Heihe

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Heihe

黑河市
Hei He Zhong Yang Jie -1-2017.jpg
Location of Heihe Prefecture within Heilongjiang (China).png
Location of Heihe City (yellow) in Heilongjiang (light grey)
China Heilongjiang location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Heihe
Location of the city proper in Heilongjiang
Coordinates(Heihe Customs): 50°14′24″N127°31′16″E / 50.2401°N 127.5210°E / 50.2401; 127.5210 Coordinates: 50°14′24″N127°31′16″E / 50.2401°N 127.5210°E / 50.2401; 127.5210
Country People's Republic of China
Province Heilongjiang
County-level divisions 6
Government
  Type Prefecture-level city
   CPC Heihe SecretaryLiu Gang (刘刚)
  MayorZhang Enliang (张恩亮)
Area
   Prefecture-level city 54,390 km2 (21,000 sq mi)
  Metro
1,443 km2 (557 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)
   Prefecture-level city 1,673,898
   Metro
211,313
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
164300
Area code(s) 0456
ISO 3166 code CN-HL-11
Licence plates 黑N
Climate Dwb
Website www.heihe.gov.cn
Heihe
Hei He .png
"Heihe", as written in Chinese
Chinese name
Chinese 黑河
Literal meaningblack river
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠰᠠᡥᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡠᠯᠠ ᡥᠣᡨᠣᠨ
Romanization Sahaliyan'ula hoton
Russian name
Russian Хэйхэ
Aigun
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 瑷珲
Traditional Chinese 璦琿
Postal Aigun
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠠᡳ᠌ᡥᡡᠨ ᡥᠣᡨᠣᠨ
Romanization Aigun hoton
Russian name
Russian Айгунь

Heihe (Chinese : 黑河 ; pinyin :Hēihé; "Black River") is a prefecture-level city of northern Heilongjiang province, China, located on the Russian border, on the south bank of the Heilong Jiang, across the river from Blagoveshchensk. Heihe has an urban population of about 211,313, while the total population of the prefecture-level city is 1,673,893. [1] In 2015, Heihe had a GDP of RMB 44.78 billion. [2]

Contents

Heihe marks the northeast terminus of the diagonal Heihe–Tengchong Line, which is sometimes used to divide China into east and west.

History

Aigou (Aigun) shown as one of the few towns on the Amur, and one of the most important places in the region, on a 1706 French map Lisle - Carte de Tartarie (Detail).jpg
Aigou (Aigun) shown as one of the few towns on the Amur, and one of the most important places in the region, on a 1706 French map

Heihe, formerly Aihui or Aigun, is one of the five oldest cities in Heilongjiang, along with Tsitsihar, Yilan, Acheng and Hulan. Human beings started to settle in Heihe region as early as the Paleolithic Age. [3] Later it became home to local tribes. During the Qing Dynasty, Heihe was the first place troops sent to Heilongjiang were stationed. The predecessor of today's Heihe was the town established by the indigenous Ducher people of the Amur Valley in the mid 1650s. [3] It was established some 30 km (19 mi) south of the modern city site [4] (in today's Aihui District) and was known as Aigun, Heilongjiang, or Saghalien Ula. (The two last names both mean "the Black Dragon River" - the name for the Amur River in Chinese and Manchu, respectively).

After the Ducher were evacuated by the Qing to the Sungari or Hurka in the 1650s, the Ducher town was probably vacated. However, in 1683-85 the Manchus re-used the site as a base for their campaign against the Russian fort of Albazin. [5] Aigun was the capital (the seat of the military governor) of Heilongjiang from 1683 to 1690, before the capital was moved to Nenjiang (Mergen). [6] After the capture of Albazin in 1685 or 1686, the Qing governor relocated the town to a new site on the right (southwestern) bank of the Amur, about 3 miles downstream from the original. [7] [8] The new site occupied the location of the former village of the Daurian chief named Tolga. [7] The city became known primarily under its Manchu name Saghalien Ula hoton (Manchu: ᠰᠠᡥᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠨ
ᡠᠯᠠ
ᡥᠣᡨᠣᠨ
sahaliyan ula hoton) and Chinese name Heilongjiang Cheng (黑龍江城), which both mean "Black River City". [9] Later the governor office was transferred to Qiqihar. However, Aigun remained the seat of the Deputy Lieutenant-General (Fu dutong), responsible for a large district covering much of the Amur Valley within the province of Heilongjiang as it existed in those days. [6]

Muravyov's fleet off Aigun in 1854 Ravenstein-p118-Sverbeyev-View-of-Aigun-1854.png
Muravyov's fleet off Aigun in 1854

Aigun was visited around 1709 as a part of a nationwide Sino-French cartographic program by the Jesuits Jean-Baptiste Régis, Pierre Jartoux, and Xavier Ehrenbert Fridelli, [10] who found it a stronghold, serving as the base of Manchus controlling the Amur River basin. The Aigun Treaty was concluded at Aigun in 1858. According to this treaty, the left bank of the Amur River was conceded to Czarist Russia.

After Xinhai Revolution, Aigun became the county seat of the newly created Aigun County by the Republic of China. On November 15, 1980, Heihe City was established, administering two county-level cities and three counties including Beian, Wudalianchi, Nenjiang, Sunwu and Sunke. Aihui County was abolished, being merged into the Heihe City. [11]

Geography

Heihe is located at the South bank of the Amur, opposite to the city of Blagoveshchensk in Russia's Amur Oblast. Its jurisdictional area stretches for 54,390 km2 (21,000 sq mi), which spans from 124° 45' to 129° 18' E longitude and 47° 42' to 51° 03' N latitude. Domestically, Heihe City borders Da Hinggan Ling Prefecture to the north, Yichun to the southeast, Suihua to the south, Qiqihar to the southwest, and Hulunbuir (Inner Mongolia) to the west. The Amur has formed the Sino-Russian border since the 1858 Aigun Treaty and 1860 Treaty of Peking. The area north of the Amur had previously belonged to Imperial China.

Climate

Heihe experiences a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb), but Dwa in the south of the prefecture, with long, bitterly cold, windy, but dry winters due to the influence of the Siberian high, and warm, wet summers, due to the East Asian monsoon. Based on data from 1981–2010, the monthly daily mean temperature in January, the coldest month, is −22.0 °C (−7.6 °F), and July, the warmest month, averages 21.1 °C (70.0 °F), with an average annual temperature +0.92 °C (33.7 °F). Close to two-thirds of the annual precipitation falls in the months of June to August. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −44.5 °C (−48 °F) to 39.3 °C (103 °F).

Climate data for Heihe (Aihui District, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1971–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)−0.4
(31.3)
7.1
(44.8)
20.4
(68.7)
28.3
(82.9)
35.1
(95.2)
39.3
(102.7)
37.2
(99.0)
35.1
(95.2)
31.1
(88.0)
28.2
(82.8)
12.5
(54.5)
1.1
(34.0)
39.3
(102.7)
Average high °C (°F)−16.3
(2.7)
−10.3
(13.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
10.4
(50.7)
19.0
(66.2)
24.9
(76.8)
26.5
(79.7)
24.3
(75.7)
18.3
(64.9)
8.4
(47.1)
−5.5
(22.1)
−15.3
(4.5)
6.9
(44.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)−22.0
(−7.6)
−17.2
(1.0)
−7.7
(18.1)
4.2
(39.6)
12.4
(54.3)
18.7
(65.7)
21.1
(70.0)
18.8
(65.8)
11.9
(53.4)
2.4
(36.3)
−11.0
(12.2)
−20.5
(−4.9)
0.9
(33.7)
Average low °C (°F)−26.5
(−15.7)
−22.7
(−8.9)
−13.8
(7.2)
−2.0
(28.4)
5.5
(41.9)
12.4
(54.3)
16.0
(60.8)
13.9
(57.0)
6.4
(43.5)
−2.7
(27.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−24.7
(−12.5)
−4.5
(23.9)
Record low °C (°F)−44.5
(−48.1)
−40.9
(−41.6)
−32.8
(−27.0)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−8.4
(16.9)
1.7
(35.1)
7.9
(46.2)
4.0
(39.2)
−5.3
(22.5)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−32.8
(−27.0)
−38.9
(−38.0)
−44.5
(−48.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)4.1
(0.16)
3.0
(0.12)
5.7
(0.22)
25.2
(0.99)
41.1
(1.62)
86.0
(3.39)
131.0
(5.16)
121.4
(4.78)
65.4
(2.57)
23.5
(0.93)
9.1
(0.36)
6.3
(0.25)
521.8
(20.55)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)7.14.34.88.010.413.414.013.811.86.86.98.7130.0
Average snowy days11786100005101260
Average relative humidity (%)68635653536777797160656965
Mean monthly sunshine hours 139.5194.9226.3222.0251.1255.0226.3226.3168.0189.1156.0124.02,378.5
Source #1: China Meteorological Administration, [12] Weather China (Precipitation days 1971–2000) [13]
Source #2: Blagoveshchensk (Snow days 1981–2010, Sun 1961–1990) [14] [15]

Administrative divisions

Heihe mcp.png
#Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010 est.)Area (km²)Density (/km²)
1 Aihui District 爱辉区Àihuī Qū211,31313,99315.1
2 Bei'an city北安市Běi'ān Shì436,4446,31369.1
3 Wudalianchi city五大连池市Wǔdàliánchí Shì326,3909,80033.3
4 Nenjiang city嫩江市Nènjiāng shì495,51915,36032.3
5 Xunke County 逊克县Xùnkè Xiàn101,41117,0206.0
6 Sunwu County 孙吴县Sūnwú Xiàn102,8214,45423.1

Transportation

Heilongjiang (Amur) shore.jpg

The transportation to and from Heihe is as follows:

Transportation between Blagoveshchensk and Heihe is by boat in the summer and by bus over the frozen river in the winter; when the ice is too thin to carry buses, the route is operated by hovercrafts.

Energy

West of Heihe, there is an HVDC back-to-back station for realizing an interconnection between the power grids of Russia and China with 750 MW transmission capacity.[ citation needed ]

Tourism

The Amur River (Heilong Jiang) and Heihe Amur River and Heihe.jpg
The Amur River (Heilong Jiang) and Heihe
Wudalianchi Volcanic Landforms National Geopark WudalianchiGeopark.jpg
Wudalianchi Volcanic Landforms National Geopark

Heihe has plenty of natural tourism resources, including the Amur River and Wudalianchi Lake  [ zh ] and Wudalianchi Volcanic Range  [ zh ], where people can take a trip to local volcanoes. The Old City of Aigun is a famous historical scenic spot, in which the Treaty of Aigun between China and Russia was signed in the 19th century.

Sport

Heihe University (黑河学院) has requested the Russian bandy club SKA Neftyanik to send a coach, offering a one-year contract.

Sister cities

See also

Related Research Articles

Amur River river in Russia and China

The Amur River (Russian: река́ Аму́р, IPA: [ɐˈmur] or Heilong Jiang is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. The largest fish species in the Amur is the kaluga, attaining a length as great as 5.6 metres. The river basin is home to a variety of large predatory fish such as northern snakehead, Amur pike, taimen, Amur catfish, predatory carp and yellowcheek, as well as the northernmost populations of the Amur softshell turtle and Indian lotus.

Heilongjiang Province of China

Heilongjiang is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area and the 15th-most populous.

Treaty of Aigun 1858 treaty between Russian Empire and Manchu Chinese Empire

The Treaty of Aigun was an 1858 treaty between the Russian Empire, and the empire of the Qing Dynasty, the Manchu rulers of China, that established much of the modern border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria, which is now known as Northeast China. It reversed the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) by transferring the land between the Stanovoy Range and the Amur River from China to the Russian Empire. Russia received over 600,000 square kilometres (231,660 sq mi) from China.

Aigun Town in Heilongjiang, China

Aigun was a historic Chinese town in northern Manchuria, situated on the right bank of the Amur River, some 30 kilometres (19 mi) south (downstream) from the central urban area of Heihe.

Outer Manchuria region in Russia

Outer Manchuria or Outer Northeast China is a term for a territory in Northeast Asia that formerly belonged to the Qing dynasty and is now controlled by Russia. It is considered part of Manchuria. Russia annexed this territory by way of the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Treaty of Peking in 1860. The northern part of the area was also in dispute between 1643 and 1689.

Blagoveshchensk City in Amur Oblast, Russia

Blagoveshchensk is a city and the administrative center of Amur Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Amur and Zeya Rivers, opposite to the Chinese city of Heihe. Population: 214,390 (2010 Census); 219,221 (2002 Census); 205,553 (1989 Census).

Qiqihar Prefecture-level city in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Qiqihar is the second largest city in the Heilongjiang province of China, located in the west central part of the province. The built-up area made up of Longsha, Tiefeng and Jianhua districts had 979,517 inhabitants, while the total population of the prefecture-level city was 5,367,003 at the 2010 census. These are mainly Han Chinese, though the city is also home to thirty-four minorities including Manchus, Daur, and Mongols. Close to Qiqihar are numerous wetlands and the Zhalong Nature Reserve, famous in China for being home to numerous red-crowned cranes.

Suihua Prefecture-level city in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Suihua is a prefecture-level city in west-central Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, adjacent to Yichun to the east, Harbin, the provincial capital, to the south, Daqing to the west and Heihe to the north. It has 5,418,453 inhabitants at the 2010 census, of whom 877,114 lived in the built-up area made of Beilin District.

Nen River river in the Peoples Republic of China

The Nen River or Nenjiang, or Nonni is a river in Northeast China. The Nen River flows through the northern part of Heilongjiang Province and the northeastern section of Inner Mongolia, some parts of the river forming the border between the two regions. At 1370 kilometres (850 mi) in length, the Nen River is the longest tributary of the Songhua River.

Sixty-Four Villages East of the River human-geographic territorial entity

The Sixty-Four Villages East of the River were a group of Manchu and Han Chinese-inhabited villages located on the left (north) bank of the Amur River opposite of Heihe, and on the east bank of Zeya River opposite of Blagoveshchensk. The area totaled 3,600 square kilometers (1,400 sq mi).

Heihe Aihui Airport airport in Peoples Republic of China

Heihe Aihui Airport is the airport serving the city of Heihe in Heilongjiang Province, China. It is not far away from Ignatyevo Airport in Blagoveshchensk, Russia.

Ningan County-level city in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Ning'an is a city located approximately 20 km (12 mi) southwest of Mudanjiang, in the southeast of Heilongjiang province, China, bordering Jilin province to the south. It is located on the Mudanjiang River, which flows north, eventually falling into the Sungari River near Sanxing.

Sino-Russian border conflicts Series of conflicts between China and Russia

The Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689) were a series of intermittent skirmishes between the Qing dynasty, with assistance from the Joseon dynasty of Korea, and the Tsardom of Russia by the Cossacks in which the latter tried and failed to gain the land north of the Amur River with disputes over the Amur region. The hostilities culminated in the Qing siege of the Cossack fort of Albazin (1686) and resulted in the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 which gave the land to China.

Mohe City County-level city in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Mohe is a county-level city in Daxing'anling Prefecture, Heilongjiang province. It is the northernmost Chinese city.

Aihui District District in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Aihui District is an administrative district and the seat of the prefecture-level city of Heihe, Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China. It is located on the right (south-western) bank of the Amur River, across which is Blagoveshchensk, Amur Oblast, Russia. According to the prefectural government, the land area of Aihui District is 1,443 km2 (557 sq mi), the population is 197,240 people.

Duchers

The Duchers was the Russian name of the people populating the shores of the middle course of the Amur River, approximately from the mouth of the Zeya down to the mouth of the Ussury, and possibly even somewhat further downstream. Their ethnic identity is not known with certainty, but it is usually assumed that they were a Tungusic people, related to the Jurchens and/or the Nanais.

Sunwu County County in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Sunwu County is a county under the administration of Heihe City in the north of Heilongjiang province, China, situated on the bank of Amur River, which demarcates the Sino-Russian border. The length of border line within Sunwu county is 36 km (22 mi).

Nurgan Regional Military Commission

The Nurgan Regional Military Commission was a Chinese administrative seat established in Manchuria during the Ming dynasty, located on the banks of the Amur River, about 100 km from the sea, at Nurgan city, Nurgan in Jurchen language means “painting”. The seat was nominally established in 1409, but was abandoned in 1435. Nurgan was the site of Yongning Temple (永寕寺), a Buddhist temple dedicated to Guanyin, that was founded by Yishiha (Išiqa) in 1413. The founding of Yongning Temple is recorded in the Yongning Temple Stele with inscriptions in Chinese, Mongolian and Jurchen. The commission was an important institution during the Ming rule of Manchuria, obtaining at least the nominal allegiance of the lower Amur's tribes to the Ming government.

G1211 Jilin–Heihe Expressway road

The Jilin–Heihe Expressway, commonly referred to as the Jihei Expressway, is a planned expressway that will connect the cities of Jilin City, Jilin, China, and Heihe, Heilongjiang. Heihe is on the China–Russia border. However, there is no road bridge over the Amur River, which forms the border between the two countries, and a road connection is only available on the frozen river during the winter.

Manchuria under Ming rule aspect of East Asian history

Manchuria under Ming rule refers to the domination of the Ming dynasty over Manchuria, including today's Northeast China and Outer Manchuria. The Ming rule of Manchuria began with its conquest of Manchuria in the late 1380s after the fall of the Mongol Yuan dynasty, and reached its peak in the early 15th century with the establishment of the Nurgan Regional Military Commission, but the Ming power waned considerably in Manchuria after that. Starting in the 1580s, a Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain named Nurhaci (1558–1626), began to take control of most of Manchuria over the next several decades, and the Qing dynasty established by his son would eventually conquer the Ming and take control of China proper.

References

  1. 黑河市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报. Heihe People's Government. Archived from the original on 2018-02-01. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  2. 2015年黑龙江各市GDP和人均GDP排名.
  3. 1 2 Амурская область: История НАРОДЫ АМУРСКОЙ ЗЕМЛИ Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine (Amur Oblast: the History. The peoples of the Amur Land) (in Russian)
  4. The Ancient City of Aigun Archived 2009-10-29 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Bruce Mancall, 'Russia and China: Their Diplomatic Relations to 1728, 1971, pages 115-127
  6. 1 2 Edmonds, Richard Louis (1985). Northern Frontiers of Qing China and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. University of Chicago, Department of Geography; Research Paper No. 213. pp. 115–117. ISBN   0-89065-118-3.
  7. 1 2 E.G.Ravenstein, The Russians on the Amur. London, 1861. text can be found on Google Books. Pages 18,48.
  8. The Jesuits (at du Halde, pp. 18-19), who visited the "new" Aigun ca. 1709, mentioned the old site on the left bank of the river (which they called Aykom), but said that it was 13 li, i.e., some 8.3 km, upstream from the new site. They also claimed that Aykom was founded by the 15th-century Ming Yongle Emperor but abandoned within 20 years. Although Yongle's Amur expeditions are well known (see, e.g., Yishiha), there seem to be no corroboration in modern literature for the existence of a Yongle-era fort at the Old Aigun site.
  9. Jean-Baptiste Du Halde, Description géographique, historique, chronologique, politique, et physique de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise, enrichie des cartes générales et particulieres de ces pays, de la carte générale et des cartes particulieres du Thibet, & de la Corée; & ornée d'un grand nombre de figures & de vignettes gravées en tailledouce, Vol. 4 (La Haye: H. Scheurleer, 1736). Pp. 18-19.
  10. Jean-Baptiste Du Halde, Description géographique, historique, chronologique, politique, et physique de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise, enrichie des cartes générales et particulieres de ces pays, de la carte générale et des cartes particulieres du Thibet, & de la Corée; & ornée d'un grand nombre de figures & de vignettes gravées en tailledouce, Vol. 1 (La Haye: H. Scheurleer, 1736). (p. xxxviii in Vol. 1)
  11. 爱辉区概况 (in Chinese). Heihe People's Government. 2007-06-06. Archived 2012-12-25 at the Wayback Machine
  12. 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration . Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  13. 黑河 - 气象数据 -中国天气网 (in Chinese). Weather China. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
  14. Климат Благовещенска. Pogoda.
  15. "Climatological Information for Blagovescensk, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
  16. As of today, Krasnoyarsk City Administration has concluded protocols of intent and agreements on cooperation with the following foreign cities: