Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Nottingham

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The 1st Earl of Nottingham.

Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Nottingham, PC (23 December 1620 18 December 1682), Lord Chancellor of England, was descended from the old family of Finch, many of whose members had attained high legal eminence, and was the eldest son of Sir Heneage Finch, Recorder of London, by his first wife Frances Bell, daughter of Sir Edmond Bell of Beaupre Hall, Norfolk. [1]

Privy Council of England Body of advisers to the sovereign of the Kingdom of England

The Privy Council of England, also known as HisMajesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, was a body of advisers to the sovereign of the Kingdom of England. Its members were often senior members of the House of Lords and the House of Commons, together with leading churchmen, judges, diplomats and military leaders.

Lord Chancellor senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom

The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor is outranked only by the Lord High Steward, another Great Officer of State, who is appointed only for the day of coronations. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Ireland.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

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Contents

Early career

In the register of Oxford University he is entered as born in Kent, and probably his native place was Eastwell in that county. He was educated at Westminster and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he remained until he became a member of the Inner Temple in 1638. He was called to the bar in 1645, and soon obtained a lucrative practice. [1]

University of Oxford University in Oxford, United Kingdom

The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two 'ancient universities' are frequently jointly called 'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

Kent County of England

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west. The county also shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, and with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone.

Eastwell, Kent human settlement in United Kingdom

Eastwell is a hamlet and civil parish about 3 miles (5 km) north of Ashford, Kent, England. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 103.

He married Elizabeth Harvey, daughter of William Harvey's younger brother Daniel, and his wife Elizabeth Kinnersley, on 30 July 1646 and they had five children, Daniel, Heneage, Margaret, Elizabeth and William. [2] In April 1660, he was elected Member of Parliament for Canterbury and Mitchell in the Convention Parliament and chose to sit for Canterbury. [3] Shortly afterwards was appointed Solicitor General, being created a baronet the day after he was knighted. In May 1661 he was elected MP for Oxford University in the Cavalier Parliament. [3] In 1665 the university created him a D.C.L. In 1670 he became Attorney General, and in 1675 Lord Chancellor. He was created Baron Finch in January 1673 and Earl of Nottingham in May 1681. [4]

William Harvey English physician

William Harvey was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology. He was the first known physician to describe completely, and in detail, the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart, though earlier writers, such as Realdo Colombo, Michael Servetus, and Jacques Dubois, had provided precursors of the theory. In 1973, the William Harvey Hospital was constructed in the town of Ashford, a few miles from his birthplace of Folkestone.

Canterbury (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom

Canterbury is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2017 by Rosie Duffield of the Labour Party.

Mitchell, or St Michael was a rotten borough consisting of the town of Mitchell, Cornwall. From the first Parliament of Edward VI, in 1547, it elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons.

Popish Plot

During the Popish Plot, he played an active part in the interrogation of witnesses and preparation of the Crown's evidence. He is said to have been somewhat sceptical about much of the evidence, and drew up a private report referring to the difficulties with Titus Oates' evidence. [5] In general he behaved with moderation and restraint during the Plot, as shown most notably in his impartial conduct, as Lord High Steward, of the trial of William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, (apart from a curious remark that it was now clear that the Great Fire of London was a Catholic conspiracy). [6] Kenyon notes that during the examination of the informer Miles Prance, Finch threatened him with the rack, [7] but such a lapse was most uncharacteristic of Finch, who was a humane and civilised man; in any case the threat could hardly have been serious since the use of the rack had been declared illegal in 1628.

Popish Plot fictitious anti-Catholic conspiracy in England

The Popish Plot was a conspiracy alleged and purported by Titus Oates that between 1678 and 1681 gripped the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in anti-Catholic hysteria. Oates alleged that there was an extensive Catholic conspiracy to assassinate Charles II, accusations that led to the executions of at least 22 men and precipitated the Exclusion Bill Crisis. Eventually Oates's intricate web of accusations fell apart, leading to his arrest and conviction for perjury.

Titus Oates English perjurer

Titus Oates, also called Titus the Liar, was an English perjurer who fabricated the "Popish Plot", a supposed Catholic conspiracy to kill King Charles II.

The position of Lord High Steward is the first of the Great Officers of State in England, nominally ranking above the Lord Chancellor.

Finch and Nottingham House, now Kensington Palace

The original early 17th-century building was constructed in the village of Kensington as Nottingham House for the Earl of Nottingham. It was acquired from his heir, who was Secretary of State to William III, in 1689, because the King wanted a residence near London but away from the smoky air of the capital, because he was asthmatic. At that time Kensington was a suburban village location outside London, but more accessible than Hampton Court, a water journey on the Thames. A private road was laid out from the Palace to Hyde Park Corner, broad enough for several carriages to travel abreast, part of which survives today as Rotten Row. The Palace was improved and extended by Sir Christopher Wren with pavilions attached to each corner of the central block, for it now needed paired Royal Apartments approached by the Great Stairs, a council chamber, and the Chapel Royal. Then, when Wren re-oriented the house to face west, he built north and south wings to flank the approach, made into a proper cour d'honneur that was entered through an archway surmounted by a clock tower. Nevertheless, as a private domestic retreat, it was referred to as Kensington House, rather than 'Palace'. The walled kitchen gardens at Kensington House supplied fruits and vegetables for the Court of St. James's.

Kensington district within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in central London

Kensington is an affluent district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, West London, England.

Secretary of State (England) appointed position within the government of England

In the Kingdom of England, the title of Secretary of State came into being near the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603), the usual title before that having been King's Clerk, King's Secretary, or Principal Secretary.

William III of England 17th-century Stadtholder, Prince of Orange and King of England, Scotland and Ireland

William III, also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".

Death

His daughter Elizabeth (Peter Lely) Mrs Grimston, nee Finch, afterwards Lady Elizabeth Grimston (1650-1675), by Peter Lely.jpg
His daughter Elizabeth (Peter Lely)

He died in Great Queen Street, London one year later, and was buried in the church of Ravenstone in Buckinghamshire. His son Daniel inherited his earldom, and would later also inherit the Earldom of Winchelsea. His younger son Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Aylesford, also had a distinguished career as a lawyer and politician and was Solicitor General 1679–86. His daughter Elizabeth married Sir Samuel Grimston, 3rd Baronet. His daughter Margaret married Denis MacCarthy of the MacCarthy Reagh.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham English politician and noble

Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham, 7th Earl of Winchilsea PC, was an English Tory statesman during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Aylesford, PC, KC was an English lawyer and statesman.

Character

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, his contemporaries of both sides of politics agree in their high estimate of his integrity, moderation and eloquence, while his abilities as a lawyer are sufficiently attested by the fact that he is still spoken of as the father of equity. His most important contribution to the statute book is The Statute of Frauds. While attorney-general he superintended the edition of Sir Henry Hobart's Reports (1671). He also published Several Speeches and Discourses in the Tryal of the Judges of King Charles 1. (1660); Speeches to both Houses of Parliament (1679); Speech at the Sentence of Viscount Stafford (1680). He left Chancery Reports in MS., and notes on Coke's Institutes. [8]

Related Research Articles

Earl of Winchilsea Title in the Peerage of England

Earl of Winchilsea is a title in the Peerage of England held by the Finch-Hatton family. It has been united with the title of Earl of Nottingham under a single holder since 1729. The Finch family is believed to be descended from Henry FitzHerbert, Lord Chamberlain to Henry I. The name change to Finch came in the 1350s after marriage to an heiress by a member of the Finch family. In 1660 the 3rd Earl of Winchilsea was created Baron FitzHerbert of Eastwell, Kent, in recompense for his efficient aid in the Restoration of the Monarchy. The Herbert family of Wales, Earls of Pembroke, share common ancestry but bear differenced arms. A later member of the family, Sir William Finch, was knighted in 1513. His son Sir Thomas Finch, was also knighted for his share in suppressing Sir Thomas Wyatt's insurrection against Queen Mary I, and was the son-in-law of Sir Thomas Moyle, some of whose lands Finch's wife inherited. Thomas's eldest son Moyle Finch represented Weymouth, Kent and Winchelsea in the House of Commons. In 1611 he was created a baronet, of Eastwell in the County of Kent.

Kensington Palace royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, London, England

Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. It has been a residence of the British Royal Family since the 17th century, and is currently the official London residence of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, Princess Eugenie and her husband Jack Brooksbank, the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, the Duke and Duchess of Kent, and Prince and Princess Michael of Kent.

Earl of Nottingham Title in the Peerage of England

Earl of Nottingham is a title that has been created seven times in the Peerage of England. It was first created for John de Mowbray in 1377, at the coronation of Richard II. As this creation could only pass to his legitimate heirs, it went extinct on his death in 1383. It was re-created for his elder brother Thomas de Mowbray in the same year, however. This branch of the family became Dukes of Norfolk, and the title would descend with them until John de Mowbray died without male heirs in 1476.

Earl of Aylesford

Earl of Aylesford, in the County of Kent, is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1714 for the lawyer and politician Heneage Finch, 1st Baron Guernsey. He had already been created Baron Guernsey in the Peerage of England in 1703. Finch was the younger son of Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Nottingham and the great-grandson of Elizabeth Heneage, 1st Countess of Winchilsea. Lord Aylesford's eldest son, the second Earl, represented Maidstone and Surrey in Parliament. In 1712, he married Mary Fisher, daughter of Sir Clement Fisher, 3rd Baronet. Through this marriage Packington Hall in Warwickshire came into the Finch family. Their son, the third Earl, sat as a Member of Parliament for Leicestershire and Maidstone. His eldest son, the fourth Earl, represented Castle Rising and Maidstone in the House of Commons, and after entering the House of Lords on his father's death, served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard from 1783 to 1804 and as Lord Steward of the Household from 1804 to 1812.

Sir Heneage Finch, 3rd Earl of Winchilsea (1628–1689) of Eastwell, Kent, was the 3rd Earl of Winchilsea.

Daniel Finch, 8th Earl of Winchilsea British politician

Daniel Finch, 8th Earl of Winchilsea and 3rd Earl of Nottingham, was a British politician.

William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford English Royalist and Catholic martyr

William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, FRS was the youngest son of Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, and his wife, the former Alethea Talbot. A Fellow of the Royal Society from 1665, he was a Royalist supporter before being falsely implicated by Titus Oates in the later discredited "Popish Plot", and executed for treason. He was beatified as a Catholic martyr in 1929.

Heneage Finch, 4th Earl of Aylesford PC, FRS, FSA, styled Lord Guernsey between 1757 and 1777, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1772 to 1777 when he succeeded to a peerage. He was also a landscape artist.

William Legge, 4th Earl of Dartmouth British politician

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William Petre, 4th Baron Petre was an English peer and victim of the Popish Plot.

Sir Daniel Harvey was a British merchant and diplomat who was English Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1668 to 1672.

Heneage Finch, 6th Earl of Aylesford DL, styled Lord Guernsey until 1859, was a British peer and politician.

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Thomas Finch, 2nd Earl of Winchilsea was an English peer and Member of Parliament.

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Heneage Finch, 3rd Earl of Aylesford, styled Lord Guernsey between 1719 and 1757, was a British peer and politician.

The Honourable John Finch, of Wornedale, Kent, was an English lawyer and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1722 to 1740.

Sir Moyle Finch, 1st Baronet English politician

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References

  1. 1 2 Chisholm 1911, p. 824.
  2. Power, D’Arcy: "William Harvey“, Longmans Green & Co., New York, 1898, Page 7.
  3. 1 2 History of Parliament Online - Finch, Heneage
  4. Chisholm 1911, pp. 824–825.
  5. Kenyon, J.P. The Popish Plot Phoenix Press Reissue 2000 p. 86
  6. Kenyon p. 232
  7. Kenyon p. 153
  8. Chisholm 1911, p. 825.
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