Helsingborg

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Helsingborg
Helsingborg montage.png
Top: Sofiero Palace, Second left: Kärnan, Second right: Rådhuset (Helsingborg City Hall), Third left: Dunker Culture House, Third right: Ramlösa mineral water source site, Bottom: A cruise terminal in Helsingborg Bredgatan Port
Coat of arms of Helsingborg, Sweden.svg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Pearl of the strait
Sweden Scania location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Helsingborg
Sweden location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Helsingborg
Coordinates: 56°03′N12°43′E / 56.050°N 12.717°E / 56.050; 12.717 Coordinates: 56°03′N12°43′E / 56.050°N 12.717°E / 56.050; 12.717
Country Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Province Skanska flaggan.svg  Scania
County Skåne County
Municipality Helsingborg Municipality
Charter 1085
Area
[1]
  Total38.41 km2 (14.83 sq mi)
Population
 (2017) [1]
  Total108,334
  Density2,529/km2 (6,550/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
25x xxx
Area code(s) (+46) 42
Website www.helsingborg.se

Helsingborg ( /ˈhɛlsɪŋbɔːrɡ/ , US also /-bɔːr(jə),-bɔːri,ˌhɛlsɪŋˈbɔːri/ , [2] [3] [4] Swedish:  [hɛlsɪŋˈbɔrj] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), Danish:  [helse̝ŋˈpɒˀ] ; spelled Hälsingborg between 1912 and 1970) is a town and the seat of Helsingborg Municipality, Scania, Sweden. It had 108,334 inhabitants in 2017. [1] Helsingborg is the centre of the northern part of western Scania and Sweden's closest point to Denmark: the Danish city Helsingør is clearly visible about 4 km (2 mi) to the west on the other side of the Øresund. The HH Ferry route across the sound has more than 70 car ferry departures from each harbour every day.[ citation needed ]

Contents

Following the Swedish orthography reform of 1906 the spelling of many place names in Sweden was modernized. In 1912 it was decided to use the form Hälsingborg. In preparation for the local government reform in 1971, Hälsingborg city council proposed that the new, enlarged municipality should be spelled Helsingborg; this form was adopted by the government of Sweden from 1 January 1971.

Historic Helsingborg, with its many old buildings, is a scenic coastal city. The buildings are a blend of old-style stone-built churches and a 600-year-old medieval fortress (Kärnan) in the city centre, and more modern commercial buildings. The streets vary from wide avenues to small alley-ways. Kullagatan, the main pedestrian shopping street in the city, was the first pedestrian shopping street in Sweden.

History

Helsingborg is one of the oldest cities of what is now Sweden. It has been the site of permanent settlement officially since 21 May 1085. [5] Helsingborg's geographical position at the narrowest part of Øresund made it very important for Denmark, at that time controlling both sides of that strait. From 1429 Eric of Pomerania introduced the Sound Dues, a levy on all trading vessels passing through the sound between Helsingør and Helsingborg. [6] This was one of the main sources of income for the Danish Crown. Crossing traffic, like fishermen, were not subject to the tax, which was initially directed against the Hanseatic League.

Following the Dano-Swedish War (1657-1658) and the Treaty of Roskilde Denmark had to give up all territory on the southern Scandinavian peninsula, and Helsingborg became part of Sweden. King Charles X Gustav of Sweden landed here on 5 March 1658 to take personal possession of the Scanian lands and was met by a delegation led by the bishop of the Diocese of Lund, Peder Winstrup. At that time the town had a population of barely 1,000 people. [7]

Its situation on a conflict-ridden border caused problems for Helsingborg. Denmark recaptured Scania twice, but could not hold it. The last Danish attempt to regain Scania was in 1710, when 14,000 men landed on the shores near Helsingborg. The Battle of Helsingborg was fought on the 28th of February just outside the city, which was badly affected. It took a long time to recover; even in 1770 the city had only 1,321 inhabitants and was still growing slowly. [7]

On 20 October 1811 Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France and crown prince-elect of Sweden (later king Charles XIV John) took his first step on Swedish soil in Helsingborg on his journey from Paris to Stockholm. [8]

From the middle of the 19th century onwards Helsingborg was one of the fastest growing cities of Sweden, increasing its population from 4,000 in 1850 to 20,000 in 1890 and 56,000 in 1930 due to industrialization. From 1892 a train ferry was put in service, connecting Helsingborg with its Danish sister city Helsingør. A tramway network was inaugurated in 1903 and closed down in 1967.

In World War II, Helsingborg was among the most important drop-off points for the rescue of Denmark's Jewish population during the Holocaust. Adolf Hitler had ordered that all Danish Jews were to be arrested and deported to the concentration camps on Rosh HaShanah, the Jewish New Year which fell on 2 October 1943. When Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz, a German maritime attaché received word of the order on 28 September 1943, he shared it with political and Jewish community leaders. Using the name Elsinore Sewing Club (Danish: Helsingør Syklub) as a cover for messages, the Danish population formed an underground railroad of sorts, moving Jews away from the closely watched Copenhagen docks to spots farther away, especially Helsingør, just two miles across the Øresund from Helsingborg. Hundreds of civilians hid their fellow Danish citizens -- Jews -- in their houses, farm lofts and churches until they could board them onto Danish fishing boats, personal pleasure boats and ferry boats. In the span of three nights, Danes had smuggled over 7200 Jews and 680 non-Jews (gentile family members of Jews or political activists) across the Øresund, to safety in Sweden, with one of the main destinations at Helsingborg. [9]

Climate

Helsingborg has an oceanic climate typical of southern Sweden, although its winters are very mild for a location at such a high latitude. Although the temperature differences between seasons are significant, Helsingborg often lacks a meteorological winter with both January and February averaging just above the freezing point in terms of mean temperatures.

Climate data for Helsingborg, 2002–2019; extremes since 1948, precipitation 1961–1990
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)11.0
(51.8)
15.3
(59.5)
18.0
(64.4)
26.0
(78.8)
28.1
(82.6)
30.5
(86.9)
31.0
(87.8)
32.4
(90.3)
27.5
(81.5)
22.5
(72.5)
15.5
(59.9)
12.0
(53.6)
32.4
(90.3)
Average high °C (°F)6.8
(44.2)
6.3
(43.3)
8.6
(47.5)
13.5
(56.3)
17.4
(63.3)
21.3
(70.3)
23.7
(74.7)
22.6
(72.7)
20.1
(68.2)
13.5
(56.3)
8.7
(47.7)
7.5
(45.5)
14.2
(57.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.1
(41.2)
4.4
(39.9)
6.8
(44.2)
8.1
(46.6)
12.1
(53.8)
16.6
(61.9)
18.2
(64.8)
17.0
(62.6)
16.2
(61.2)
9.8
(49.6)
6.2
(43.2)
5.5
(41.9)
10.5
(50.9)
Average low °C (°F)3.6
(38.5)
3.0
(37.4)
4.4
(39.9)
5.1
(41.2)
11.3
(52.3)
14.1
(57.4)
15.7
(60.3)
14.4
(57.9)
11.3
(52.3)
5.9
(42.6)
4.8
(40.6)
4.0
(39.2)
8.1
(46.6)
Record low °C (°F)−21.7
(−7.1)
−20.5
(−4.9)
−18.8
(−1.8)
−8.7
(16.3)
−1.5
(29.3)
3.0
(37.4)
4.4
(39.9)
5.4
(41.7)
−0.1
(31.8)
−7.3
(18.9)
−10.3
(13.5)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−22.0
(−7.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)40.6
(1.60)
25.2
(0.99)
37.2
(1.46)
35.7
(1.41)
38.9
(1.53)
47.5
(1.87)
66.1
(2.60)
58.3
(2.30)
55.2
(2.17)
50.9
(2.00)
55.8
(2.20)
48.7
(1.92)
558.3
(21.98)
Source 1: SMHI Average Precipitation 1961–1990 [10]
Source 2: SMHI Average Data 2002–2015 [11]

Demographics

On Dec. 31,2019, 147,734 people lived in Helsingborg. The town has strong immigrant communities. The five biggest immigrant nationalities are:

1. Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq - 13,477
2. Flag of Syria.svg Syria - 8,923
3. Flag of Palestine.svg Palestine - 7,300
4. Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia - 5,000
5. Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Bosnia - 2,220

Other significant communities are from Kosovo, Serbia, Albania, Afghanistan, Romania and Morocco.

Economy

Industry

Helsingborg is a major regional centre of trade, transport and business. In 2001 Campus Helsingborg, a branch of University of Lund, opened in the former Tretorn rubber factory buildings, founded by Henry Dunker. Three ferry companies take people and cargo to and from Denmark around the clock. The route is popular with day-trippers going to Helsingør or Copenhagen, or simply enjoying the views from the ferries. IKEA, the retailer of furniture and home interiors, has its international corporate headquarters in Helsingborg. Nicorette, the nicotine chewing gum, has a manufacturing plant there. Ramlösa is a mineral water from Ramlösa Brunn, a southern suburb of the city. Mobile phone developer Spectronic is also situated in Helsingborg. The online custom clothing retailer Tailor Store Sweden AB has its offices in Helsingborg. Zoégas, a major coffee company, has been located here since the 1800s. [12]

Sports

The following sports clubs are located in Helsingborg:

Notable natives

Subdivisions

The City of Helsingborg is subdivided into 31 districts.

The districts of Helsingborg (Classification and census from 9 January 2006)
1 Norr (3600)12 Centrum (3347)22 Närlunda (1125) Helsingborg stadtteile ueberblick.svg
2 Mariastaden (2302)13 Eneborg (3816)23 Eskilsminne (1835)
3 Ringstorp (2802)14 Wilson Park (1988)24 Gustavslund (2772)
4 Berga (1720)15 Rosengården (4388)25 Planteringen (2663)
5 Drottninghög (2708)16 Husensjö (1564)26 Elineberg (2115)
6 Dalhem (4530)17 Sofieberg (1606)27 Ramlösa (4593)
7* Tågaborg (7113)18 Adolfsberg (4319)28 Miatorp (2406)
8 Stattena (2549)19 Söder (3665)29 Högasten (1034)
9 Fredriksdal (4202)20 Högaborg (4017)30 Ättekulla (3274)
10 Slottshöjden (3621)21 Fältabacken (930)31 Råå (3021)
11 Olympia (1843)

Sights

See also

Related Research Articles

Helsingør Place in Capital, Denmark

Helsingør, classically known in English as Elsinore, is a city in eastern Denmark. Helsingør Municipality had a population of 62,686 on 1 January 2018. Helsingør and Helsingborg in Sweden together form the northern reaches of the Øresund Region, centered on Copenhagen and Malmö. The HH Ferry route connects Helsingør with Helsingborg, 4 km across the Øresund.

Helsingborg Municipality Municipality in Skåne County, Sweden

Helsingborg Municipality is a municipality in Skåne County in Sweden. Its seat is located in the city of Helsingborg, which is Sweden's eighth largest city. The municipality had a population of 132,011 on January 1, 2013, and the population is increasing with roughly 1500 people annually.

Malmö City in Scania, Sweden

Malmö is the largest city in the Swedish county (län) of Skåne (Scania). It is the third-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg, and the sixth-largest city in Scandinavia, with a population of 316,588. The Malmö Metropolitan Region is home to over 700,000 people, and the Øresund Region, which includes Malmö, is home to 4 million people.

Øresund The strait between Denmark and Sweden

Øresund or Öresund, commonly known in English as the Sound, is a strait which forms the Danish–Swedish border, separating Zealand (Denmark) from Scania (Sweden). The strait has a length of 118 kilometres (73 mi) and the width varies from 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to 28 kilometres (17 mi). It is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) wide at its narrowest point between Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden.

Skåne County County (län) of Sweden

Skåne County, sometimes referred to as Scania County in English, is the southernmost county, or län, of Sweden, basically corresponding to the traditional province Skåne. It borders the counties of Halland, Kronoberg and Blekinge and connects to Capital Region, Denmark by the Öresund Bridge. The seat of residence for the Skåne Governor is the city of Malmö. The headquarters of Skåne Regional Council are located both in Kristianstad and Malmö.

Ven (Sweden) Swedish island in Øresund

Ven is a small Swedish island in the Øresund strait, between Scania and Zealand (Denmark). It is part of Landskrona Municipality, Skåne County. The island has 371 inhabitants and an area of 7.5 km2 (2.9 sq mi). During the 1930s, the population was at its peak, with approximately 1,300 inhabitants. There are four villages on the island: Bäckviken, Tuna By, Norreborg and Kyrkbacken.

The history of the province of Scania was for many hundred years, up until the 18th century, marked by the struggle between the two Scandinavian kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden over the hegemony in the Baltic area.

Øresund Region Transnational region in Copenhagen, Denmark and Malmö, Sweden

The Øresund Region, also known as Greater Copenhagen for marketing purposes, is a metropolitan region that comprises eastern Denmark and Skåne in southern Sweden. Centred around the Øresund strait and the two cities which lie on either side, Copenhagen in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden, the region is connected by the Øresund Bridge, which spans the strait at its southern end, and the HH Ferry route between Helsingør, Denmark, and Helsingborg, Sweden, at the narrowest point of the strait.

Kristianstad Place in Skåne, Sweden

Kristianstad is a city and the seat of Kristianstad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 40,145 inhabitants in 2016. During the last 15 years, it has gone from a garrison town to a developed commercial city, today attracting visitors in the summertime mainly from Germany, Denmark and The Netherlands.

Landskrona Place in Scania, Sweden

Landskrona is a late medieval town in Scania province of Sweden, located at the shores of Øresund, founded at the location of the former Danish fishing village Sønder Sæby in the province of Scania by king Erik VII of Pomerania early in the 15th century. In 1720 the town, like its province, became a formal part of Sweden., contrasted with the 1658–1676, 1679-1711 and 1711-1720 periods. As land owned by the Swedish Monarch. Scania's status, thus the town's as well, was during those periods equal to the one of Swedish Pomerania. During the Danish 1676-1679 reconquest of large parts of her in 1658 lost territories, Landskrona Citadel constituted as mobilisation centre for formal enlistment of pro-Danish guerrilla fighters from 1678.

Helsingør Municipality municipality in the Capital Region of Denmark

Helsingør Municipality, is a municipality in the Capital Region on the northeast coast of the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 122 km², and has a total population of 61,538. Its mayor as of 1 January 2014 is Benedikte Kiær, a member of the Conservative political party.

Kärnan building in Helsingborg Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden

Kärnan is a medieval tower in Helsingborg, Scania, in southern Sweden. It is the only part remaining of a larger Danish fortress which, along with the fortress Kronborg on the opposite of Øresund, controlled the entranceway between Kattegat and Øresund and further south the Baltic Sea.

Øresundståg transport company

Øresundståg is a passenger train network operated by DSB and Transdev in the transnational Øresund Region of Denmark and Sweden. The name is a hybrid of the Danish Øresundstog and the Swedish Öresundståg, both meaning "Øresund train". The rolling stock, also known as Class ET in Denmark and X31K or X32K in Sweden, are electric passenger trainsets in the Flexliner family. The maximum speed is 180 km/h.

Scania province in Sweden

Scania (Swedish: Skåne, is the southernmost province of Sweden. Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities that are autonomous within the Scania Regional Council. Scania's largest city is Malmö, which is also the third largest in Sweden, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia.

Helsingør station railway station in Helsingør Municipality, Denmark

Helsingør station is the principal railway station serving the city of Helsingør, Denmark. It is the terminus of the Coast Line to Copenhagen, the Little North Line to Hillerød and the Hornbæk Line to Gilleleje. It also provides easy access to the ferries to Helsingborg, Sweden.

Helsingør–Helsingborg ferry route Denmark–Sweden ferry route

The Helsingør–Helsingborg ferry route is a shipping route connecting Helsingør (Elsinore), Denmark and Helsingborg, Sweden across the northern, and narrowest part of the Øresund. Due to the short distance, which is less than 3 nautical miles, is it one of the world's busiest international car ferry routes, with around 70 daily departures from each harbour. The oldest-known written mention of the route dates to the German traveller Adam of Bremen in the 11th century, but it has likely been in use much longer. Before 1658, the route was a domestic Danish route. For several centuries, the route has been run regularly by various Danish shipping lines. Its significance grew during the 1950s, but since the inauguration of the Øresund Bridge in 2000, at the southern end of the Øresund, it has lost some significance but remains as one of the world's most important ferry routes, particularly as a cheaper alternative to the bridge tolls. Since 1952, passports have not been required for Scandinavian and Finnish citizens.

LB (car ferries)

LB or locally simply LB was a car and lorry ferry line that between 1955 and 1981 operated on the HH Ferry route between Helsingør (Elsinore), Zealand, Denmark and Helsingborg, Scania, Sweden. They were the first operator on this route to challenge the informal monopoly which DSB had enjoyed ever since 1888. And since 1630, competition at the route had only occurred between 1836 and 1840. The route had further been operated by the Danish National railways with train ferries since 1892, and since 1931 with a 50-50 support deal also with the National Swedish railways. Until LB challenged the informal monopoly.

SL ferries

SL ferries was a shipping line that operated with car ferries in the central part of Øresund, between Copenhagen, Port of Tuborg, Zealand, Denmark and Landskrona, Scania, Sweden. The shipping line was to sail this route between 1951 and 1980. During the first ten years of operation, the SL ferries was a Danish owned shipping line, but in 1961 SL was bought by Stockholms Rederi AB Svea. The new owners also owned the LB which since 1955 operated at the HH Ferry route between Helsingør and Helsingborg, the first challenger of the de facto monopoly at that route which DSB had enjoyed since 1882.

The Elsinore Sewing Club, was a Danish organization established in 1943 which covertly transported Danish Jews to safety during the Nazi occupation of Denmark. The town of Helsingør was only two miles away from Sweden, across the Øresund, from the Swedish city of Helsingborg. This allowed the transport of refugees by local boats.

Denmark–Sweden border international border between Denmark and Sweden

The current national border between Denmark and Sweden dates to 1658.

References

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  2. "Helsingborg". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt . Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  3. "Helsingborg", "Hälsingborg" (US) and "Helsingborg". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press . Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  4. "Helsingborg". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 2 May 2019.
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  6. Faringdon, Hugh. (1989) Strategic Geography Routledge. ISBN   0-415-00980-4
  7. 1 2 "CyberCity / Helsingborg / Befolkning". .historia.su.se. 2008-01-14. Archived from the original on 2004-11-15. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
  8. "Helsingborgs stad – Bernadotte jubileum 2010". Helsingborg.se. 2010-04-12. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
  9. Streit, Katie. "Rescue of the Danish Jews: Evacuation & Effects" . study.com. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
  10. "Precipitation Averages 1961–90". SMHI. February 2016. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  11. "Statistics from Weather Stations" (in Swedish). SMHI. February 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  12. "Zoégas – Om Zoégas". zoegas.se. 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-05-12.
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