's coast on the Persian Gulf. It spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau, ending at the Strait of Hormuz. The highest point is Mount Dena, at 4,409 metres (14,465 ft).

Iran Country in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia and officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.

Contents

Etymology

Although the founder was Abu Tahir ibn Muhammad, the dynasty is named after the latter's son and successor, Malik Hazarasp. The name of the dynasty is of Iranian origin, and means "thousand horses". [4]

Iranian languages language family

The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family that are spoken natively by the Iranian peoples.

History

The founder of dynasty was Abu Tahir ibn Muhammad, a descendant of the Shabankara chieftain Fadluya, who was initially a commander of the Salghurids of Fars and was appointed as the governor of Kuhgiluya, [5] but eventually gained independence in Luristan and extended his realm as far as Isfahan and assumed the prestigious title of atabeg. [6] His son, Malik Hazarasp fought a successful campaign against Salghurids and assisted Jalal-al-din Khwarezmshah in his struggle against the Mongols. Another Hazaraspid ruler Takla, accompanied Hulagu on his march to Baghdad, but deserted because of the murder of the last caliph. He was eventually caught and executed on Hulagu's order.

Shabankara

Shabankara or Shabankareh was the name of a tribal federation of Iranian nomads who resided some parts of the Zagros mountains. They claimed descent from the mythical Iranian king Manuchehr, and are thought to be descendants of Daylamites who had followed the Buyid dynasty from northern Iran, or "Kurds" who had been deported to eastern Fars from Isfahan by the Buyid shahanshah 'Adud al-Dawla.

Fadluya

Amir Abu'l-Abbas Fadl, better known as Fadluya, was an Iranian tribal chieftain of the Shabankara in Fars. He was the son of Ali ibn Hasan ibn Ayyub of the Ramani clan of the Shabankara, and was the founder of the Shabankara dynasty in Fars, which lasted sporadically from 1030 to 1355. The Shabankaras occupied the mountain region of Kuhgiluya and maintained a great scale of independence.

Salghurids Wikimedia list article

The Salghurids of Fars, were a dynasty of Turkmen origin that ruled Fars, first as vassals of the Seljuqs then for the Khwarazm Shahs in the 13th century. The Salghurids were established by Sunqur in 1148, who had profited from the rebellions during the reign of Seljuq sultan Mas'ud b. Muhammad. Later the Salghurids were able to solidify their position in southern Persia to the point of campaigning against Kurds and involving themselves in the succession of the Kirman Seljuqs, holding Seljuq sultan Malik-Shah III's son Mahmud as a possible claimant to the Seljuq throne. They captured Isfahan in 1203-4, and later occupied Bahrain taken from the Uyunid dynasty in 1235.

Yusuf Shah I received Ilkhan Abaqa's confirmation of his rule and added Khuzestan, Kuhgiluya, Firuzan (near Isfahan) and Golpayegan to his domain. Afrasiab I attempted to extend his control to the coast of Persian Gulf but faced stiff opposition from the Mongols who defeated his army at Kuhrud near Kashan. He was reinstated by Ilkhan Gaykhatu but was executed by Gazan in October 1296. [7]

Golpayegan City in Isfahan, Iran

Golpayegan is a city and capital of Golpayegan County, Isfahan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 47,849, in 14,263 families. Golpayegan is located 186 kilometres (116 mi) northwest of Isfahan and 102 kilometres (63 mi) southeast of Arak, situated at an altitude of 1,830 m. Its temperature fluctuates between +37° and -10° Celsius. Its average annual rainfall is 300 mm

Persian Gulf An arm of the Indian Ocean in western Asia

The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest. The Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline.

Kashan City in Isfahan, Iran

Kashan is a city in Isfahan province, Iran. At the 2017 census, its population was 396,987 in 90,828 families.

The capital of Hazaraspids was located at Idaj located in present-day northern Khuzestan. Yusuf Shah II annexed the cities of Shushtar, Hoveizeh and Basra in the first half of fourteenth century. [8] During the reign of Shams-al-din Pashang, the dynasty faced attacks from the Muzaffarids and the capital Idaj temporarily fell into their hands, until the occupiers had to retreat due to their own internecine fighting.

Izeh City in Khuzestan, Iran

Izeh is a city and capital of Izeh County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 253,695, in 40,127 families.

Shushtar City in Khuzestan, Iran

Shushtar is a city and capital of Shushtar County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.

Basra City in Basra Governorate, Iraq

Basra is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran. It had an estimated population of 2.5 million in 2012. Basra is also Iraq's main port, although it does not have deep water access, which is handled at the port of Umm Qasr.

In 1424, the Timurid ruler Shahrukh Mirza overthrew the last Hazaraspid ruler Ghiyath al-Din thereby ended the dynasty.

Timurid dynasty

The Timurid dynasty, self-designated as Gurkani, was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineage descended from the warlord Timur. The word "Gurkani" derived from "gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kuragan" meaning "son-in-law", as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire. Members of the Timurid dynasty were strongly influenced by the Persian culture and established two significant empires in history, the Timurid Empire (1370–1507) based in Persia and Central Asia and the Mughal Empire (1526–1857) based in the Indian subcontinent.

Rulers

  1. Abu Tahir ibn Muhammad (r. 1155–1203)
  2. Malik Hazarasp (r. 1204–1248)
  3. Imad al-Din ibn Hazarasp (r. 1248–1251)
  4. Nusrat al-Din (r. 1252–1257)
  5. Takla (r. 1257–1259)
  6. Shams al-Din Alp Arghun (r. 1259-1274)
  7. Yusuf Shah I (r. 1274–1288)
  8. Afrasiab I (r. 1288–1296)
  9. Nusrat al-Din Ahmad (r. 1296–1330)
  10. Rukn al-Din Yusuf Shah II (r. 1330–1340)
  11. Muzaffar al-Din Afrasiab II (r. 1340–1355)
  12. Shams al-Din Pashang (r. 1355–1378)
  13. Malik Pir Ahmad (r. 1378–1408)
  14. Abu Sa'id (r. 1408–1417)
  15. Shah Husayn (r. 1417–1424)
  16. Ghiyath al-Din (r. 1424)

See also

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References

  1. C. E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 205, ISBN   0-231-10714-5.
  2. "HAZĀRASPIDS". www.iranicaonline.org. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 20 February 2017. HAZĀRASPIDS, a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia,...
  3. C. E. Bosworth,, Encyclopædia Iranica
  4. Luzac & Co 1986, p. 336-337.
  5. B. Spuller,Atabakan-e Lorestan [ permanent dead link ], Encyclopædia Iranica.
  6. C. E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual, 205.
  7. ATĀBAKĀN‵E LORESTĀN, rulers of Lorestān, part of the Zagros highlands of southwestern Iran in the later middle ages [ permanent dead link ]
  8. S. Lane-Poole, The Mohammedan Dynasties: Chronological and Genealogical Tables with Historical Introductions, 412 pp., Kessinger Publishing, 2004 (originally 1894), ISBN   1-4179-4570-2, p.174

Sources