Henri-Edmond Cross

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Henri-Edmond Cross
Self-Portrait with Cigarette, 1880
Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix

(1856-05-20)20 May 1856
Douai, Nord, France
Died16 May 1910(1910-05-16) (aged 53)
Saint-Clair, Var, France
Known forPainting
Movement Neo-Impressionism, Pointillism, Divisionism

Henri-Edmond Cross, born Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix, (20 May 1856 – 16 May 1910) was a French painter and printmaker. He is most acclaimed as a master of Neo-Impressionism and he played an important role in shaping the second phase of that movement. He was a significant influence on Henri Matisse and many other artists. His work was instrumental in the development of Fauvism.

Henri Matisse French artist

Henri Émile Benoît Matisse was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter. Matisse is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso, as one of the artists who best helped to define the revolutionary developments in the visual arts throughout the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture.

Fauvism artistic style that emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism

Fauvism is the style of les Fauves, a group of early twentieth-century modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism. While Fauvism as a style began around 1904 and continued beyond 1910, the movement as such lasted only a few years, 1905–1908, and had three exhibitions. The leaders of the movement were André Derain and Henri Matisse.


Background and education

Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix was born in Douai, [1] a commune in the Nord départment in northern France, on 20 May 1856. He had no surviving siblings. His parents, with a family history of ironmongery, [2] were Alcide Delacroix, a French adventurer, and British Fanny Woollett. [3]

Douai Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Douai is a commune in the Nord département in northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. Located on the river Scarpe some 40 kilometres from Lille and 25 km (16 mi) from Arras, Douai is home to one of the region's most impressive belfries. The population of the metropolitan area, including Lens, was 552,682 in 1999.

The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain. The United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered. The communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France.

Nord (French department) Department of France

Nord is a department in the far north of France. It was created from the western halves of the historical counties of Flanders and Hainaut, and the Bishopric of Cambrai. The modern coat of arms was inherited from the County of Flanders.

In 1865 the family moved to a location near Lille, a northern French city close to the Belgian border. Alcide's cousin, Dr. Auguste Soins, recognized Henri's artistic talent and was very supportive of his artistic inclinations, even financing the boy's first drawing instructions under painter Carolus-Duran the following year. [4] Henri was Duran's protégé for a year. [2] His studies continued for a short time in Paris in 1875 with François Bonvin [4] before returning to Lille. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts, and in 1878 he enrolled at the Écoles Académiques de Dessin et d'Architecture, studying for three years in the studio of Alphonse Colas. [3] [5] His art education continued, under fellow Douai artist Émile Dupont-Zipcy, [3] after moving to Paris in 1881. [6]

Lille Prefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Lille is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders. On the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de-France region, the prefecture of the Nord department, and the main city of the European Metropolis of Lille.

Carolus-Duran French portrait painter

Charles Auguste Émile Durand, known as Carolus-Duran, was a French painter and art instructor. He is noted for his stylish depictions of members of high society in Third Republic France.

François Bonvin French painter

François Bonvin was a French realist painter.

Early work

Madame Hector France, 1891, Musee d'Orsay Madame Hector France, Cross.jpg
Madame Hector France, 1891, Musée d'Orsay

Cross's early works, portraits and still lifes, were in the dark colors of Realism. [7] In order to distinguish himself from the famous Romantic painter Eugène Delacroix, he changed his name in 1881, shortening and Anglicizing his birth name to "Henri Cross" – the French word croix means cross. [6] 1881 was also the year of his first exhibition at the Salon des Artistes Français. [5] He painted many landscapes on an 1883 trip to the Alpes-Maritimes, accompanied by his family. Dr. Soins, who was also along on the trip, was the subject of a painting that Cross exhibited at Nice's Exposition Universelle later in the year. [8] During the Mediterranean trip, Cross met Paul Signac, [6] who became a close friend and artistic influence.

Portrait Artistic representation of one or more persons

A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the person. For this reason, in photography a portrait is generally not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait often shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, in order to most successfully engage the subject with the viewer.

Still life art genre

A still life is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which are either natural or man-made.

Romanticism period of artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that started in 18th century Europe

Romanticism was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and nationalism.

In 1884 Cross co-founded the Société des Artistes Indépendants, [7] which consisted of artists displeased with the practices of the official Salon, and presented unjuried exhibitions without prizes. [9] There, he met and became friends with many artists involved in the Neo-Impressionist movement, including Georges Seurat, Albert Dubois-Pillet, and Charles Angrand. [5] Despite his association with the Neo-Impressionists, Cross did not adopt their style for many years. His work continued to manifest influences such as Jules Bastien-Lepage and Édouard Manet, as well as the Impressionists. [5] The change from his early, somber, Realist work was gradual. His color palette became lighter, working in the brighter colors of Impressionism. He also worked en plein air . In the latter part of the 1880s, he painted pure landscapes that showed the influence of Claude Monet and Camille Pissarro. In about 1886, again attempting to differentiate himself from another French artist – this time, Henri Cros – he again changed his name, finally adopting "Henri-Edmond Cross". [3]

Société des Artistes Indépendants

The Société des Artistes Indépendants, Salon des Indépendants was formed in Paris on 29 July 1884. The association began with the organization of massive exhibitions in Paris, choosing the slogan "sans jury ni récompense". Albert Dubois-Pillet, Odilon Redon, Georges Seurat and Paul Signac were among its founders. For the following three decades their annual exhibitions set the trends in art of the early 20th century, along with the Salon d'Automne. This is where artworks were often first displayed and widely discussed. World War I brought a closure to the salon, though the Artistes Indépendants remained active. Since 1920, the headquarters is located in the vast basements of the Grand Palais.

Salon (Paris) art exhibition periodically held in Paris from 1667 to 1890

The Salon, or rarely Paris Salon, beginning in 1667 was the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Between 1748 and 1890 it was arguably the greatest annual or biennial art event in the Western world. At the 1761 Salon, thirty-three painters, nine sculptors, and eleven engravers contributed. From 1881 onward, it has been managed by the Société des Artistes Français.

Georges Seurat 19th-century French artist

Georges-Pierre Seurat was a French post-Impressionist artist. He is best known for devising the painting techniques known as chromoluminarism and pointillism. While less famous than his paintings, his conté crayon drawings have also garnered a great deal of critical appreciation. Seurat's artistic personality was compounded of qualities which are usually supposed to be opposed and incompatible: on the one hand, his extreme and delicate sensibility; on the other, a passion for logical abstraction and an almost mathematical precision of mind. His large-scale work, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (1884–1886), altered the direction of modern art by initiating Neo-impressionism, and is one of the icons of late 19th-century painting.

The farm, evening, 1893, private collection Henri-Edmond Cross, 1893, La ferme, soir (The farm, evening) oil on canvas, 65.0 x 92.0 cm, Private collection, Paris.JPG
The farm, evening, 1893, private collection

In 1891 Cross began painting in the Neo-Impressionist style, and exhibited his first large piece using this technique in an Indépendants show. [3] That painting was a divisionist portrait of Madame Hector France, née Irma Clare, [10] whom Cross had met in 1888 and would marry in 1893. [4] Robert Rosenblum wrote that "the picture is softly charged with a granular, atmospheric glow". [10]

Divisionism style in Neo-Impressionist painting

Divisionism was the characteristic style in Neo-Impressionist painting defined by the separation of colors into individual dots or patches which interacted optically.

Robert Rosenblum (1927–2006) was an American art historian and curator known for his influential and often irreverent scholarship on European and American art of the mid-eighteenth to 20th century.

Cross had wintered in the south of France from 1883 onward, [11] until, suffering from rheumatism, he finally moved there full-time in 1891. [5] His works were still exhibited in Paris. His first residence in southern France was in Cabasson, near Le Lavandou, [3] then he settled a short distance away, in the small hamlet of Saint-Clair, where he spent the remainder of his life, leaving only for trips to Italy in 1903 and 1908, and for his annual Indépendants exhibits in Paris. [5] In 1892 Cross's friend Paul Signac moved to nearby Saint-Tropez, [12] where they frequently hosted gatherings in Cross's garden, attended by such luminaries as Henri Matisse, André Derain, and Albert Marquet. [13]

L'air du soir, c. 1893, Musee d'Orsay Henri-Edmond Cross - The Evening Air - Google Art Project.jpg
L'air du soir, c. 1893, Musée d'Orsay

Cross's affinity with the Neo-Impressionist movement extended beyond the painting style to include their political philosophies. Like Signac, Pissarro, and other Neo-Impressionists, Cross believed in anarchist principles, with hope for a utopian society. [14] In 1896 Cross created a lithograph, L'Errant (The Wanderer). This marked the first time he had worked with a publisher, [15] and the piece was featured anonymously in Les Temps Nouveaux, Jean Grave's anarchist journal. [14] Cross's anarchist sentiments influenced his choice of subjects: he painted scenes illustrating a utopian world that could exist through anarchism. [1]

The process of creating Divisionist paintings with numerous small dots of color was tedious and time-consuming. When Cross wanted to depict quick impressions, he created watercolor or colored pencil images in his sketchbooks. He wrote of a rustic French outing:

"Oh! What I saw in a split second while riding my bike tonight! I just had to jot down these fleeting things ... a rapid notation in watercolor and pencil: an informal daubing of contrasting colors, tones, and hues, all packed with information to make a lovely watercolor the next day in the quiet leisure of the studio." [11]

Later years

La Plage de Saint-Clair, 1896 Henri Edmond Cross La Plage de Saint-Clair.jpg
La Plage de Saint-Clair, 1896

Cross's paintings of the early- to mid-1890s are characteristically Pointillist, with closely and regularly positioned tiny dots of color. Beginning around 1895, he gradually shifted his technique, instead using broad, blocky brushstrokes and leaving small areas of exposed bare canvas between the strokes. [1] The resulting surfaces resembled mosaics, [13] and the paintings may be seen as precursors to Fauvism and Cubism. [7] In the Pointillist style, minute spots of paint were used to blend colors harmoniously; [1] in contrast, the strategy in "second generation Neo-Impressionism" [5] was to keep the colors separate, resulting in "vibrant shimmering visual effects through contrast". [1] Cross stated that the Neo-Impressionists were "far more interested in creating harmonies of pure color, than in harmonizing the colors of a particular landscape or natural scene". [16] Matisse and other artists were very influenced by the late-career Cross, [1] and such works were instrumental in forming the principles of Fauvism. [5] Among the other artists influenced by Cross were André Derain, Henri Manguin, Charles Camoin, Albert Marquet, Jean Puy, and Louis Valtat. [7]

La fuite des nymphes, c. 1906, Musee d'Orsay La fuite des nymphes.jpg
La fuite des nymphes, c. 1906, Musée d'Orsay
Une clairiere en Provence (Etude), c. 1906 Henri Edmond Cross - Une clairiere en Provence (Etude) - Google Art Project.jpg
Une clairière en Provence (Étude), c. 1906

In 1905 Galerie Druet in Paris mounted Cross's first solo exhibition, which featured thirty paintings and thirty watercolors. [17] The show was very successful, receiving critical acclaim, and most of the works were sold. Belgian Symbolist poet Emile Verhaeren, an avid supporter of Neo-Impressionism in his country, provided the preface for the exhibition catalog, writing:

"These landscapes ... are not merely pages of sheer beauty, but motifs embodying a lyrical sense of emotion. Their rich harmonies are satisfying to the painter’s eye, and their sumptuous, luxuriant vision is a poet's delight. Yet this abundance never tips into excess. Everything is light and charming ..." [18]

Cypresses at Cagnes, 1908, Musee d'Orsay Henri-Edmond Cross, 1908, Les cypres a Cagnes, oil on canvas, 81 x 100 cm, Musee d'Orsay, Paris.jpg
Cypresses at Cagnes, 1908, Musée d'Orsay

In the early 1880s Cross began to experience trouble with his eyes, which grew more severe in the 1900s. He also increasingly suffered from arthritis. At least in part due to these health issues that plagued him for years, Cross's body of work is relatively small. [14] However, in his last years he was productive and very creative, [18] and his work was featured in significant solo exhibitions; he received great acclaim from critics and enjoyed commercial success. [14]

In 1909 Cross was treated in a Paris hospital for cancer. In January 1910 he returned to Saint-Clair, where he died of the cancer just four days short of his 54th birthday, on 16 May 1910. [4] His tomb, in the Le Lavandou cemetery, features a bronze medallion that his friend Théo van Rysselberghe had designed. [18] In July 1911, the city of Cross's birth, Douai, mounted a retrospective exhibition of his work. [18]

Selected exhibitions

Regatta in Venice, 1898/1908 Henri Edmond Cross - Regatta in Venice - Google Art Project.jpg
Regatta in Venice, 1898/1908

In addition to the exhibitions mentioned above, Cross participated in many others. Octave Maus invited him to exhibit his work in several of the Annual Exhibitions of Les XX. [6] Cross participated in the Libre Esthétique show of 1895 at Maus's invitation, and also in those of 1897, 1901, 1904, 1908, and 1909. In 1898 he participated with Paul Signac, Maximilien Luce, and Théo van Rysselberghe in the first Neo-Impressionist exhibition in Germany, organized by Harry Kessler at Keller und Reiner Gallery (Berlin). [19] In 1907 Félix Fénéon assembled a Cross retrospective in Paris at Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, with Maurice Denis contributing the catalogue preface. [17] Other venues with Cross exhibitions included Samuel Bing's L'Art Nouveau à Paris, Galerie Durand-Ruel (Paris), Cassirer Gallery (Hamburg, Berlin), Toison d'or exhibition (Moscow), Bernheim-Jeune's Aquarelle et pastel, and various others, including galleries in Paris, Dresden, Weimar, and Munich. [20]


Cross works in museums and public art galleries [21]

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  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wieseman, M. E. "Cross: Fisherman". Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  2. 1 2 Taddei, p. 13.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Turner, p. 124.
  4. 1 2 3 4 "Henri Cross and the Neo-Impressionists". Paris Art Studies. 2008. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 López-Manzanares, Juan. Á. (2009). "Biography and Works: Henri-Edmond Cross". Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum . Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Clement, p. 291.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Clement, p. 289.
  8. Taddei, p. 14.
  9. Taddei, p. 8.
  10. 1 2 Rosenblum, Robert (1989). Paintings in the Musée d'Orsay. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang. p. 442. ISBN   1-55670-099-7.
  11. 1 2 "Introduction: Henri-Edmond Cross, Sketchbook, 1897". Harvard Art Museums . Retrieved 14 February 2012.[ permanent dead link ]
  12. Taddei, p. 6.
  13. 1 2 "Henri-Edmond Cross: The Artist's Garden at Saint-Clair (48.10.7)". Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2000. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Turner, p. 125.
  15. Taddei, p. 16.
  16. Taddei, p. 17.
  17. 1 2 Clement, p. 293.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Taddei, p. 18.
  19. Clement, p. 292.
  20. Clement, pp. 292–3.
  21. Henri-Edmond Cross, Artcyclopedia


Further reading