Helsingborg

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Helsingborg
Helsingborg montage.png
Top :Sofiero Slott Castle, Second left:Kärnan Medieval Tower, Second right:Radhuset (Helsingborg City Hall), Third left:Dunkers Kultuhus Museum, Third right :Ramlösa mineral water source site, Bottom:A cruise terminal in Helsingborg Bredgatan Port
Coat of arms of Helsingborg, Sweden.svg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Pearl of the strait
Sweden Scania location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Helsingborg
Sweden location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Helsingborg
Coordinates: 56°03′N12°43′E / 56.050°N 12.717°E / 56.050; 12.717 Coordinates: 56°03′N12°43′E / 56.050°N 12.717°E / 56.050; 12.717
Country Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Province Skånska flaggan.svg  Scania
County Skåne County
Municipality Helsingborg Municipality
Charter 1085
Area
[1]
  Total38.41 km2 (14.83 sq mi)
Population
(2017) [1]
  Total108,334
  Density2,529/km2 (6,550/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
25x xxx
Area code(s) (+46) 42
Website www.helsingborg.se

Helsingborg (Swedish pronunciation:  [hɛlsɪŋˈbɔrj] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); spelled Hälsingborg between 1912 and 1970) is a town and the seat of Helsingborg Municipality, Scania, Sweden. It had 108,334 inhabitants in 2017. [1] Helsingborg is the centre of the northern part of western Scania. There is no formal metropolitan area, but the municipality of Helsingborg City and its neighbouring five municipalities (within Scania) had in spring of 2013 a population of 269 489 inhabitants at an area of 1,353 square kilometres (522.396 square miles), a population density of 200 people/km2. This makes Helsingborg the fourth largest population area in Sweden. [2] The city is also Sweden's closest point to Denmark, with the Danish city Helsingør clearly visible on the other side of the Øresund about 4 km (2 mi) to the west, closer than to the city's own remoter areas. If including all population around the northern part of Øresund, as a Helsingborg-Helsingør metropolitan area, its population increases to 732 450 at an area of 2,802 square kilometres (1,081.858 square miles). [3] The busy ferry route known as the HH Ferry route has through history been operated by several shipping lines. As of 2014 more than 70 car ferries departures from each harbour every day.

An urban area or tätort in Sweden has a minimum of 200 inhabitants and may be a city, town or larger village. It is a purely statistical concept, not defined by any municipal or county boundaries. Urban areas referred to as cities or towns for statistical purposes have a minimum of 10,000 inhabitants. In 2010, there were 1,956 urban areas in Sweden, covering 85% of the Swedish population.

Helsingborg Municipality Municipality in Skåne County, Sweden

Helsingborg Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in Sweden. Its seat is located in the city of Helsingborg, which is Sweden's eighth largest city. The municipality had a population of 132,011 on January 1, 2013, and the population is increasing with roughly 1500 people annually.

Scania Place in Götaland, Sweden

Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden. Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities that are autonomous within the Scania Regional Council. Scania's largest city is Malmö, which is also the third largest in Sweden, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia.

Contents

Following the Swedish orthography reform of 1906 many place names in Sweden got a modernized spelling. In 1912 it was decided to use the form Hälsingborg. In preparation for the local government reform. In 1971 the Hälsingborg city council proposed that the new, enlarged municipality should be spelled with an "e". This was also the decision of the Government of Sweden, effective from 1 January 1971.

Swedish orthography

Swedish orthography is the set of rules and conventions used for writing Swedish. The primary authority on Swedish orthography is Svenska Akademiens ordlista (SAOL), a glossary published annually by the Swedish Academy. The balance between describing the language and creating norms has changed with the years.

Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.

Municipalities of Sweden local administrative subdivisions of Sweden

The municipalities of Sweden are its lower-level local government entities. There are 290 municipalities which are responsible for a large proportion of local services, including schools, emergency services and physical planning.

Historic Helsingborg, with its many old buildings, is a scenic coastal city. The buildings are a blend of old-style stone-built churches and a 600-year-old medieval fortress (Kärnan) in the city centre, and more modern commercial buildings. The streets vary from wide avenues to small alley-ways. Kullagatan, the main pedestrian shopping street in the city, was the first pedestrian shopping street in Sweden.

Kärnan

Kärnan is a medieval tower in Helsingborg, Scania, in southern Sweden. It is the only part remaining of a larger Danish fortress which, along with the fortress Kronborg on the opposite of Øresund, controlled the entranceway between Kattegat and Øresund and further south the Baltic Sea.

History

Helsingborg is one of the oldest cities of what is now Sweden. It has been the site of permanent settlement officially since 21 May 1085. [4] Helsingborg's geographical position at the narrowest part of Øresund made it very important for Denmark, at that time controlling both sides of that strait. From 1429 Eric of Pomerania introduced the Øresundstolden (the Sound Dues), a levy on all trading vessels passing through the sound between Elsinore and Helsingborg. [5] This was one of the main sources of income for the Danish Crown. Crossing traffic, like fishermen, were not subject to the tax, which was initially directed against the Hanseatic League.

Øresund The strait between Denmark and Sweden

Øresund or Öresund, commonly known in English as the Sound, is a strait which forms the Danish–Swedish border, separating Zealand (Denmark) from Scania (Sweden). The strait has a length of 118 kilometres (73 mi) and the width varies from 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to 28 kilometres (17 mi). It is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) wide at its narrowest point between Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden.

Denmark Sovereign state and Scandinavian country in northern Europe

Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and is bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2 (16,573 sq mi), land area of 42,394 km2 (16,368 sq mi), and the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2 (853,509 sq mi), and a population of 5.8 million.

Eric of Pomerania King of Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Kalmar Union

Eric of Pomerania KG was the ruler of the Kalmar Union from 1396 until 1439, succeeding his grandaunt, Queen Margaret I. He is numbered Eric III as King of Norway (1389–1442), Eric VII as King of Denmark (1396–1439) and Eric XIII as King of Sweden. Today, in all three countries he is more commonly known as Erik av Pommern. Eric was ultimately deposed from all three kingdoms of the union, but in 1449 he inherited one of the partitions of the Duchy of Pomerania and ruled it as duke until his death.

The Sound Dues helped Helsingør to flourish, and some of it spilled over to Helsingborg. The northern narrow inlet to Øresund with its relatively high coastlines made an impression on many mariners, and when Kronborg was rebuilt from a fortress to a palace during the Renaissance, the area became famous. Evidence of this is William Shakespeare's Hamlet , which unfolds at Kronborg; the titular Prince of Denmark may well have hidden himself from his uncle in Helsingborg. The era of the Renaissance helped the Kingdom of Denmark, but towards the middle of the 17th century, the situation worsened.

Kronborg medieval castle in Helsingør, Denmark

Kronborg is a castle and stronghold in the town of Helsingør, Denmark. Immortalized as Elsinore in William Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Kronborg is one of the most important Renaissance castles in Northern Europe and has been added to UNESCO's World Heritage Sites list (2000).

Renaissance cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the middle ages to modernity. The traditional view focused more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argued that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the late medieval period.

William Shakespeare English playwright and poet

William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.

Following the Dano-Swedish War (1657-1658) and the Treaty of Roskilde Denmark had to give up all territory on the southern Scandinavian peninsula, and Helsingborg became subject to new rulers. King Charles X Gustav of Sweden landed here on 5 March 1658 to take personal possession of the Scanian lands and was met by a delegation led by the bishop of the Diocese of Lund, Peder Winstrup. At that time the town had a population of barely 1,000 people. [6] He soon attempted to erase Denmark totally from the map, by attacking Copenhagen but failed (Treaty of Copenhagen (1660)), and died in Gothenburg soon afterwards. Not much changed for some 15 years, but when Charles XI was declared of age, the new king was unsatisfied with his former rulers[ clarification needed ] (known as "Förmyndarräfsten" in Swedish history).

Treaty of Roskilde peace treaty

The Treaty of Roskilde was concluded on 26 February (OS) or 8 March 1658 (NS) during the Second Northern War between Frederick III of Denmark–Norway and Charles X Gustav of Sweden in the Danish city of Roskilde. After a devastating defeat, Denmark-Norway was forced to give up a third of its territory to save the rest, the ceded lands comprising Blekinge, Bornholm, Bohuslän (Båhuslen), Scania (Skåne) and Trøndelag, as well as her claims to Halland.

Charles X Gustav of Sweden King of Sweden

Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav, was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. He was the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg and Catherine of Sweden. After his father's death he also succeeded him as Pfalzgraf. He was married to Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, who bore his son and successor, Charles XI. Charles X Gustav was the second Wittelsbach king of Sweden after the childless king Christopher of Bavaria (1441–1448) and he was the first king of the Swedish Caroline era, which had its peak during the end of the reign of his son, Charles XI. He led Sweden during the Second Northern War, enlarging the Swedish Empire. By his predecessor Christina, he was considered de facto Duke of Eyland (Öland) before ascending to the Swedish throne.

A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.

Its situation on a conflict-ridden border caused problems for Helsingborg. Denmark recaptured Scania twice, but could not hold it. The last Danish attempt to regain Scania was in 1710, when 14,000 men landed on the shores near Helsingborg. The Battle of Helsingborg was fought on the 28th of February just outside the city, which was badly affected. It took a long time to recover; even in 1770 the city had only 1,321 inhabitants and was still growing slowly. [6]

On 20 October 1811 Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France and crown prince-elect of Sweden (later king Charles XIV John) took his first step on Swedish soil in Helsingborg on his journey from Paris to Stockholm. [7]

In World War II, Helsingborg was among the most important drop-off points for the rescue of Denmark's Jewish population during the Holocaust. Adolf Hitler had ordered that all Danish Jews were to be arrested and deported to the concentration camps on Rosh HaShanah, the Jewish New Year which fell on October 2, 1943. When Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz, a German maritime attaché received word of the order on September 28, 1943, he shared it with political and Jewish community leaders. Using the name Elsinore Sewing Club (Danish: Helsingør Syklub) as a cover for messages, the Danish population formed an underground railroad of sorts, moving Jews away from the closely watched Copenhagen docks to spots farther away, especially Helsingør, just two miles across the Øresund from Helsingborg. Hundreds of civilians hid their fellow Danish citizens -- Jews -- in their houses, farm lofts and churches until they could board them onto Danish fishing boats, personal pleasure boats and ferry boats. In the span of three nights, Danes had smuggled over 7200 Jews and 680 non-Jews (gentile family members of Jews or political activists) across the Øresund, to safety in Sweden, with one of the main destinations at Helsingborg. [8]

From the middle of the 19th century onwards, however, Helsingborg was one of the fastest growing cities of Sweden, increasing its population from 4,000 in 1850 to 20,000 in 1890 and 56,000 in 1930 due to industrialization. From 1892 a train ferry was put in service, connecting Helsingborg with its Danish sister city Helsingør. A tramway network was inaugurated in 1903 and closed down in 1967.

Climate

Helsingborg has an oceanic climate typical of southern Sweden, although its winters are very mild for a location at such a high latitude. Although the temperature differences between seasons are significant, Helsingborg often lacks a meteorological winter with both January and February averaging just above the freezing point in terms of mean temperatures.

Climate data for Helsingborg, 2002–2015; extremes since 1948, precipitation 1961–1990
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)11.0
(51.8)
15.3
(59.5)
18.0
(64.4)
26.0
(78.8)
28.1
(82.6)
30.5
(86.9)
31.0
(87.8)
32.4
(90.3)
27.5
(81.5)
22.5
(72.5)
15.5
(59.9)
12.0
(53.6)
32.4
(90.3)
Average high °C (°F)2.5
(36.5)
2.6
(36.7)
6.6
(43.9)
12.5
(54.5)
16.8
(62.2)
19.7
(67.5)
22.7
(72.9)
22.0
(71.6)
18.1
(64.6)
12.1
(53.8)
7.7
(45.9)
4.1
(39.4)
12.2
(54.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)0.3
(32.5)
0.4
(32.7)
3.2
(37.8)
6.4
(43.5)
12.1
(53.8)
15.1
(59.2)
18.0
(64.4)
17.7
(63.9)
14.2
(57.6)
9.0
(48.2)
5.6
(42.1)
2.1
(35.8)
8.6
(47.5)
Average low °C (°F)−1.8
(28.8)
−1.8
(28.8)
−0.3
(31.5)
3.3
(37.9)
7.4
(45.3)
10.6
(51.1)
13.3
(55.9)
13.4
(56.1)
10.3
(50.5)
5.9
(42.6)
3.4
(38.1)
0.1
(32.2)
5.3
(41.5)
Record low °C (°F)−21.7
(−7.1)
−20.5
(−4.9)
−18.8
(−1.8)
−8.7
(16.3)
−1.5
(29.3)
3.0
(37.4)
4.4
(39.9)
5.4
(41.7)
−0.1
(31.8)
−7.3
(18.9)
−10.3
(13.5)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−22.0
(−7.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)40.6
(1.60)
25.2
(0.99)
37.2
(1.46)
35.7
(1.41)
38.9
(1.53)
47.5
(1.87)
66.1
(2.60)
58.3
(2.30)
55.2
(2.17)
50.9
(2.00)
55.8
(2.20)
48.7
(1.92)
558.3
(21.98)
Source #1: SMHI Average Precipitation 1961–1990 [9]
Source #2: SMHI Average Data 2002–2015 [10]

Demography

Economy

Industry

Helsingborg is a major regional centre of trade, transport and business. In 2001 Campus Helsingborg, a branch of University of Lund, opened in the former Tretorn rubber factory buildings, founded by Henry Dunker. Three ferry companies take people and cargo to and from Denmark around the clock. The route is popular with day-trippers going to Elsinore or Copenhagen, or simply enjoying the views from the ferries. IKEA, the retailer of furniture and home interiors, has its international corporate headquarters in Helsingborg. Nicorette, the nicotine chewing gum, has a manufacturing plant there. Ramlösa is a mineral water from Ramlösa Brunn, a southern suburb of the city. Mobile phone developer Spectronic is also situated in Helsingborg. The online custom clothing retailer Tailor Store Sweden AB has its offices in Helsingborg. Zoégas, a major coffee company, has been located here since the 1800s. [11]

Sports

The following sports clubs are located in Helsingborg:

Notable natives

Subdivisions

The City of Helsingborg is subdivided into 31 districts.

The districts of Helsingborg (Classification and census from 9 January 2006)
1 Norr (3600)12 Centrum (3347)22 Närlunda (1125) Helsingborg stadtteile ueberblick.svg
2 Mariastaden (2302)13 Eneborg (3816)23 Eskilsminne (1835)
3 Ringstorp (2802)14 Wilson Park (1988)24 Gustavslund (2772)
4 Berga (1720)15 Rosengården (4388)25 Planteringen (2663)
5 Drottninghög (2708)16 Husensjö (1564)26 Elineberg (2115)
6 Dalhem (4530)17 Sofieberg (1606)27 Ramlösa (4593)
7* Tågaborg (7113)18 Adolfsberg (4319)28 Miatorp (2406)
8 Stattena (2549)19 Söder (3665)29 Högasten (1034)
9 Fredriksdal (4202)20 Högaborg (4017)30 Ättekulla (3274)
10 Slottshöjden (3621)21 Fältabacken (930)31 Råå (3021)
11 Olympia (1843)

Sights

See also

Related Research Articles

Helsingør Place in Capital, Denmark

Helsingør, classically known in English as Elsinore, is a city in eastern Denmark.

Malmö Place in Scania, Sweden

Malmö is the largest city of the Swedish county of Skåne County, the third-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg, and the sixth-largest city in Scandinavia, with a population of 312,012 inhabitants in 2017 out of a municipal total of 338,230. The Malmö Metropolitan Region is home to over 700,000 people, and the Øresund Region, which includes Malmö, is home to 4 million people.

Skåne County County (län) of Sweden

Skåne County, sometimes referred to as Scania County in English, is the southernmost county or län, of Sweden, basically corresponding to the traditional province Skåne. It borders the counties of Halland, Kronoberg and Blekinge and connected to Capital Region, Denmark by the Oresund Bridge. The seat of residence for the Skåne Governor is the city of Malmö. The headquarters of Skåne Regional Council is the town of Kristianstad.

Ven (Sweden) Swedish island in Øresund

Ven is a small Swedish island in the Øresund strait, between Scania and Zealand (Denmark). It is part of Landskrona Municipality, Skåne County. The island has 371 inhabitants and an area of 7.5 km2 (2.9 sq mi). During the 1930s, the population was at its peak, with approximately 1,300 inhabitants. There are four villages on the island: Bäckviken, Tuna By, Norreborg and Kyrkbacken.

Øresund Region transnational region in Copenhagen, Denmark and Malmö, Sweden

The Øresund Region, also known as Greater Copenhagen for marketing purposes, is a metropolitan region that comprises eastern Denmark and Skåne in southern Sweden. Centred around the Øresund strait and the two cities which lie on either side, Copenhagen in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden, the region is connected by the Øresund Bridge, which spans the strait at its southern end, and the HH Ferry route between Elsinore, Denmark, and Helsingborg, Sweden, at the narrowest point of the strait.

Landskrona Place in Scania, Sweden

Landskrona is a late medieval town in Scania province, Sweden, located at the shores of Øresund, founded at the location of the former Danish fishing village Sønder Sæby in the province of Scania by king Erik VII of Pomerania early in the 15th century. In 1658 the town, like its province, became a formal part of Sweden. Around the Castle build by Danish king Christian III in 1549, Landskrona Citadel, a huge system of moats emerged over the centuries, also in the town's Swedish history. Today the Citadel is famous for its well-preserved moat system, which includes parts of four moats. At the northern part of the Citadel, Sweden's second, and today oldest allotment area is located. Its port is based on a natural chute in the sandy sea floor, despite the lack of any nearby debouching river.

Helsingør Municipality municipality in the Capital Region of Denmark

Helsingør Municipality, is a municipality in the Capital Region on the northeast coast of the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 122 km², and has a total population of 61,538. Its mayor as of 1 January 2014 is Benedikte Kiær, a member of the Conservative political party.

Coast Line (Denmark) railway line in Denmark

The Coast Line is a regional railway line between Helsingør (Elsinore) and Copenhagen in Denmark. It was opened in 1897, and it is today the busiest railway line in Denmark. The Coast Line, along with an extensive network of railways in Scania, are run by DSB Øresund, part of DSB.

Øresundståg transport company

Øresundståg is a passenger train network operated by DSB and Transdev in the transnational Øresund Region of Denmark and Sweden. The name is a hybrid of the Danish Øresundstog and the Swedish Öresundståg, both meaning "Øresund train". The rolling stock, also known as Class ET in Denmark and X31K or X32K in Sweden, are electric passenger trainsets in the Flexliner family. The maximum speed is 180 km/h.

HH Tunnel

The HH Tunnel is a proposed series of tunnels under Øresund between Helsingborg, Sweden and Helsingør, Denmark. The connection is planned for road traffic, freight trains, and passenger trains.

Helsingør station railway station in Helsingør Municipality, Denmark

Helsingør station is the principal railway station serving the city of Helsingør, Denmark. It is the terminus of the Coast Line to Copenhagen, the Little North Line to Hillerød and the Hornbæk Line to Gilleleje. It also provides easy access to the ferries to Helsingborg, Sweden.

HH Ferry route Denmark–Sweden ferry route

The HH Ferry route is a very old shipping route which connects Helsingør at Zealand, Denmark and Helsingborg, Scania, Sweden across the northern, and narrowest part of the Øresund. Due to the short distance, which is less than 3 nautical miles, is it one of the world's busiest international car ferry routes, with around 70 daily departures from each harbour. The oldest known written mention of the route dates to the German traveller Adam of Bremen in the 11th century, but it has likely been in use much longer. Before 1658, the route was a domestic Danish route. For several centuries, the route has been run regularly by various Danish shipping lines. Its significance grew during the 1950s, but since the inauguration of the Øresund Bridge in 2000, at the southern end of the Øresund, it has lost some significance but remains as one of the World's most important ferry routes. Since 1952, passports has not been required for Scandinavian and Finland citizens.

LB (car ferries)

LB or locally simply LB was a car and lorry ferry line that between 1955 and 1981 operated on the HH Ferry route between Helsingør (Elsinore), Zealand, Denmark and Helsingborg, Scania, Sweden. They were the first operator on this route to challenge the informal monopoly which DSB had enjoyed ever since 1888. And since 1630, competition at the route had only occurred between 1836 and 1840. The route had further been operated by the Danish National railways with train ferries since 1892, and since 1931 with a 50-50 support deal also with the National Swedish railways. Until LB challenged the informal monopoly.

SL ferries

SL ferries was a shipping line that operated with car ferries in the central part of Øresund, between Copenhagen, Port of Tuborg, Zealand, Denmark and Landskrona, Scania, Sweden. The shipping line was to sail this route between 1951 and 1980. During the first ten years of operation, the SL ferries was a Danish owned shipping line, but in 1961 SL was bought by Stockholms Rederi AB Svea. The new owners also owned the LB which since 1955 operated at the HH Ferry route between Helsingør and Helsingborg, the first challenger of the de facto monopoly at that route which DSB had enjoyed since 1882.

The Elsinore Sewing Club, was a Danish organization established in 1943 which covertly transported Danish Jews to safety during the Nazi occupation of Denmark. The town of Helsingør was only two miles away from Sweden, across the Øresund, from the Swedish city of Helsingborg. This allowed the transport of refugees by local boats.

References

  1. 1 2 3 https://www.scb.se/hitta-statistik/statistik-efter-amne/miljo/markanvandning/tatorter/pong/tabell-och-diagram/tatorter-2017--befolkning-landareal-andel-som-overlappas-av-fritidshusomraden/
  2. neighbouring municipalities are Landskrona, Höganäs, Ängelholm, Bjuv and Åstorp. They can be inspected in the article Scania including sources from SCB
  3. The mentioned Scanian part together with Danish province "Nordsjælland" (North Zealand), figures for this Danish province are available at http://www.dst.dk/da/statistik/dokumentation/Nomenklaturer/NUTS.aspx (areas) and at http://www.dst.dk/en/Statistik/emner/befolkning-og-befolkningsfremskrivning/folketal.aspx (population of province Nordsjælland), below the population pyramide
  4. "Helsingborgs stad – History of Helsingborg". Helsingborg.se. 2007-05-21. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
  5. Faringdon, Hugh. (1989) Strategic Geography Routledge. ISBN   0-415-00980-4
  6. 1 2 "CyberCity / Helsingborg / Befolkning". .historia.su.se. 2008-01-14. Archived from the original on 2004-11-15. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
  7. "Helsingborgs stad – Bernadotte jubileum 2010". Helsingborg.se. 2010-04-12. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
  8. Streit, Katie. "Rescue of the Danish Jews: Evacuation & Effects" . study.com. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
  9. "Precipitation Averages 1961–90". SMHI. February 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  10. "Statistics from Weather Stations" (in Swedish). SMHI. February 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  11. "Zoégas – Om Zoégas". zoegas.se. 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-05-12.
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